Vivekananda Kendra Patrika SAMARTHA BHARATA

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VIVEKANANDA KENDRA PATRIKA
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CONTENTS
Editorial I Section – 1
Spiritual Organisations 13 - 70
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II
Section – 2
Brilliant Individuals - National Heroes 79 - 120
III
Section – 3
Shining Institutions - National Treasures 129 - 197
IV
Section – 4
India’s Achievements 207 - 295
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Editorial
THE VISION OF SWAMI VIVEKANANDA
Swamiji insisted that a proper study of history alone will instill a sense of pride and self respect in the new generation. One of Swamiji’s serious criticisms about the British education system was that it gave a much distorted picture of the history of our country and filled the student with a sense of shame and inferiority complex. Therefore Swamiji wanted a thorough overhauling of the system of education. To quote “The education that you are getting now has some good points, but it has a tremendous disadvantage which is so great that the good things are all weighed down. In the first place it is not a man making education, it is merely and entirely a negative education. A negative education or any training that is based on negation is worse than death. The child is taken to school and the first thing he learns is that his father is a fool, the second thing that his grandfather is a lunatic, the third thing that all his teachers are hypocrites, the fourth that all the sacred books are lies! By the time he is sixteen he is a mass of negation, lifeless and boneless..... Education is not the amount of information that is put into your brain and runs riot there, undigested all your life. We must have life building, man – making, character – making assimilation of ideas. If you have assimilated five ideas and made them your life and character, you have more education than any man who has got by heart a whole library. If education is identical with information, the libraries are the greatest sages in the world, and encyclopedias are the Rishis. The ideal, therefore, is that we must have the whole
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wami Vivekananda believed that India lives on the strength of her spirituality. He defined Indian nationalism as “Bringing together and uniting the scattered spiritual forces of the country”. It was one of his fundamental articles of faith that every nation has a special character of its own and the nation would live only so long as that character – the national ideal - is cherished, protected and preserved. For India, that idea was spiritualism. He unhesitatingly called ours a spiritual nation and defined it as Hindu nation. He was one of the first renaissance thinkers who popularized the term Hindu Nation – a legacy which was carried forward by seers and statesmen like Shri Aurobindo, Lok Manya Tilak, Savarkar, Dr. Hedgewar and others. As a matter of fact, Swami Vivekananda was the “Manthra Drushta” of Hindu Nation. Vivekananda Kendra is trying to propagate and bring to life this seed idea through its multifarious activities, like Yoga Varga, Samskara Varga etc.. Today the very concept of Nation is being viewed with suspicion. There are many so called modern historians who studiously propagate that nationhood in India is a postBritish phenomenon, imported from Europe. This is totally unacceptable to Swami Vivekananda. According to him India as a nation existed even before history as we know it, was not known. History in fact is the recorded or unrecorded memory of the Nation about its past. Origin of Hindu Nation goes beyond the realm of recorded history.
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education of our country, spiritual and secular, in our own hands, and it must be on national lines, through national methods as far as practical”. Swamiji’s vision was all– inclusive. Economic prosperity was as essential to nation’s progress as spiritual enlightenment. The poverty of the country appalled him. He could not tolerate a religion preaching Vedanta to empty stomachs. He was prepared to go to any length to ameliorate the sufferings of the masses. At one time he suggested Socialism as a possible remedy but he also cautioned that unless it is based on Vedanta, it could not survive. He insisted upon the abolition of all privileges. Desperately short of funds, he even called upon his brother monks to sell away Belur Mutt and serve the cholera stricken slum dwellers of Kolkota.. He visualized that new India will arise from the people of the lowest level of society. One of his revolutionary concepts was that of the Sudra Raj, though he was not unaware of its pitfalls and drawbacks. Swami Vivekananda was never tired of repeating that the cause for the downfall of our country was neglect of women and the backward sections of the people. He called upon those who are responsible for this, should come forward to make amends for the sin. One important aspect of Swamiji’s vision that has not received sufficient attention is his approach to the question of scientific and technological developments. He was keenly aware of the role of science and technology
in the phenomenal progress of the West. Swamiji wanted India to make rapid strides in this sphere. There is documented evidence to show that Jamshedji Tata, the father of Steel in India and also the founder of Indian Institute of Science and Technology, Bangalore, was directly inspired by Swami Vivekananda while they were sailing together from Tokyo to Chicago. Later on Tata had written a personal letter to Swamiji requesting him to write a pamphlet exhorting people to support him in his new venture of scientific research.. Swamiji wrote an article in Prabudha Bharatha commending Tata’s efforts. Thus we find in Swami Vivekananda a great visionary who has given us in so many words the future India which was his dream. Though times have changed the clarity and grandeur of the vision still endures. Most of the things he wanted to accomplish still remain unaccomplished. It is time to ask the searching question – where have we gone wrong? Have we been loyal to the vision and tried to put it in practice? The answer is obvious. If we had been loyal, the picture today would have been totally different. But it is never too late. Vivekananda Kendra is a humble attempt to carry the message of Swamiji to every nook and corner of Bharath, to seek the help and support of every true Bharatheeya to dedicate himself to study and practice, individually and collectively, the life and message of Swami Vivekananda which will lighten up the path not only for India but for the whole World. That is the need of the hour. P.Parameswaran
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TSUNAMI RELIEF WORK BY VIVEKANANDA KENDRA
ivekananda Kendra provided material assistance worth about Rs.4 lakhs and this was distributed on three days, viz., 29, 30 & 31 December. Shri A. Balakrishnanji, Vice President, Shri Bhanudasji, General Secretary, Sister Shantha, Secretary, RDP, Shri P. Thangaswamiji, Administrative Officer, Shri Avinashji, Public Relations
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Officer, and many social workers of RDP took part in the functions. The local officials and the general pubic also extended their cooperation and participated. Vivekananda Kendra has taken up a massive total rehabilitation of 1,000 affected families in Kanyakumari & Tirunelveli Dts, supported by the Helpage India.
Relief provided for the affected
Sl No Affected village 1 Benefitted families Materials provide
Kanyakumari District Sambasivapuram village, Collachel. (Kurunthankode Block)
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Sarees, Skirts,Dhoties, Towels,Plates, Tumblers, Soaps, Oil, etc
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Muttam & Azhikal villages Vellichanthai (Kurunthankode Block) 240 Melathurai & Pillaithoppu villages, Thalavaipuram (Kurunthancode Block), 195 Veerabagupathi and Keelaputhalam villages, Rajakkamangalam Block 39 Tirunelveli District Idinthakarai village, Radhapuram Block. 98
-do-
-do-doSarees, Skirts, Dhoties, Mats, Bed sheets, Towels, Plates, Tumblers, Soaps, Oil.
Details of Materials distributed
Sl No Camp site 1 2 3 4 Periavillai village, Kurunthancode Block Vellichanthai Kurunthancode Block Material supplied Value
Two bags of rice, other provisions, vegetables, bread & biscuits Milk powder, Bread and Biscuits, Phenol, Bleaching powder Thalavaipuram Kurunthancode Block -doDVD Govt. Hr. Sec. School, Nagercoil -do-
Rs.5000/Rs.2000/Rs.2000/Rs.2000/-
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CHENNAI AREA 300 Families were given a kit consisting : a big plastic bucket, a mug, twp plates, a glass, a stove, a mat, a bed sheet, two vessels, a ladle - in the villages of Karikaattu kuppam, Kovalam, Nadu kuppama and Palaverkadu. The total value will be Rs. 2,50,000/300 Families near Cuddalore were given the above kits worth Rs. 2,00,000/3500 persons were fed on 26 th in a community kitchen. For Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Consignments worth Rs. 8,00,000/- in the form of clothing and food material was sent. The Kendra branches at Vadodara has sent a consignment consisting food, clothing and household vessels of 2 lorries for the relief work. Fishing nets worth Rs. 8,00,000/- were distributed in the villages of NTO Kuppam, Eranavoor, Ennore Chinna Kuppam, Ennore Periya Kuppam, Kovalam and Semanjeri. Proposals : 1. Temples and community halls (for tailoring classes, samaya vahuppu, bhajans, etc.) 2. Plantation of bamboos, casuarinas, mangroves on sea coast 3. Diary scheme – cow, buffalo, goat, etc. 4. Poultry farm 5. Bio-diesel farming like katamanakku, castor, etc. 6. Cottage industries – soap, candle, craft 7. Housing with drainage, roads, ground, rain water harvesting, kitchen garden 8. Tailoring unit
9. Counseling – yoga, bhajans, spiritual discourses, doctors’ visit, cultural programmes, exhibitions 10. Palm, coconut tree leaf for kidugu, chippam, donnai, etc. 11. Mobile dispensary – medical camps, siddha camp 12. Coir works – handmade and machine made – through SHG, Co-operative 13. Water scheme for the village 14. Adoption of children – anbu illam 15. Catamarans, fishing nets, boats 16. Assistance in obtaining Documents like school certificates, pass port, ration card, land records, etc. 17. Chuna – artificial shell production 18. Community hall in the village on raised platform – Shelter house
The Schools in Andaman and Nicobar Islands In Andamans Kendra workers and other sister organizations have engaged themselves relief works in a big way. We have 9 schools in Andamans and the available reports show the e ff e c t o f t h e E a r t h Q u a k e / Ts u n a m i a s follows: VKV-Hut Bay: This Vidyalaya is the worst affected. As there were some personal works for the teachers, all except the In-Charge of the school (Shri Dinesan K V) were in Port Blair when the incident occurred. Shri Dinesan was alone. Water due to the tsunami waves entered the campus and the buildings were under water within no time. We have lost all 3 computers (the systems and printer), Telephones, Television, Tape recorder, Library books, School records and many of the furniture. Some of the portions of the school are partially damaged too. As the area was getting filled with sea-water and there was no time to assess further, Shri Dinesan also ran out and escaped with the only cloth he
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was wearing. The next two days & nights he was staying in the jungle along with some of the people who could escape luckily. They could watch dead bodies of human beings and cattle floating in and around including our school campus. The school may not function even by the end of this month (Jan.) as the Boat Jetty is not serviceable or other communication is not restored yet. The situation is returning to normalcy. VKV-Port Blair The school has got many cracks in the walls of almost 30 class rooms and newly built office block. The old Assembly hall which w a s b e i n g u s e d f o r p r i m a r y s e c t i o n ’s assembly till last week has partially collapsed. Now that building is not useful for any further use and it needs to be demolished immediately to avoid any threat to children. Water supply lines are broken. The repairing is being done. 2 computers fell down and broke. Almost all the glass racks of office, library, staff rooms and laboratory are broken. No casualty for any staff or students. Father of one of the class XI students has drowned when he went on special duty for a week to Nicobar. Around 30 students of our school have lost many of their personal belongings, text books, note books and house hold items as water has entered their houses, taken away so many of their things. VKVs at Rangat, Chouldari, Diglipur, Kadamtala, Pahalgaon, Basantipur and VKV Nagar Palika at Port Blair The buildings in all these Vidyalayas have developed cracks and they need urgent repairs.
FUNDS AND OTHER MATERIALS : Vivekananda Kendra through its 181 branch centres all around the country, the well wishers and the donors in the society is raising funds to meet these huge expenditure which may run in crores. Based on the funds received from the donors, we shall take up the work. Plans for Rehabilitation 1. Adoption of boys : To adopt 25 boys between the age group of 5-8 years in Ta m i l N a d u a n d 2 5 b o y s f r o m Andaman and Nicobar islands will be selected and accommodated in the Port Blair school. All their needs and education will be taken care of by the Kendra. 2. The livelihoods of the villagers : we are engaged in securing fishing nets, repairing boats and motors of the fishermen and creating awareness about insurance coverage for their material holdings. 3. The average cost of a boat, a fishing net and equipments works out to Rs 1 lakh per unit. 4. Rehabilitation — Financial assistance and construction materials for the 2250 affected families. 5. Education for the orphan and destitute children. 6. Financial assistance or supply of provisions for 2250 families of fishermen for the next 3 months.
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SYNOPSIS VOL. 34 NO.2
SAMARTHA BHARATA
This issue of the Vivekananda Kendra Patrika on Samartha Bharata is a continuation of the last issue ( Vol. 34 No.1). Bharat has made great strides in all the fields contributing to the growth and development. The upsurge is unstoppable and remarkable. As a nation the whole country is cruising towards ‘Vision-2020’. An individual as a citizen of India has a major role to the total development of India - Samagra Vikas to chisel the Nation as a Samartha Bharat. The heritage of Bharat is a shining example of art, literature and sculpture. The men and the spirit behind these unparallel creations are unseen and unheard. India has set standards to the world in the fields of art, literature and sculpture to be followed by generations to come. The next Kendra Patrika (Vol. 34 No.2) will contain such topics which instil a sense of pride and self-confidence by discovering the Spirit of Bharat. Some of the forth coming issues of the Vivekananda Kendra Patrika will have core themes such as : Cultural Nationalism, Handicrafts, Journalism in India, Christianity in India, Terrorism in India, Ancient sages and their Teachings, Islam in India, Great Builders of Educational Institutions etc.
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SECTION - 1 SPIRITUAL ORGANISATIONS
Unity in variety is the plan of nature, and the Hindu has recognised it. Every other religion lays down certain fixed dogmas, and tries to force society to adopt them. It places before society only one coat which must fit Jack and John and Henry, all alike. If it does not fit John or Henry, he must go without a coat to cover his body. The Hindus have discovered that the absolute can only be realised, or thought of, or stated, through the relative, and the images, crosses, and crescents are simply so many symbols — so many pegs to hang the spiritual ideas on. It is not that this help is necessary for every one, but those that do not need it have no right to say that it is wrong. Nor is it compulsory in Hinduism. - Swami Vivekananda
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Thus Spake Swami Vivekananda If a man can realise his divine nature with the help of an image, would it be right to call that a sin? Nor even when he has passed that stage, should he call it an error. To the Hindu, man is not travelling from error to truth, but from truth to truth, from lower to higher truth. To him all the religions, from the lowest fetishism to the highest absolutism, mean so many attempts of the human soul to grasp and realise the Infinite, each determined by the conditions of its birth and association, and each of these marks a stage of progress; and every soul is a young eagle soaring higher and higher, gathering more and more strength, till it reaches the Glorious Sun.
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THE SPIRITUAL STRENGTH OF MODERN INDIA
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hile great attempts are being made to make Bharat Samartha in all walks of life, the spiritual and religious fields have not lagged behind. In fact they underlie all other facets of development. Even in the pre-1947 years, our leaders knew that Free India’s spiritual goals and programmes should take great importance and form the foundation of our public and private lives.
Organizations and movements like the RamaKrishna Math, R.S.S. and the Gandhian organisations have been continuing to carry out their great work and have become part of the Indian skyline. Free India saw the emergence of a large number of new organizations, inspired by saints carrying out spiritual training, religious propaganda and spiritually oriented Social Service.
This section emphasizes mostly on post – The ancient movements, maths, adheenams 1947 organizations of religious and spiritual and ashrams founded by our Great Acharyas importance which have made Bharat and Nayanmars have been functioning for a Samartha in this unique field, which is Bharat’s speciality, its identity. thousand years or more.
‘NO ECONOMIC STRUCTURE WITHOUT A SPIRITUAL FOUNDATION’ “Healthy economic development is possible only in a society based on ethics, morality and integrity as there can be no strong economic structure without a spiritual foundation,” said Raja J.Chelliah, Chairman of the Madras School of Economics. Mr.Chelliah said a society based on spiritual values could achieve good results in the economic sphere because in an economy one had to work together and establish rules for sharing the common output. The more moral and spiritual the society was, the greater the peace and healthy cooperation and the higher would be the output. He said though the country had come a long way in the path of economic progress, there was still darkness as nearly 200 million people were living below the poverty line. The literacy rate was less than 70 per cent. In the next phase of development, the country had to pay more attention to these issues than to raising the overall rate of growth. For this the country needed strong spiritual guidance from seers like Kanchi Acharyas, he said.
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SPIRITUALITY & PROSPERITY
Karmayogi The Nation’s Growing Wealth is personal Prosperity
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rich nation has rich citizens. People become rich not by being dependent on others, or the family or even their organization. He who leads others, heads the family, or proves innovative in the organization makes himself successful and rich. A nation thus becomes wealthy. Such people are called entrepreneurs. What are the characteristics of an entrepreneur? In short, one who does not conform to the social codes is an entrepreneur. Can we make it more explicit? Let us divide the population into two parts, leaders and followers. Our subject here is the leaders. At least one person listened to me, opposed his family, resigned a government job, and A nation becomes wealthy, rich, prosperous did what I asked him. Today he has as many and famous by those who are willing to die crores as he was earning in rupees as happily for her, to give their all, who do not salary. He is a tireless worker, has never calculate or think of the future only, who deserted a friend, and not for one moment never count their chickens, who HAVE in wavered in his loyalty to his duty. He is a their hearts the glory of Mother India. Are top industrialist in the country. He started you one of these? Are you willing to throw an unconventional energy project, away your job and walk naked in the street? introduced the latest agriculture technology, In 1920 Gandhiji asked people to leave the and sponsored ways of life that will inspire British schools, British courts, and British youngsters. He was betrayed by almost offices. Many followed him. Some became everyone. He had the Great Good Sense to glorious leaders; others became volunteers. say, “What they do is up to them. Let me do Even after freedom, they remained poor what is right and good”. He knows how to volunteers. That was before 1956, before the face every difficulty. Even his most descent of the Force. I invite you to throw virulent enemy was forced to change his away a lucrative bank job and start an attitude towards him. He is an industry. If you are an entrepreneur, I assure entrepreneur. India needs NOT salaried you your several thousand rupee salary will employees. India needs patriotic leaders. become several thousand crores of business. Everyone is a leader. Will you lead the leaders? (The New Indian Express)
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SRI SATHYA SAI BABA AND HIS MISSION
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hagawan Sri Sathya Sai baba, hailed as an avatar by millions of his followers was born on 23/11/1928 in Puttaparthi in Andhra Pradesh. Very early in his life he recognised his mission of leading all mankind to bliss, to lead them to goodness, to remove the suffering of the poor, and to teach equanimity. Bhagawan’s mission spread rapidly after the construction of Prashanti Nilayam, (the abode of supreme peace) the head quarters of his mission. His main messages are 1. Sathya 2. Dharma came up in 1995. Medak and Mehboob Nagar Districts are also being covered. 3. Santhi 4.Prema and 5. Ahimsa. Sanathana Sarathi, the mission’s mouthpiece is published in English, Tamil, Telugu and a number of world languages, carrying the Bhagawan’s message of love. His Sathya Sai education in Human values has gone to remote villages in India. It has also been taken to many countries across the seas.
His speeches have been collected and Sri Bhagawan lays great stress on girls’education. published in more than 30 volumes. Sri Sathya Sai Organization started in 1965 Sri Bhagawan’s medical works has the has now branches in 180 countries all over following policy a) Globalisation of medicine b) Decommercialisation of medicine c) the world. Human values in medical care d) Spiritual In 1981 Sathya Sai institute of higher well-being as a medical concept. learning came up. Sri Sathya Sai Superspeciality Hospital came up in 1991. The Bhagawan Baba’s work involves crores of famous drinking water projects of Anantapur followers across the globe. From children
His Holiness Pramukh Swami Maharaj : A Hindu spiritual leader from Gujarat, who has won a place in the Guinness Book of World Records for building maximum number of temples.
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onwards, his mission covers the entire cross-section of people. His spirit of unity concerts attract millions of people. Bhagawan Baba’s work is veritably the work of Sanathana Sarathi. His Spirituality Expresses itself in Service: For example: Anantapur District in Rayalaseema area in Andhra Pradesh was a notoriously droughtprone area. With Bhagawan Sathya Sai Baba’s blessings, the massive drinking water programme was undertaken, funded by the devotees. Its success inspired similar a work in Medak and Mehaboob Nagar Districts also. Anantapur Dt. - Medak-Mahaboob Nagar No. of Villages benefited 731 270 Population benefited 9 lakhs Project Cost 250—300 crores 66 crores Pipelines 2500 km 900 km Overhead reservoirs 268 Numbers 30 Ground level 145 65 Treatment Plants 64 9 Bhagawan Sathya Sai Temple of healing, Super speciality hospital has the following Specialities: 1. Cardiology 2.Orthothoracic Surgery 3. Uro-nephrology (including Kidney transplantation) 4. Ophthalmology 5. Litho tripsy. In this manner, the Spiritual, educational and service programmes strengthen India and take India’s spiritual message to the whole world. (From Sanathana Sarathi)
A SHAIVAITE MATH
His holiness Sri Balagangadhara Nathaswami is the 71 st pontiff of Adi Chunchanagiri Math near Bangalore. His is South India’s largest monastery. He has also a large congregation of householder devotees. He runs a dynamic and extensive Hindu mission comprising hospitals, educational facilities at all levels, schools for the blind, hostels, orphanages, shelters for destitute women, programmes and centres that serve Dharma to millions throughout Karnataka. SERVING THE CAUSE OF INDIAN CULTURE - THE UNBROKEN TRADITION Munrshiram Manoharlal Publishers Year of Founding 1870. Titles in print 1500. New Titles per year 50-60. Print Run 1000-5000. Year of Founding 1903. Titles in Print 2000. New Titles per year 150. Print Run 500-2000.
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Motilal Banarsi Das Publishers
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THE CHINMAYA MISSION-A GLOBAL MOVEMENT
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wami Chinmayanandaji, the inspired Master, was the disciple of Swami Shivananda of Rishikesh and received instructions in the sublime aspects of Arsha Vidya from the Himalayan Tapasvi, Tapovanji Maharaj. Swamiji Chinmayananda unleashed a tremendous amount of spiritual energy in the world with the commencement of the great spiritual movement in 1951.
In the last 53 years the movement has trained thousands of Sannyasins and Brahmacharis. The sadhus of the mission led by the noble example of the master, have conducted thousands of Gita Jnana Yagnas in all parts of the globe. The Upanishads and other Swami Chinmayanandaji and his band of Vedanta classes are equally inspiring and missionaries use all the tools of communication, to carry the Vedantic popular. message to the common man, to the Apart from the general public, special groups specialist, the foreigner, the politician, the have been formed to tap the spiritual scientist, the manager, the women, youth and energies, social concern, patriotic fervour, children. Formal and informal education, and human love in the hearts of men, ladies, training courses, Gurukulas, Service youths and children and channelise them into activities, modern print and electronic media, doubly blessed inner growth and outer all have been pressed into service to propagate the wise sayings of the Rishis. welfare activities. Swami Chinmayananda’s disciples have fanned out into Australia (3 centres), New Zealand (2 centres, Singapore (1), Indonesia (1), Philippines (1), Hong Kong (1), United States of America (21 centres), Canada (5 centres), Mexico (1), Trinidad and Tobago
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(1), England (1), France (1), Switzerland (1), South Africa (1), Kenya (2), Mauritius (1), Nigeria-Lagos (1), Tanzania (1), Reunion Islands (1), Bahrain (1), Muscat (1), Abu Dhabi (1), Dubai (1), Kuwait (1), Nepal (2) and Sri Lanka (2). Within India, Andaman & Nicobar islands have one centre. Andhra Pradesh (54 centres), Assam (2 centres), Bihar-Jharkhand (6), Delhi (1), Goa (6), Gujarat (6), Karnataka (14), Kerala (30), Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh (6), Maharashtra (28), Meghalaya (2), Orissa (8), Punjab (2), Rajasthan (1), Sikkim (1), Tamil Nadu (15), UP and Uttaranchal (15), and West Bengal (1) Centres function well.
A genuine love for India shines through the speeches and writings of Swamiji. Books by the Swamiji and other Sadhus of the mission are very popular as are the mission’s journals in various languages.
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Swamiji’s innovative scheme of publishing only future books as souvenirs of his Gita Jnana Yagnas, has gifted the Nation with books with excellent themes. His National Yagnas are great integrators bringing people of all languages and states together in Spiritual Unity. After Swami Chinmayanandaji Mahasamadhi, the mantle of heading the great mission has fallen on Swami Tejomayanandaji. While keeping alive the spirit of his great guru, Swami Tejomayananaji feels that the only way to stabilise is to grow. A great amount of consolidation and growth is being done in the mission now.
Fund, but, as an expression of responsible and proactive patriotism, personally went to the Prime Minister to handover the amount. Thereby he sent the message to the world that patriotism and Vedanta are two sides of the same coin. The mission has started Vedanta courses in all Indian languages to bring Vedanta nearer to everyone. The Chinmaya Mission is a fine example to prove modern India’s love for Vedanta-and the Sanatana Dharma.
Saints like Swami Chinmayananda encapsule the spirit of our During the Kargil conflict the head of the Sanatana Dharma-Nitya-nutana-Sanatana Chinmaya Mission, not only instructed all the The Eternal message is ever fresh. branches of the mission to collect Kargil (Compiled from The Mission Publications)
CHINMAYA MISSION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. International Residential schools Sanskrit / Scriptural / textual research centres Cultural centres Archives Temples / campsites International level competitions on Gita, Awakening Indian to India, programmes. 7. Special awareness programmes for Youth, Children and Devis to make them understand Indian Culture better. 8. International Youth / Student exchange programmes 9. Special cultural training programmes for NRIS. 10. Teacher training programmes.
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THE MEDIA EXTOL INDIAN STRENGTH
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number of magazines devoted exclusively to Hindu Religion and spirituality have appeared in the market. They are found to be commercially viable also. Today commercial publishers dedicate magazines to this purpose. Specialist magazines for Jyotisha, temple and pilgrimages, have come up. Virtually every newspaper or magazine of general interest also allots space for religion, spirituality and discourses by religious and spiritual leaders. Dozens of magazines and journals have sprung up exclusively reporting on Yoga, Yoga research and Yoga therapy.
The economic growth of India, its technical strength, the large number of yoga teachers, intellectuals and artists hailing from India and working in the West, have inspired the writers in the west to produce books on India and Hindu Dharma. These books seek to introduce our Dharma and our culture to the average westerner. Books exclusively studying India’s military strength, food production, technical man power, intellectual wealth and educational patterns have appeared in dozens in the book bazaars in the aftermath India’s achievements. There is a natural enquiry into India’s Cultural and Spiritual roots which energise its creative, scientific, economic, industrial and other growth. (Compiled)
SPIRITUALITY AND SERVICE - REMOTE AREAS
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Ekal Vidyalaya Foundation has an intensely he years after freedom saw great and penetrating network of one-teacher schools, large spiritually oriented health and rural development projects in all organizations taking our parts of the country. The Foundation National values to remote, has also been training a large number backward and Tribal areas to bring of itinerent Ramkatha and spirituality in concrete terms to our Krishnakatha tellers so that these brethren. Kalyan Ashram, with its men and women can go to the tribal network of hostels and schools, belts to tell them the stories which service projects and medical centres the people want to hear. Great has fanned out into the Tribal Pauranikas like Saint Moraribapu Areas. have associated themselves with such projects.The Vishwa Hindu parishad Vivekananda Kendra has established a web has trained thousands of Pujaris in Tamil of Schools and Service-centres in remote Nadu. All these activities have strengthened areas and has led its workers to live with the the social, moral and economic growth of people whom they seek to serve. our country. (Compiled)
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VIVEKANANDA ASHRAM
MORARI BAPU AND OTHER RELIGIOUS PREACHERS
ant Morari Bapu, Dongreji Maharaj, Kripananda Variar, Anjam Madhawan Numboodri, Sant Keshavadas, Pulavar Keeran, Sengalipuram Ananta Rama Dikshitar and a large number of Pauranikas, tell the public, the stories of the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Bhagawatam and the stories of Nayanmars. Moral lessons, spiritual training, practice of Bhakti and consolidation of the social forces are the benefits that accrue to the society. Modern communication facilities have made it possible for millions of people assemble at one place and build up an atmosphere of devotion, wisdom, and togetherness, which all reflect the strength of India.
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inding proper religious instruction as the best way to consolidate Hindu forces and to prevent religious conversion, Swami Madhuranandaji Maharaj of Vivekananda Ashram, Vellimalai founded the Hindu Dharma Vidya Peetham. The Vidya Peetham, by writing books for systematic religious instruction in five grades, and by training local volunteers for conducting weekly classes in villages, has done great service to the cause of Nationalism and
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spirituality. Hundreds of classes involving thousands of children are held every weekend to give moral and religious instruction to them, through, stories, songs, lessons and games. Equally significant are women’s organizations conducting systematic Deepa Puja in villages. Deepa Pujas have brought lakhs of women together and have given them a religious identity and training. Swami Madhuranandaji’s programmes are being taken up in the neighbouring districts of Tamil Nadu and in other countries where Tamil Hindus live.
VIVEKANANDA ASHRAM VELLIMALAI, KANYAKUMARI DT.
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SANNYASINIS OF TIRUENGOIMALAI
VAISHNO DEVI, TIRUPATHI
n recent years the Vaishno Devi Temple at Katra in Jammu and Kashmir State has assumed great religious and spiritual significance. In 2004 Navaratri festival time 50 lakhs of pilgrims visited the Devi temple. While Amarnath is very difficult to reach, the government restrictions limiting the number of pilgrims to a few lakhs, temples in Vaishno Devi and Tirupathi attract millions of pilgrims every year, sustaining the spiritual fervour, and the religious discipline of the people. Better travelling facilities in the last 50 years have made, Kashi, Puri, Dwaraka, Rameswaram and other major pilgrim centres easily approachable for men, women and children. The average Indian has put all science and technology to religious and spiritual applications.
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iru Engoi Malai is a temple town on the Trichy-Salem high way in Tamil Nadu. It has a tradition of Sannyansinis worshipping LalithaParasakthi. This old tradition of Sannyasinis has been praised by saints like Swami Shivananda of the Divine Life Society. Women taking to spiritual life as renunciates, have grown in numbers in free India. The Ramakrishna Sarada Math and Mission, Swami Chidbhavananda-established Sarada Mission, Sannyasinis of Divine Life Society, Chinmaya Mission and Arsha Vidya Gurukulam, and a number of large and small organizations have created and enlarged women’s space in the spiritual and religious spheres.
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SADHGURU JAGGI VASUDEV AND THE DHYANALINGA
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he Dhyanalinga situated in Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu, is very much a part of India’s glorious tradition of Siddhas, Seers, Sages and Enlightened beings. The Dhyanalinga was consecrated by Sadhguru Jaggi Varudev a realised Master. The primary purpose of Dhyanalinga is spiritual liberation. Nadha Aradhana, Omkara Diksha, Water and Milk abhisheka to Dhyanalinga on Amavasya and Pournami days and the celebration of Mahasivaratri are the special methods of spiritual practice in this Isha Yoga Center.
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SHRI PANDURANG SHASTRI ATHAVALE
hri Athavale (19-10-1920 to 25-102003) known respectfully as Dada by his co-workers began bhav-pheri (devotional visits) in 1954. With less than 20 helpers, he went to the villages around Mumbai to spread the message of love for God, and love for all people, considered by the workers to be God’s children. Believing in self-knowledge as the preliminary condition for an inner growth that leads to a loving, enlightened social concern and outreach, Athavale initiated the practice of Swadhyaya-Self-Study. Swadhyaya has spread to nearly 100,000 villages across India, and is estimated to have directly improved the lives of 20 million people. Athavale’s Hindu philosophical beliefs ask people to recognize the inner presence of God which leads to a sense of self-esteem as well as an awareness of the divine presence within all persons. This belief has led to the betterment of individuals and communities around the world. He secured the 1997 Templeton Prize for progress in Religion. Shri Athavale’s concepts in practice and action of right living are: 1. Bhaktiferi – Devotional visits to spread the healing message of love to all communities. 2. Amrutalayam (Village temples) Built by joint efforts of the villagers for people from all religions, castes, and economic strata to worship together.
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3. Yogeshwar Krushis-farms of God where the villagers give a few days of labour a year to show their devotion to God, with the village’s needy sharing the produce. 4. Matsyagandhas (floating temples of God) – fishing boats on which the fishermen give their time for a few days a year, as devotion to God, and share the harvest with the needy. 5. Vrikshamandirs-orchard temples which are cultivated impersonally by the villagers and the produce is given to the needy. 6. Jeevan Sampada (Wealth of Life) is an ingenious activity. Religious songs are recorded and distributed, related to each Swadhyaya activity. 7. Gauras (home dairies) are villagelevel milk cooperatives. 8. Bahna Kendra-ladies centres. 9. Bal-Sanksar Kendras-Children’s value centres. 10. Dhananjay Kreeda Samuh-Arjuna’s sports groups. 11. Tattvajnana Vidyapeeth-philosophic knowledge centres. Sri Athavaleji used Bhagawad Gita as the tool for reaching people in large numbers. USA alone has 350 Swadhyaya centres (15000 followers) in 38 centres. But it is his work among the fishermen of Western India that is very important to Samartha Bharata. (With inputs from “Hinduism Today” 2003)
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SRI SARADA MATH
A CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION
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new and significant chapter was added to the cultural and religious history of India, when Swami Vivekananda’s prophetic vision of establishing a monastic order for women was at last fulfilled and Sri Sarada Math came into existence in 1953, the centenary year of Holy Mother Sarada Devi. In 1952, the Sri Ramakrishna Math and Mission formed a group of dedicated women workers. They were to be helped through reasonable stages to form as early as possible an independent organisation of their own. On 2/12/1954 Sri Sarada Math was formally opened with Sarala Devi a direct disciple of Sri Sarada Devi as its first president. In 1959, the first batch of Sannyasinis were ordained by the then President of Sri R.K.Math. Then was established Ramakrishna Sarada Math Association with the object of carrying -out educational, cultural, charitable and similar activities among women and children looking upon them as veritable manifestations of the divine, irrespective of
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caste, creed, colour or nationality. Sri Sarada Math emphasises religious activities and preaching. Ramakrishna Sarada Mission is concerned mainly with welfare activities for children and women. The math and the mission carry out the following activities. 1. Educational work: Primary and Secondary schools, Colleges, hostels, computer classes, spoken English classes, Sanskrit classes and free libraries. 2. Medical Services, A maternity hospital, medical clinics, homeopathic clinics, old-age homes, and periodical medical camps. 3. Rural uplift work. There are three branch centres in the rural areas of West Bengal and one in Arunachal Pradesh. Other centres also provide various kinds of service in nearby rural areas. 4. Relief and help to the needy was rendered for example, to the Kargil war-wounded soldiers, to the migrants from Jammu and Kashmir, to the victims of Orissa Cyclone and Gujarat earth quake. 5. Spread of cultural and spiritual ideas. This is done by regular preaching in India and abroad, study circles, scriptural classes,
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publication of books, English Semi-annual Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal (10 journal, Samvit, and the Bengali quarterly centres) and in Sydney in Australia. journal, Nibodhata Sri Sarada Math has blazed a new trail in The math and mission centres function in the spiritual history of our Ancient Nation Uttaranchal, Karnataka, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, by helping the emergence of a formal order Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, of Sannyasinis. Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Maharashtra, (Adapted from-From SAMVIT)
THE VITALITY OF NATIVE GENIUS
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hri Narayana Guru was one in the Galaxy of great men who gave rise in India, to an era of rich creativity in every field of our National Life. Born in the erstwhile State of Travancore as a member of the depressed Ezhava Community, he rose to supreme spiritual heights. Within the span of his own life time, he brought about a peaceful revolution in the condition of the down-trodden people of Kerala, an accomplishment rarely equalled, much less surpassed. It won for the Guru, the unreserved appreciation of men like Tagore, Swami Shraddhananda and Mahatma Gandhi. Really Shri Narayana Guru is a Prophet of our National Renaissance.He consecrated the temples at Aruvipuram, Jagannath temple at Tellicherry, Sree Kanteshwarar temple at Calicut.He founded the SNDP yogam in 1903 and registered the Sree Narayana Dharma Sangham in 1928.
in Malayalam and Sanskrit.His followers continue the great work of the Guru, by running temples, schools, monasteries and hospitals, and for the spiritual and social upliftment of the followers of the Guru and for the whole Nation. (Collected from various sources including Shri Guru left a rich treasure of literature, ‘Shri Narayana Guru’ by P.Parameswaran) both philosophical work and prayer songs
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KANCHI PARAMACHARYA
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iving the full Upanishadic life-span of 100 years, Kanchi Paramacharya, was a great source of strength to India, in its troubled days. He repeatedly told our masses as well as our National leaders, that the Eternal values of India’s Sanatana Dharma, can find application in diverse fields of our national life, in our polity, education and community life.
He was the first to recognize and urge people to interpret secularism as equal respect for all methods of worship. Secularism for him did not mean to be ‘Dharma Nirapekshata’. It means to be ‘Pant-Nirapekshata’.He was a golden link between the ancient India of our seers and the modern Nation.
BLACKSHIRTS! NO! IT IS A GREAT SPIRITUAL AND RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT
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ome November-December-January, millions of devotees clad in black with the auspicious Irumudi (pair of knots) with shouts of ‘Sharanam Ayyappa’ will start moving towards Sabarimalai in South central Kerala, the abode of Sabarigirisha, Ayyappa Shasta as the Lord is variously called. Millions of devotees, poor and rich, learned as well as unlettered, go through a 41 day penance abstaining from sex, meat and intoxicating drinks. They then undertake the arduous trek towards the temple, crossing forested mountains. Modern facilities have eased the strain of the pilgrimage, but that has not diluted the devotion of the faithful. Mystical, devotional, spiritual, religious, the Ayyappa movement is phenomenal. From what was a strenuous trek for a few thousand pilgrims, in a restricted period in the calendar, it has now grown into an great movement involving crores of devotees, spreading across states and countries. If spontaneity is the hallmark of Spirituality, the Ayyappa movement is the most spontaneous spiritual upheaval. It is not ‘managed’ from
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above, there is no central organization, and there are few facilitators. Ayyappa is called Dharma Shasta,- one who upholds and t e a c h e s Dharma.Ayyappa is the child of Mohini (Vishnu’s female Avatar assumed for apportioning Nectar at the time of churning the ocean of milk) and Lord Shiva. The Ayyappa movement has all the ingredients of a full scale spiritual movement. It has rituals, it has legends and puranas and it has philosophy, the philosophy of absolute surrender to the ultimate power.The movement has built itself into a brotherhood, All India Ayyappa Seva Sangham, a huge organisation has come up. But essentially the movement has remained a commonman’s movement-of devotion, penance and surrender.(From inputs from various sources)
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BANGARU ADIGALAR OF SIDDHA PEETHAM
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ri Bangaru Adigalar, a well-known Siddha Purusha of Melmaruvathur in Northern Tamil Nadu, is a great source of religious inspiration to millions of devotees in the southern states of India. His devotees have spread all over the world. Among the devotees, women wear red sarees and men sport red shirts. The movement is affectionately called the ‘Red dress’ movement. The devotees worship ‘Shakti’, accept Sri Bangaru Adigalar’s divinity and meet systematically every Thursday to worship the deity in the local temple. These are called weekly worship groups. Religious devotion, character building, organization of devotees, systematic and
sincere worship, coupled with proper religious and moral training have made the Red dress movement literally a Revolution. It brings people of various castes, various economic strata and social levels together. The movement also has blossomed into a significant service movement, with schools, colleges, medical programmes and magazines. Sri Bangaru Adigalar ’s Adi Parashakti fellowship is a important factor in strengthening the society and giving religious fervour, a discipline and a system. (Compiled from ‘Shakti Oli’ Tamil)
ACHARYA SABHA
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he meeting of the Hindu Dharma Acharya, Sabha held at Chennai on Nov.29, 30 Dec-1, 2003 passed the following resolutions. 1. It defined religious freedom as the freedom to follow one’s own religion or faith and peaceful practices but does not include the right to denigrate any other religion. 2. It rejected the theory of religious conversion that converts by denigration of other religions. 3. The Sabha said the welfare of temples and use of funds and property of temples are of matters of great importance. Now the
income is spent by the governments’ general budget and the funds lose their sacred identity. 4. The Sabha called for enacting common civil code for the country. 5. It urged the government and the society to ban cow slaughter. 6. It established Hindu Acharya Dharma Sabha and Dharma Samstha Pramukh Sabha, the federation of Dharmic institutions, engaged in economic and social upliftment of the Hindu populace. (Adapted from Arsha Vidya Ashram News letter)
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DR.PICHAI SIVACHARYA
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r.Pichai Sivacharya (53) of Pillayarpatti, Sivaganga district, Tamilnadu has been chosen for Hindu Renaissance award 2004, for bringing about a significant revolution among the priests of the South Indian traditions. His two schools in Pillaiyarpatti are turning out highly trained priests who undergo a stringent five year study programme. They are so knowledgeable, especially in the Agamas, that they have raised the standards of every temple in which they serve. And in a real innovation, Dr.Pichai has opened his school to non-brahmins. He has rendered exemplary service to Hinduism by reinvigorating the priesthood, and extending the gurukula system to Hindus born in other lands and in other castes. There was a time when priests would not allow their bright children to be trained in the family profession. It was neither paying nor carrying much social respect. But when well-educated Hindus went to the west to make their fortunes, they felt the need for their temples and their attendant grandeur. They established hundreds of temples across the west, then sent for priests to India to serve the temples. Temple work in the West was paying well by Indian standards, and carried with it more respect. Those Western temples too wanted grand ceremony and started bringing priests by the dozens for their events.
This was a big change. Dr.Pichai’s work started in 1980 began showing real promise. Good priests were in high demand and he was an expert in turning them out. Discipline at the school is exemplary. Students consider Dr.Pichai not only as a skilled teacher, but as their spiritual master and guru, an inspiring, powerfully motivated, leader. Dr.Pichai discovered that the performance of grand yagnas and like rituals involving dozens of his students at a time, were very popular in India and a significant source of income for his schools which now has 220 students. Such events were also held in the temples in the West, with the temple trustees demanding the quality seen in India. The gradutes of Dr.Pichai’s school are providing that highest quality world wide, with a resulting backwash, prestige and concerted effort on the part of many temples in India to improve their own ritual observances. Dr.Pichai’s students are trained well in the mystical arts of opening a door from this world to the higher worlds, through which the blessings of Gods and Goddesses pour out upon the devotees. Dr.Pichai turns out such well and broadly trained priest by the dozens. (From Hinduism Today Oct-Nov-Dec 2004)
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SWAMI PRANAVANANDA AND THE BHARAT SEVASHRAM SANGH
rahmachari Vinod (b 1897 d 1941) turned Swami Pranavanandaji Maharaj, the founder of Bharat Sevashram Sangha was an unusual person. He was variously described by his learned contemporaries as an epoch maker, possessor of limitless powers, seer, superman and omniscient, a creator unusually strong, divine personality of the age, seer of glorious India, a farsighted seer, a missionary for Hindu Regeneration, rebuilder of modern Hinduism, a great man of peerless talent and spiritual power, a beacon light, a person with the strength of the spirit, a true servant of India, a man with solution for the National problems, a Nation builder, a missionary in human service, a preceptor of the age, and the great apostle of selfless service. To guard India from impending communal dangers, Swamiji founded Bharat Sevashram Sangha and planned to build Hindu Milan Mandirs and Rakshi Dals.
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realised that real awakening of a Nation would easily come through selfless service, celibacy and practice of one’s own religion. He built up the character of his disciples on sound moral foundation. He was a living example before them. He inspired them to pay special stress upon the reconstruction of the Hindu Society. They were to propagate the lofty ideals of Hinduism to humanity at large. He realised the necessity of building up a systematic organisation throughout the length and breadth of the country, in order to remove age-old defects in the Hindu Society. These units became the common platform for all Hindus. The ultimate object of the Sangha is the reorganisation of the vast heterogeneous Indian masses into a homogeneous one, a compact and powerful Nation, rebuilt on the basis of its ancient spiritual and cultural ideals and traditions, skilfully readjusted and readapted to suit the changed circumstances of the present scientific age.
The organization did great service to Hindus who have been victims of communal riots With this object in view, the Sangha before and on the eve of independence. undertook a comprehensive plan of work. He was born in the village of Bajitpur in the The multifarious activities of the Sangha that district of Faridpur in present Bangladesh. gradually run through the entire rank and file of the society can be classified into some Reconstruction of dormant Hindu Society on distinct lines. the basis of ancient Indian heritage became a) Propagation of the Traditional the life’s aim of this young saint. In the field spiritual and cultural ideals in India of National reconstruction, Swamiji followed and outside, through individual a method of his own. He did not approve of sannyasin preachers and also through a political movement bereft of religion. He
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b) c) d) e)
organised preaching parties of the monks and selfless workers. Restitution of the spiritual and religious atmosphere there. Reformation of the holy places of India Spread of education based on Indian moral and spiritual idealism Humanitarian services of all kinds Reorganization of the disintegrated Indian masses and reconstruction works of the Indian society (including removal of untouchability, welfare of the backward classes, uplift of the tribals as an integral part of the Indian Society and defence party organisations.
c) Students’ Homes under the guidance of the Sannyasins of the Sangha. d) A department for producing and circulating character building type of literature. e) Organising discourses and lectures to create an atmosphere for introducing a system of ideal education in the schools and colleges. f) Bringing students and youth in personal touch with the Sangha. Now the Sangha has established itself as a Nationwide organisation doing great service to make India Samartha. Bharat Sevashram Sangha has activities in Suriname, Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad, and Guyana.
The Sangha since its inception has been The other centres are in Canada, USA, running its educational activities in various Trinidad, Guyana, Bangladesh and 40 centres in India. ways. a) Brahmacharya Vidyalayas, run according to the ancient Gurukul system of India. b) Free primary schools, Night schools, Junior high and multilateral Higher Secondary Schools. (Adapted from “Acharya Pranavananda in the Eyes of the learned” – Swami Shantananda, Bharat Sevashram Sangh, Hyderabad 29 – 1975 and Ideals of Indian Edcuation and culture, Swami Vijoyananda, Bharat Sevashram Sangha Calcutta 19, 1962-)
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MAHAYOGI SRI AUROBINDO (1872-1950)
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ne of the greatest pioneers of the Indian Renaissance, Sri Aurobindo was educated in England and was proficient in Greek, Latin and English. Yet there was no greater or more brilliant exponent of Indian culture from the point of view of the Vedic spiritual tradition. He was no philosopher content with weaving verbal rhetoric. He was a yogi, an integrated personality whose life was a sadhana towards realizing the Self-divine. He has been described as the “Poet of patriotism” and the “Prophet of Indian Nationalism.” Aurobindo envisaged the emergence of a superman, the truth-conscious being, one who has realized the Divinity within himself as the goal of human evolution.
seven. He returned to India in 1893, taught French and became Professor of English at the Baroda State College. He was in Baroda for 13 years. Aurobindo was drawn into politics in 1905 when Bengal was partitioned. He was associated with the Bengal daily Yugantar and the English daily Bande Mataram. He followed Tilak in his political thinking and was with the extremists at the Surat session of the Congress in 1907. Aurobindo was arrested in 1908 for revolutionary activity and acquitted after one year. He became a spiritual aspirant during his imprisonment and chose to pursue a spiritual mission. He went to Pondicherry and stayed on there till his Mahasamadhi on December 5, 1950. He wrote copiously in his inimitable, elevated literary style. (From ‘Hinduism Today’) Born on August 15, 1872, Aurobindo attended schools in England from the age of
AUROVILLE
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nspired by the Vedic and Nationalistic teachings of Shri Aurobindo and the Mother, an international community has started working at Auroville near Pondicherry. Applying spiritual values of efficiency, sincerity, fellowship and love to modern technologies and bringing this
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combination to serve the society in a holistic manner, Auroville has made significant contributions in the fields of environmental awareness, ecology, waste-land reclamation, afforestation, cost effective housing, water management, educational psychology and related fields.
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SAINT SHRI ASARAMJI AND YOGA VEDANTA SEVA SAMITI
The Yoga Vedanta Seva Samiti of Sri Asaramji spreads the concept of Vishwamanava, the Universal Man. He talks about the personal, moral and ethical, social, National and spiritual duties and responsibilities of Man. He exhorts man to realise his true nature, while discharging the worldly duties. Mass-awakening programmes are undertaken by the Saint and his institution. He uses the medium of traditional festivals such as Raksha Bandhan, Guru Poornima, Sat Sangh, Narayana Seva, Daridra Narayan Seva and Krishnajanmashtami, to awaken the spiritual nature of the common people. Thousands throng to his meetings, Satsanghs, Kirtan programmes and Homam programmes. Swamiji emphasises on equality, happiness, humility and generosity as divine virtues. He effectively employs, TV, newspaper, cassettes, (both audio and video) and the ashram magazine Rishi Prasad (Hindi) to take his message to the millions of faithful devotees. (Compiled from Rishi Prasad (Hindi))
Dr.VEERENDRA HEGGADE
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r.Veerendra a Jain, is the guardian of Sri Manjunatheswara Temple located in N W Karnataka, 44 kms from Mangalore. He acts as the local judge, a custom followed over 800 years. His decisions are accepted as law and honoured by the civil courts of the country.
college also function. One of the recent successes has been the rehabilitation of 1800 alcoholics, who were inspired by daily bhajans at Dharmasthala, to give up their harmful addition.
The temple spends around 10 crores of rupees annually, on religious and service Dharmasthala (Abode of Dharma) the place activities. is called. It is also active with many social service programmes all led by Dr.Veerendra. In this Siva temple, the priests are Five days a week, thousands of guests are Vaishnavaits and the Trustee is a Jain. served free, high quality meals. Clothes are distributed as well. Financial assistance is Shri Heggade also has brought back 21 given. Mass weddings are arranged. ancient temples from ruin. (Hinduism Today Hospitals, 40 schools from primary to
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THE DIVINE LIFE SOCIETY
ri Swami Sivanandaji Maharaj was in his pre-sannyasa years Dr.V.Kuppuswami of Pattamadai, Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, India. He was serving as a medical doctor in Malaya, when he got he inspiration to seek God and serve humanity. Sivananda inspired his students by the force of his own personal example. His life was an open book, all could see him, humble, serving, praying, singing kirtan, bathing in the Ganga, prostrating to everyone, remembering God always, cheerful all the time, not attaching importance to worldly happenings and living in the spirit of the He was initiated into Sannayasa by Swami Mahawakya Tat Twam Asi (Thou Art That). Vishwanandaji of Hrishikesh in 1924. After His students learnt many things just by long spells of Tapasya and a life of observing their Master. Parivrajaka, came the intense teaching period. He taught, yoga, Vedanta and Swami Sivanandaji gave sannyasa liberally bhajans to seekers through, lectures, to people, creating a large band of sannyasi satsanghs, radio talks, pamphlets, books and disciples who are manning the Divine Life journals. The movement gathered society in hundreds of its branches all over momentum, spread countrywide. The Divine India. His disciples were of great eminence. Life Movement, the sole purpose of which Swami Chidananda, Sri Krishnananda, was to divinise the lives of human beings as Swami Chinmayananda, Swami Satyananda, instructed by our ancient rishis, saints and Swami Purushottamananda, Swami monks was born in 1938. Nirmalananda, Swami Omkarananda, Swami Venkatesananda, Swami Sivapremananda, Swamiji was a prolific writer. He wrote more Swami Pranavananda, Swami than 200 books on yoga, vedanta and Indian Vishudevananda, Swami Gnanananda, Culture between 1929 and 1963 when he Swami Jotirmayananda and others became shed his body. His books included masters in their own right and established commentaries on the Bhagawad Gita, the ashramas and spiritual centres in India, Principal Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras, Australia, South Africa, America, Europe Patanjali’s Yoga Sustras, and Narada’s and other places. Bhakti Sutras; scores of books on the practice of yoga and Vedanta; and many Today the Divine Life Society and its offsprings volumes on health and vigour. He wrote have become together a world wide movement poetry, drama, letter and essay, story and bringing peace, enlightenment and happiness parable, aphorism and lecture-all media were to millions, through lectures, personal training adapted by him to spread the knowledge of and publications. This has kept alive the eternal Divine Life.Then he started the great task message of Sanatana Dharma, Samartha of training disciples. Bharata’s gift to humanity. (from Divine Life Society Publications)
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THE YOGA INSTITUTE-SANTACRUZ, BOMBAY
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hri Yogendra founded the Yoga Institute Santacruz, Bomaby around 1932. The purpose of the institute is to investigate the secret but traditionally known practices of yoga, both academically and scientifically in regard to their various claims and also their utility in modern life. Shri Yogendra acquired directly all the hatha yoga practices from the great yoga teacher Paramahamsa Madhavadasji of Malasana (1798-1921). Shri Yogendra applied some of them to thousands of students and patients under medical supervision in India, America and elsewhere. The ancient wisdom has now been compared with modern sciences by textual references and corroborations where possible; and it is after detailed scientific investigation carried on by Yogendraji in cooperation with eminent scientists that he has given the final shape to a methodical study of the subject for its incorporation into one’s daily life. Yogendraji started the Training institute of yoga recognized by the Government for the purpose of training teachers of yoga.
Yogendraji is certain that when the science of yoga will be studied by the scholars and scientists as closely as they have explored other branches of India’s ancient civilization, a new field of investigation will open before them of wider extent than any other that has yet been explored or even known to exist. The Yoga institute of Santa Cruz is a recognized research institute. It accepts scholars for academic, scientific, and education researches in yoga. Competent guides, library and lab facilities are available. One-year yoga certificate courses, 21 days yoga courses, six-month certificate courses and provision for teacher member of the academy are available. A Yoga hospital, yoga education to the general public, publication of books and journal are the other activities of the institute. The institute is presently looked after by Dr.Jayadeva Yogendra. (From the Institute Publications)
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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
Karmayogi evolutions are landmarks in history. Form the point of view of Spiritual evolution, revolutions are critical stages in the evolution of the earth. Mother says Sri Aurobindo was present on earth at every such critical stage. She too was with Him invariably. He says the French Revolution originated in the Himalayas. Anything fundamental anywhere in the world should originate in the Spirit, just as any new product of technology should originate in scientific research. Our science is called experimental science. Some people think it is material science, as it is the science of the material world. The phrase ‘Life science’ has come to stay. What the world needs is the Science of Life, a branch of knowledge that studies how life behaves. It may not be just psychology, but will include psychology. Psychology studies the behaviour of the Mind. Should a subject called ‘Science of Spirit’ come into existence, the occurrence of revolutions as the unfolding of the earth’s evolution will be seen. Sri Aurobindo has remarked on India’s evolution that if is a nation destined to lead the world spiritually. Apparently they are stray remarks inserted in various places. Only he who has the spiritual vision of what Sri
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Aurobindo stands for can know the significance of those statements and how they all go together around a central vision. The following are some of those statements that I can recollect now: 1. Nature resorted to foreign invasion to unite India geographically, as all her previous efforts had failed. 2. India became FREE in the subtle plane in 1910. 3. Indian FREEDOM would lead to the freedom of Asia. 4. World union will come into existence. 5. India will become the Guru of the world. 6. Mother has said that France will collaborate with India in this mission. 7. . Indian bodies carry Spiritual light.
8. America is in the vanguard of the earth’s evolution. The Americans exhibit a curiosity to know of the evolutionary possibilities. 9. Sri Aurobindo said that he has played role in the world wars, particularly in Ireland and Turkey. He also had a little to do with the Russian Revolution. (The New Indian Express)
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KAIVALYADHAMA
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aivalyadhama is a yoga research and The institution is known for its yoga training propagation institute founded by the designed to the needs of Naturopaths, sage Swami Kuvalayanandaji in Physical Education teachers, general 1924. teachers, yoga therapists, executives of the corporate sector, musicians and The institution runs a yoga music teachers, psychologists, ashram at Lonavala in police officers, etc. Maharashtra. It runs special classes on Sanskrit Kaivalyadhama Shreeman to help yoga students in Madhava Yoga Mandir Samiti understanding texts. runs the G.S.College of yoga and cultural synthesis (estd in 1950). All these activities are carried The college runs a one-year out in addition to research and Diploma course in yoga teaching activities in yoga at the education and a certificate course Dhama. in yoga (six weeks). The research work includes, yoga and human The Kaivalyadhama also runs a research resource development, yoga teaching centre to teach M.Phil / PhD courses in methods, textual studies, yoga and obesity, physical education with yoga as a core yoga and heart, yoga and body flexibility, subject. studies in Shavasana, yoga and sports. The Dhama conducts yoga camps, short- Kaivalyadhama publishes and research term training programmes for teachers and quarterly magazine “Yoga-mimamsa” in students of academic institutions throughout English. Maharashtra. (From ‘Yoga Mimamsa’)
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A.C.BHAKTI VEDANTA SWAMI PRABHUPADA AND THE HARE KRISHNA MOVEMENT
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orn in 1896 in Calcutta, India, Bhakti Vedanta Prabhupada met his Guru Sri Bhakti Siddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami in 1922. His Guru had founded 64 Gaudiya Maths. Srila Prabhupada became his student and was initiated in 1933 for whole-time work of propagating Vedic knowledge. He wrote a commentary on the Gita in 1937 and started an English journal in 1944. This is now printed in the west by Prabhupada’s disciples. It is published in 19 languages of the world. 1950 saw Prabhupada, now given the honorary title of Bhakti Vedanta, going to the Holy Vrindavana and begining a life of austerities. He renounced the worldly life in asramas, schools, temples, institutes and 1959. He wrote a sixty-volume commentary, farm communities. his master piece, on Srimad Bhagavatam. In 1968 Prabhupada created New Vrindaban, In 1965, Prabhupada came to U.S. to fulfil an experimental Vedic community in the hills the mission of his Master – to propagate the of West Virginia US. It was a success. Now Vedic knowledge in English. He wrote several similar communities have been another set of sixty volumes of authoritative started in India and abroad. translations, commentaries and summary studies of the philosophical and religious In 1972, Prabhupada, started the Gurukula schools in the West-Dt. Dallas-Texas. Ten classics of India. such Gurukula schools have been started In 1965, Prabhupada came to the US as a since. penniless pilgrim. After almost a year of great difficulties, he established the Large International Cultural Centres, International Society for Krishna planned Spiritual cities and temples, in Consciousness in July of 1966. Before his Vrindavana, Bombay and elsewhere, have passing away on 14-11-1977, he guided the been constructed. society and saw it grow to a world-wide confederation of more than one hundred Sri Prabhupada’s most significant contribution is his books. Highly respected
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by the academic community for their authoritativeness, depth and clarity, they are used as standard text books in numerous college courses. His writings have been translated into 28 languages. The Bhakti Vedanta Book Trust (1872), publishing exclusively his books, has become the world’s largest publisher of books in the field of Indian religion and philosophy. In just 12 years, Sri Prabhupada circled the globe fourteen times on lecture tours, that took him to six continents. His writings constitute a veritable library of Vedic philosophy, religion, literature and culture.
Today, the Hare Krishna movement (ISKCON) has made Negro Sannyasis, has built a Krishna temple in Moscow, has penetrated the bamboo curtain in China, and has converted a professor of Islamic law in Teheran (Iran) University to Ravanaridasa, a staunch Krishnaite. Chanting “Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare”, ISKCON members have sold Bhagawad Gita copies to those standing in queues in Cinema theatres saying that Mahatma Gandhi was inspired by the Gita. Such is the enthusiasm of the followers of Srila Prabbhupada. (Extracts from ISKCON publications)
THE ANSWER LIES IN YOGA, SAY EXPERTS WORLD HEART DAY
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eople should follow yogic lifestyle as there was considerable evidence to demonstrate that yogic practices could halt, arrest and even reverse the process of heart disease, says director of Haffkine Institute Dr.S.M.Sapatnekar. Speaking on ‘Reversal of Heart Diseases: The Yogic Way at the yoga institute here, Sapatnekar said on the World heart Day 26/ 9/04, “I trust that rectification of the disease process is merely a fringe benefit as yoga is a way of life and it changes oneself.” Director of the institute, Jayadeva Yogendra said, “Loss of balance (prajna-aparadha) can occur when spiritual values are given a goby, hence the enemy of a cardiac patient is
not just fatty food or cholesterol, stress or hostility, but crass materialism, selfishness, egoism, negative emotions and all kinds of excesses.” One should turn towards spiritualism for a long, healthy and happy life, Yogendra said. The president of the International Board of yoga, Hansa Jayadeva said, “institute’s” caring heart project’, has made people “better human beings—more caring, loving and relaxed with better will power to handle any stress”. Meanwhile, cardiologists in Mumbai urged the government to set up a preventive cardiology council to carry out extensive education and awareness programme in the country in collaboration with the NGOs. (P.T.I)
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SWAMI RAMA AND HIS HIMALAYAN INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF YOGA SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY
wami Rama, the founder of the Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and philosophy was born in 1925. He was ordained a monk early his childhood in the Shankaracharya Parampara (tradition). He also studied Western Psychology and medicine and taught in Japan. He came to the US in 1969 to teach yoga. He has written extensively on yoga and spirituality. The Himalayan institute, founded in 1971, combines Eastern and Western teachings and techniques to develop education, therapeutic and research programmes for serving people in today’s world.
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There a programme in holistic studies offers a unique and systematic course combining Western Empirical Sources and Eastern Introspective Science. Stress management, physical fitness courses, and an annual international congress devoted to the scientific and spiritual progress of humanity, are the other programmes. The psycho-physiological lab of the institute specialises in research on breathing, meditation, holistic therapies, and on stress and relaxed states. Exercise stress testing and psycho-physiological measuring, are conducted in the labs. Brain waves, patterns of respiration, heart rate changes, and muscle tension are measured. The staff investigates Eastern Teachings through studies based on Western experimental techniques.
The goals of the Institute are to teach meditational techniques for the growth of individuals and their society to make known the harmonious view of world religions and philosophies and to undertake scientific Swami Rama’s books include those an research for the benefit of the human kind. Upanishads / Yoga, Bondage of Karma, Japji, With its Headquarters at Pennsylvania in US, Life Hereafter, Bhagawad Gita, Sukhamani the institute conducts seminars, lectures, Sahib, Patanjali, Bhakti yoga, Hatha yoga etc. workshops and classes. The book on Diet and Nutrition is a classic on The residential and self-transformation inter-disciplinary studies on Food. programmes provide training in the basic yoga disciplines, diet, ethical behaviour, hatha yoga Swami Rama and his co-workers bring a scientific temper to studies in yoga. and meditation. (Collected from the Institute Publications)
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YOGIRAJ VETHATHIRI MAHARISHI AND HIS SKY
He has also founded the World Peace Trust with the objective of building up peaceconciousness in all parts of the globe. He teaches Advaita and Raja Yoga in a manner to reach out to all sections of the society, hence he is known as a common man’s He has developed the Simplified Kundalini philosopher. Yoga (SKY) for helping the common man. A system of simple physical exercises, He has also developed the simplified Kaya Simplified Kundalini Yoga, and steady kalpa yoga as an adjunct to an advance on introspection, a combined practice of these SKY. three, would ennoble man and lead him to realisation says Swamiji. And since he Swami Vethathiri (b 1911) an orderinary himself lives out his teachings, his words, weaver turned yoga-researcher founded the spoken and written, have a profound impact World Community Research centre in 1958. on all who come into contact with him. The organization has branch-centres all over India, in the USA and in Japan. (Adapted from ‘Hinduism Today’)
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ogiraj Vethathiri Maharishi feels that Raja yoga is best suited for our age and that it is the only hope for the modern man with his awakened and questioning intellect.
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DURGA GOES GLOBE-WIDE
ome Durga Puja, which falls in October, the Goddess will leave Her abode in the Kailash and go globetrotting—from California to Tokyo, from Calgary to Cape Town. With the Bengali Diaspora spreading its wings the world over, the community’s own Durga Puja is becoming more and more popular in almost every corner of the world. Up from last year’s export of 26 Durga idols, this year artisans from the famed Kumartuli are sending 33 idols to leading cities in the United States, Japan, Canada and South Africa. Clay artisan
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Mr.Ghosh, whose nine idols made of pith are finding patrons in the US and the rest are being shipped for Canada, the UK, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Australia and New Zealand. The boom in the pith, glass-fibre and paper pulp Durga idols is the result of the “explosive growth” in the popularity of the puja in the UK and the US. Another artisan, Montu Pal, is busy managing the export of his idols to Dallas, Leeds, Berlin and Mauritius. Mr.Paul, who first began exporting his fibre-glass idols four years ago, said he was fighting to meet the deadline for his Baltimore and Leeds-bound consignments.
Among the exporters of the idols from the dingy lanes of Kumartuli is clay artisan Amar Nath Ghosh. While Mr.Ghosh exported 18 idols to the West last Gopal Chandra Sarkar and Amar Pal, whose year, this year he is sending 21. idols are finding takers in Rome, New York and Stuttgart, also confirmed that global “Eighteen of my idols have already been demands for Durga idols from Kumartuli are shipped and one is being despatched today. increasing every year.—UNI Two of them are yet to be sent,” said
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SADHU VASWANI MISSION
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adhu T.L.Vaswani (Dada) was born on 25/11/1879 in Hyderabad Sind, now in Pakistan. Even as a child he was compassionate, kind, and prayerful. He was a brilliant scholar and became a professor in Kolkata.
and a Jiva Daya depart-ment dedicated to the welfare of birds and animals were the other insti-tutions he At the age of 30, he went to Welt congress, built. the world congress of religions in Germany, stirring the hearts of his listeners with a love Living upto his for India and its spiritual quest. At the age of message of love, prayer and compassion, Dada forty, when his mother passed away, he was a great source of comfort to the millions renounced the world, to be “an humble servant who had to leave everything and resettle in the of India and the Rishis.”He entered the freedom aftermath of the tragic partition. He continued movement, wrote articles and books on India’s to radiate love and compassion upto his last political and spiritual freedom. Some of his breath 16-1-1966. His memory continues to books were proscribed by the British.Dada inspire millions.Dada’s visit to the Kotwala Vaswani started youth centres, Shakti ashrams refugee camp inspired thousands to rebuild and conducted youth conferences. He later their lives. He started a paper “Jago” (Awake) tried to build spiritual bridges between the East and recorded his message for the suffering.His and the West, winning allround admiration for satsangs look the shape of Mira Sat Sangh his work. Association in 1961. Turning his attention to the field of spiritualised education, Dada Vaswani founded in 1933 the Mira movement in Education with active centres in Poona and Sind. The emphasis in the teachings passed on in Mira Educational intuitions is that education is a thing of the spirit and that the end of all knowledge is Serviceservice of the poor and the lowly, the sick and afflicted ones.Under the direct supervision of Dada Vaswaniji, charitable institutions, a Pathological lab,St.Mira’s College and St.Mira schools were set up to serve humanity. Welfare fund for the displaced persons, Shanti Seva Niketan for women, Bhandara, a feeding centre for the poor, Shanti Clinic, a diagnostic centre, After the Mahasamadhi of Dada, Shri J.P.Vaswaniji a close follower of Dada, is leading the movement. Shri J.P.Vaswani works through the mission, now renamed Sadhu Vaswani Mission. He and his band of dedicated workers, travelling all over the world, try to bring spiritual consolation to the millions who have been uprooted and transplanted elsewhere at the time of partition. Providing the cultural umbilical cord to the motherland, to those who are scattered across the world, Sadhu Vaswani mission, provides spiritual, cultural, medical, educational services to the people. (Sadhu Vaswani Centenary Souvenir)
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BHAGAWAN SRI RAMANA Sustainer of Spiritual Reality
Dr.S.Radhakrishnan
Bhagawan Sri Ramana’s Realisation is unique and unparalleled in the annals of history. He realised in his boyhood the Eternal Truth the self-supreme, without the aid of initiation by any external Guru, without the need for a theoretical knowledge or study of the Sastras, and Scriptures and without having resorted to any kind of Sadhana, other than his spontaneous realisation of the eternal nature of the ‘I’ the self-supreme. He sat in the State of Transcendental silence at the Hill of the Holy Beacon Arunachala.
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t is somewhat surprising that may students of religion assume that the religious seers, the true representatives of religious genius, belong wholly to the past and we to-day have to live on the memory of the past. If religion is a living truth, if it has any vitality, it must be capable of producing men who from time to time bear witness to the truth and confirm and correct from their own experience the religious tradition. When the springs of experience dry up, our love for religion is a mere affection, our faith a belief and our behaviour a habit with no reality behind it. In the Indian religious tradition religion has meant not an imaginative or intellectual apprehension of Reality but its embodiment in regenerated living. Religion should energise our consciousness, transform our character and make us new men. The truly religious are those who have solid hold of the unseen Reality in which we ordinary men merely believe. They are not freaks proclaiming the reality of spirit, which is esoteric and intense. They tell us that they have a direct knowledge of the Real of which we have
indirect or inferential knowledge. For them God is an Abiding Fact, a Living Presence, and in the consciousness of this fact their whole existence is transformed. These artists of the inner life are of different types. Some are full of poetry and music; others are vigorous men of action; still others are solitary souls. Despite these differences they walk the same road, speak the same language of the soul and belong to the same family. The Indian tradition has been kept alive by seers who were born in every age and incarnated the great ideal. We have such God-engrossed souls even to-day. It is our good fortune that we have with us to-day a living embodiment of God-centered life, a perfect image of the life divine in the mirror of human existence. Sri Ramana Maharshi is not a scholar; he has no erudition, but he has wisdom that comes from direct experience of Reality, the wisdom we acquire through the discipline, not of intellect but of one’s nature, through chastity, poverty and obedience. The possession of this wisdom yields the fruits of spirit, love and purity, courage and humility, courtesy and holiness. (Extracted from Aradhana Souvenir of Ramanashram)
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SWAMI DAYANANDA SARASWATI AND THE ARSHA VIDYA GURUKULAM
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rsha Vidya Peetam, Rishikesh, Arsha Vidya Gurukulam Smriti Seva Trust, Anaikatti Coimbatore, Arsha Vidya Gurukulam Institute of Vedanta and Sanskrit Saylorsburg, Pa-USA are all founded by the inspiring Swamiji of Rishi Parampara, Swami Dayananda Saraswatiji Maharaj. Swamiji started his life as a journalist. He was accidentally exposed to a lecture on the Upanishads by Swami Chinmayananda and this event created a momentous change in his life, propelling him towards the Himalayas and a life devoted exclusively to the spiritual pursuit.His teaching is not merely an exposition of a theory or philosophy. He makes every student see the truth, as clearly as the eyes see, that sorrow is not the lot of the humans. This truth revealed in the Upanishads is not a matter of conjecture, but a verifiable fact.
mainstream Society. This a movement for the people and by the people. This movement is dedicated to providing health care, primary education, nutrition for children, women empowerment, providing drinking water facilities etc. The Movement plans to open at least one hostel for poor students in every district of India. Quite a few hostels have already come up. Swamiji’s role in uniting acharyas whose maths and adheenams have been propagating our Dharma for more than thousands years has been remarkable. Similarly maths and missions of recent origin have also been brought together. The purpose is to raise the voice of the Nation against Religious Conversion, cultural degradation and to channelise the positive forces of service and value-education.Swamiji has also taken up a broader canvas by trying to bring all the non-converting, non-aggressive religions of the world. The purpose is to proclaim that religious conversion is a violence against humanity and to say that every religious belief has a right to survive and be practised by its adherents.In this manner Swami Dayananda Saraswati and his followers carry on the twin tasks of defending and propagating the values preached by our Rishis. (Compiled from The ashram
His most significant contribution has been the teachers he has created to teach Vedantah, each adhering strictly to the traditional method of teaching. Their ability to make the teaching easily understandable by communicating clearly in English and other modern languages, while preserving the ancient traditional teaching in its pristine form is itself a tribute to Swamiji as a teacher of teachers.Inspired by the Swamiji the All India Movement (AIM) for Seva, was launched with a view to caring the people living in remote areas, away from the publications)
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GANAPATI SACHCHITANANDAJI MAHARAJ
V.G.Ramachandran
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anapathi Sachchitanandaji was born in 1942 to a father who had almost renounced the world. The child was named Satyanarayana. After his mother’s death he moved to Andhra and lived on alms in the discipline of a Brahmachari. After two years in total isolation, he assumed the name of Ganapthi Sachichitanandaji and started preaching the truths of Sanatana Dharma.
Veda and the Vedic literature, music and related tools of bhakti, trains people, holds Vidwat Sadas and seminars, and undertakes humanitarian activities. He is a Nada Yogi, plays on the Veena, to the delight of his world-wide band of followers.
Swamiji’s havans are very well attended. He teaches Yoga, Bhakti and Jnana to his Swamiji works with his headquarters at the disciples. His trust teaches to the people the base of the Chamundi hills in the MysoreNanjangud road.
B.K.S. IYENGAR AND ‘THE YOGA DIPIKA’
ogacharya Bellur Krishnamachar Sundararaja Iyengar learned yoga from great masters and took great strides in popularizing yoga. He wrote the classic “Light on Yoga” (Yoga Dipika) and established the Ramamani Iyengar memorial Yoga Institute. He is acclaimed as a yoga artist with great control over his body and mind, backed by a wealth of wisdom and humanity. His career as a yoga teacher saw him as a man of great influence. He taught yoga to great men like Jayaprakash Narayan, philosophers and savants like J.Krishnamurti, internationally famous musicians like Yehudi Menuhin and Clifford Curzon and generals
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of Indian Army-and the pupils of his pupils number several thousands.Yogacharya Iyengar never went through any university training. Yet what he acquired through his single devotion to yoga for over 40 years now provides courses for several universities abroad. He has now completed a companion volume to his yoga book – “Light on Pranayama.” Iyengar ’s work in popularizing and standardising yoga practices has helped the Indian Yoga tradition establish itself as a scientific, learnable, repeatable, and profitable art and science. (Compiled)
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BHARATIYA VIDYA BHAVAN
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haratiya Vidya Bhavan’s book university, its journals and its educational programme form a comprehensive package. They are veritably the well-spring of the best scriptural, spiritual, literary and political wisdom of the world’s oldest civilization. The Bhavan deliberately acts to establish a symbiotic relationship between the Pre independence Bharat and the PostIndependence country. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan was born nine years before Independence. The imminence of freedom spurred Kulapti K.M.Munshiji to speculate on what kind of free India it would be. Will the likely casualty of freedom be India’s time-honoured culture, traditions and scriptural wisdom? Preserving and promoting Bharatiya Vidya was the first priority to Munshiji. Spreading learning became the Bhavan’s principal goal and activity. With Bhavan came its book university.
journals, as did the contemporary writings of Mahatma Gandhi, Annie Besant, Tilak, Gokhale, Tagore and Subrahamaniya Bharati. ACTIVITIES 1. Schools, Colleges, Engineering Institutions. 2. Management, Public administration institutions. 3. Computer education centres. 4. Correspondence courses on Vedanta, Gita, Indian culture. 5. Sanskrit education / Cultural graded courses 6. Book university, Journals, Publication of Books of permanent value 7. Promotion of Indian Culture among Youth / Students 8. Preservation of manuscripts. 9. Projects for rewriting Indian History, republishing accounts of Freedom Movement 10. Schools of dance, music. 11. Kata Kalakshepam Training College 12. Opening Centres abroad, New York, London, Sydney centres are already functioning. 13. Teachers training and Teacher ’s orientation 14. Jainology Research / Propaganda
Bhavan had the blessings of Mahatma Gandhi, Rajaji, Nehruji and Sardar Patel. Episodes from the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, analysis of the Vedas and Upanishads, prayers to Gods of various saints as Sankara, and Ramanuja to Rama Krishna Paramahamsa and Vivekananda, (Compiled from the issues of The Bhavan’s embellished the pages of Bhavan’s books and journal)
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YOGODA SATSANGA
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he Yogoda Satsangha (YSS) is a global organization training people in yoga and meditation. It was founded by the great yogi, Paramahamsa Yogananda (‘Autobiography of a Yogi’ frame). Now the movement is headed by Daya Mata. The organization is devoted to healing of Body, mind and Soul-Healing of body of disease by proper diet, and recharging the body with God’s all powerful cosmic energy, removing in harmonies and in efficiency from the mind by concentration, constructive thinking and cheerfulness; and freeing the ever perfect soul from the bonds of spiritual ignorance by meditation. The Yogoda Satsanga and Self-Realisation Fellowship work with headquarters at Ranchi, India.Apart from dissemination of Sri Paramahamsa’s teachings, the YSS runs schools and hospitals, publishes books and journals and trains the public through direct contact and through the audio visual media.
YSS sannyasis and brahmacharis travel all over the world, to teach (aspirants including children) the essentials of the Master’s teaching through KRIYA YOGA, a technique developed by the Master. The YSS also runs centres at Igatpuri, Pune, (From Satsangha magazine-Self-Relisations) Surat, Puri, Chandigarh, Dakshineshwar (Kolkata) Ranchi and other places.
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SRI RAMAKRISHNA TAPOVANAM
Dr.K.Subrahmanyam
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grove or garden is rich in proportion to its number of trees and the fruits they produce. A family is great in proportion to its number of individuals and the quality of their out-put. A country is glorious in proportion to its institutions and the individuals of high quality contributions. India from times immemorial has been rich on account of her institutions and individuals.
the rishis of India for realising the goals of mankind. All religious establishments, schools of philosophic thought and educational institutions in India have a common goal and that is spirituality. If India is to forget its ideals and lose direction, there is no redemption. As and when there is a cyclonic whirl-wind to eclipse the beacon light of spirituality and cut the roads leading towards it, there are great rishis reborn to brighten the torch and lead the way. Buddha, Mahaveer, Gurunanak, Chaitanya Prabhu, Dayananda Saraswati, Adi Sankara, Sri Ramanuja, Madhvacharya, Vallabhacharya, Sri Ramakrishna, Sri Ramana and Swami Vivekananda and a host of spiritual stalwarts, out of compassion for society, established institutions, which in turn have contributed immensely for the national glory. When there was a wave of materialism and pseudo-rationalism disturbing the social harmony and spiritual pursuits in Tamilnadu, there arose a sage, of Swami Chidbhavananda from out of Sri Ramakrishna order to establish an institution for a cultural revival, educational reform and an overall renaissance in every walk of life with a spiritual goal. Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam is the organisation founded by him in 1942 with a specific purpose. Today all over the state there is an awakening in
Individuals establish institutions; and institutions inturn regulate and elevate individuals. They both contribute to the glory of the nations. The rishis of India have been great researchers. They have not only discovered great truths, but established institutions for the rest of the individuals to realise the same truths and ascend to the heights of peaceful co-existence, social harmony and spiritual splendour. Morality and ethics are very well taken care of. Material prosperity has never been neglected though it is never given a priority over the other. The lasting peace is spirituality; and momentary pleasure is materialism. In between there are individuals and institutions to lead us through moral codes of conduct and ethical bonds of humanism in a well-knit social living of harmonious advancement. And that is dharma a balanced and methodical enfoldment of the self-within through action, emotion and intelligence. Varnasrama dharma is the greatest institution evolved by
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and direct it well for the public weal and selfrealisation. Therefore educationists have begun to introduce ‘Value Education’. Education will be of value when it is useful to all, at all times, in all places, at all levels and for the harmonious advancement of action, emotion and intellect with a spiritual under-current all through. And in the India has an excellent system of education. institutions run by the Tapovanam, we have And it is “Indian national education” evolved Value Education. by the rishis. Because of certain foreign influences, its direction has been diverted The potential ability to awaken itself and from spirituality to materialism. And the illumine all lies in the Indian Educational teaching-learning process has also been to a system and that is Gurukul Vidya. Swami great extent disturbed upsetting the cultural Vivekananda has been able to recognise its environment. Moral and ethical atmosphere efficacy and so he propagated it. Swami is greatly polluted. Now it is the task of Sri Chidbhavananda has caught the spirit of the Ramakrishna Tapovanam to purify the system and evolved a method by which system, re-establish the direction of reviving everybody is benefited. the paths towards perfection. Therefore the Tapovanam in the foot prints of India’s time- In additon to reviving the Gurukul system, tested traditions, has established educational Tapovanam has evolved a mass movement institutions in the name of Sri Ramakrishna, to educate all on right lines towards spiritual Holy Mother Sarada Devi and Swami goals. It is Antaryogam, a type of spiritual Vivekananda. Simplicity and austerity, self- retreat. It brings people together confidence and self-reliance, discipline and transcending all petty barriers of caste and self-dedication, purity and spirituality are creed. Sri Rama the prince of Ayodhya and very much visible and perceptible in the day’s Guha a tribal person have embraced each routine of the institutions founded by the other. Sri Krishna the lord of Dwaraka and Tapovanam. In these days of materialism and Kuchela of poverty sat on the same throne. cut-throat competition, it has been made Indian culture is to make all people transcend possible to revive Gurukul pattern of the differences and be together. And that education. Not only at the primary and healthy and wholesome co-existence to a secondary but at the collegiate level of great extent is revived through the education as well we find Gurukul mode of Antaryogams (spiritual reseats) evolved by functioning very much successful in the the Tapovanam. Tapovanam. The day is not far of when the potential educational system of India “Education is the manifestation of perfection becomes vibrant and popular. People all over already in man” “Religion is the the country have been able to feel the manifestation of divinity already in man.” negative impact of the present system. It is These two are the key sentences working unable to spot out the hidden gifts, provide wonders in the Tapovanam. Education has the conducive atmosphere for it to flower to be religious. Religion has to be educative.
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the public. People in general and students in particular who have been moulded by the Tapovanam are remarkably different from the common folks. Stones have been transformed into saints. Superstition and selfishness have been greatly erased by the ardent efforts of the institution.
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Education without religion makes man materialistic. Religion without proper education makes him superstitious. Tapovanam is an institution striving to be religiously educative and educatively religious. And the efforts have borne fruits.
India in general and Tamil Nadu in particular have been richly re-established by the Tapovanam. Let there be many more similar institutions to bring out the hidden potentialities of India to lime light.
THE SWAMI NARAYAN MOVEMENT
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nspired by the Saint Bhagawan Swami Narayan, the Bochasanwasi Sri Akshar Purushottam Swami Narayan Sanstha (BAPS) led by Saint Pramukh Swami Maharaj has been doing yeoman service to nurture the values of Sanatana dharma. The Pramukh Swami Maharaj, the present head of the movement has inspired people to build over 550 temples world wide, which are centres for 160 humanitarian activities in the fields of education, heath, environment, social work, culture and spirituality. With 10 lakh followers world-wide, the movement has 55,000 youth volunteers, and 9090 satsangh centres world wide. Its members offer 12 lakh annual volunteer-hours in service. The movement undertakes 27 moral and cultural activities. Nearly 5 lakh annual assemblies are held. Its 9 international cultural festivals are visited by 33.5 million interested people. The B.A.P.S. movement holds cultural examinations involving 4.25 lakh students a year. Its ten hospitals and 12 mobile dispensaries treat the suffering. Its 15,000 doctors receive
regular training in medico-spiritual conferences. There are 29 permanent educational institutions, provision for regular scholarships for poor students and public schools and institutions rebuilt after natural disasters. Environmental activities including tree planting, recharging wells, rain harvesting projects, disaster relief operations, family assemblies to rebuild communites with families at the centre and encouraging people to quit addictions (smoking, drinking, drug dependency) add to the purposeful work of the movement. With its 35 permanent tribaluplift centers, the BAPS movement undertakes moral, education, socio-economic programmes for tribals. The Swaminarayan movement works across continents to bring the transplanted Indians, nearer to our Culture and Dharma. New India has been strengthened by such spiritual and service movements as the Swami Narain organisation. (BAPS New Bulletin)
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SPIRITUALITY & PROSPERITY
Karmayogi volunteers. That was before 1956, before the descent of the Force. I invite you to throw away a lucrative bank job and start an rich nation has rich citizens. People industry. If you are an entrepreneur, I assure become rich not by being dependent you your several thousand rupee salary will on others, or the family or even their become several thousand crores of business. organization. He who leads others, heads the family, or proves innovative in the At least one person listened to me, opposed organization makes himself successful and his family, resigned a government job, and rich. A nation thus becomes wealthy. Such did what I asked him. Today he has as many people are called entrepreneurs. What are crores as he was earning in rupees as the characteristics of an entrepreneur? In salary. He is a tireless worker, has never short, one who does not conform to the deserted a friend, and not for one moment social codes is an entrepreneur. Can we make wavered in his loyalty to his duty. He is a it more explicit? Let us divide the population top industrialist in the country. He started into two parts, leaders and followers. Our an unconventional energy project, subject here is the leaders. introduced the latest agriculture technology, and sponsored ways of life that will inspire A nation becomes wealthy, rich, prosperous youngsters. He was betrayed by almost and famous by those who are willing to die everyone. He had the Great Good Sense to happily for her, to give their all, who do not say, “What they do is up to them. Let me do calculate or think of the future only, who what is right and good”. He knows how to never count their chickens, who HAVE in face every difficulty. Even his most their hearts the glory of Mother India. Are virulent enemy was forced to change his you one of these? Are you willing to throw attitude towards him. He is an away your job and walk naked in the street? entrepreneur. India needs NOT salaried In 1920 Gandhiji asked people to leave the employees. India needs patriotic leaders. British schools, British courts, and British Everyone is a leader. Will you lead the offices. Many followed him. Some became leaders? glorious leaders; others became volunteers. Even after freedom, they remained poor (The New Indian Express) The Nation’s Growing Wealth is personal Prosperity
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SIVAYA SUBRAMUNIYASWAMI AND THE HIMALAYAN ACADEMY
he Himalayan Academy was founded by Sadguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswamy as a non-profit educational activity. It has the following purposes. 1. To Foster Hindu solidarity as a unity in diversity among all sects and lineages. 2. To inform and inspire Hindus worldwide and people interested in Hinduism. 3. To dispel myths, illusions and misinformation about Hinduism. 4. To protect, preserve and promote the sacred Vedas and the Hindu Religion. 5. To nurture and monitor the ongoing spiritual Hindu Renaissance. 6. To publish a resource for Hindu leaders and educators to promote Sanatana Dharma.
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for Hindu Renaissance is selected and honoured. It runs a gurukulam in the name of Tirunavukkarasar, the great Saivaite saint. The movement has a special youth wing to nurture young Hindus all over the world in the true Hindu spirit. It has a wing to publish basic as well advanced level books on Hinduism. The movement runs orphanages and Dharma Salas. It strives to preserve Hindu arts and artefacts. Its activities for promoting pilgrimages to places of Hindu interest, and for helping visually impaired devotees have won praise from all around.
All these activities are supported by the Hindu Heritage Endowment (HHE), funded by public donations. The HHE holds 59 professionally managed endowment funds that benefit orphanages, temples, ashrams, educational institutes, monasteries, homes for the elderly and various publications. The Academy also publishes The Journal These activities are spread over Bangladesh, “Hinduism Today”. Fiji, India, Malaysia, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, and the U.S.A. The HHE maintains an office Now the movement is headed by Satguru at the Hindu Monastery on the Hawaiian Bodhinatha Veylanswami. island of Kauai and is overseen and managed by the Monastic stewards and staff. The movement maintains the Kauai Aadheenam monastery. It has a beautiful Three prestigious publications of the Iraivan temple in Hawaii. It runs the movement 1. Dancing with Siva 2. Living magazine “Hinduism Today”. It organizes with Siva and 3. Merging with Siva, show Hindu Businessmen of America. Every year what kind of quality and excellence are one Hindu worker who does the best work attached to their work. (Compiled from “Hinduism Today”)
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PRIDE OF A NATION
Karmayogi
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t is a fact that in Asoka’s India a woman could travel around safely, which shows the law and order of his rule. In the fifties, the Soviet government challenged its citizens to show four square inches of dirt in Moscow. Macauley spoke about India of his times and said he had never heard of theft or met someone who lied to him. When great values spread across the country and come to settle down as culture, the nation is proud about it. Evading customs duty was a universal passion in England of the 18 th century, among the rich as well as the poor. Will a day come in future when we can be proud of saying that nowhere in India can one meet a man who had his work done by giving bribes? Or can we hope to see a day when smuggling can no longer thrive because no one will buy smuggled goods with a clear conscience? We have, by now, outgrown such ways. Surely such days will come in the future. Centuries of existence give rise to a little history. Centuries of history yield a few drops of culture. Culture is a way of life based on values. Existence is survival. One struggles to survive. Prosperity releases man from such a struggle. Prosperity is the result of intelligent industry which comes from education. So education, intelligence and
industry over the centuries move men from mere existence to a little history, a life of achievement to remember. Corrupt politicians sometimes send their children abroad. They return not only educated but with a little self-respect. They are ashamed of parental corruption. They accept as their goal never taking a bribe. It is common amongst as to be happy about influential contracts. No one scruples to move such contacts and get things done. There is no question of being ashamed of it. Often people are proud of it. To have your M.Phill thesis written by another, to secure an admission by going around the rules, to accomplish things through money are not things people are ashamed of. A new generation highly educated, with a developed sense of selfrespect should step in before such values become personal ways of life. Without this self-respect, one cannot be truthful inside. Utter Truthfulness is the channel through which in Spirit emerges. To subtle vision, such a truthfulness in a person appears to be a dot of light in him or a bright aura around him. India is great in spirit, but only in potential. It will be come actual reality in life through the medium of TRUTH. (The New Indian Express)
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THE GITA PRESS, GORAKHPUR
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ed by the great and scholarly examples of Hanuman Prasadji Poddar and Jadyadayalji Goyendka, and supported by the munificence of the Houses of Businessmen, the Gita Press, Gorakhpur has been doing yeoman service to the cause of Hindu Dharma, our National values and the Renaissance of Sanatana Dharma. Taking advantange of the print media, which could bring out the scriptures with good Hindi, English, Tamil, Bengali or other regional language-translations, the Gita Press, Gorakhpur (78 years old) brings out Vedic scriptures, Puranas, The Ramayana, The Mahabharata, and the Upandishads with Bhashyas by eminent acharyas at affordable prices. The quality of the highly subsidized editons speaks for itself, placing the Gita Press as authentic and reliable. Gita Press concentrates on the Bhagawat Gita and the Vishnu Sahasranama editions which have sold in various languages to the tune of crores of copies. The Gita Press also runs the magazine KALYAN (Hindi) (78 years) and Kalyana Kalpataru (English) (49 years). These are household names in India.
These are all collectors’ items. The Gita Press also brings out simple books on right living, stories for children, posters on the Ramayana, the Gita, Namasmaranam etc. The various editions of Tulsi Dasji’s Ramacharitramanas, have been very widely received by the readers both in Hindi and in English. In the years before and after 1947, the role of the Gita Press in making Bharat ‘Samartha’ in the religious, moral and spiritual sense is to inscribed in golden letters. Some of the titles mentioned below, apart from Veda, Purana, Upanishad, Gita texts and commentories, show the nature and scope of the work of the Gita Press. 1. Some methods of mind control (Hindi) 2. Brahmacharya (Hindi) 3. Present day educational system (Hindi) 4. Dowry in marriage (Hindi) 5. Ideals of a householders’ life. 6. Our duty towards the suffering and the down-trodden.
The annual numbers of Kalyan and Kalyan (Compiled from various Gita Pres Kalpatru are published as separate books. Publications)
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BIHAR SCHOOL OF YOGA
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odern India’s attempts to interpret yoga scientifically have resulted in the establishment of a number of schools, colleges, institutes and universities on yoga and yoga research.
They have taken the Yoga Vedanta lessons across the globe and have even penetrated the supposed by hardshell of the South American continent. They have established centres in Europe and America, and a sannyasi training centre in Australia.
Srimat Swami Satyananda Saraswati and his disciple Srimat Swami Niranjanananda are In the true tradition of India’s ancient yogis saints and yoga teachers of international and rishis, these two acharyas try to reputation. resuscitate the Brahmavidya and express it in modern idiom to bring enlightenment, Established by Swami Satyananda Saraswati happiness and peace to the strife-torn world. and nurtured by Swami Niranjan, the Bihar They also use traditional tools such as School of Yoga, now called Bihar yoga mantra diksha, homa, yajna, bhajans, Bharti (BYB), is an institute of Advanced utsavas and festivals, sacred rituals etc. to studies in yogic sciences. drive home to the minds of the practitioners, the fact of the vedantic truth. Apart from conducting original research in yoga, publishing advanced level text books Non-traditional areas like Australia, Spain and research papers on yoga, the BYB also and Egypt have been brought under their trains the public in yoga. With Hindi and influence by sheer hard work, tapasya, English as media of instruction, the BYB sincerity and love. organises four-month certificate courses in yogic studies, one year P.G. diploma courses Their spiritual and yoga activities are ably in Yoga Ecology, one year diploma courses supported by their humanitarian work for the in yoga philosophy, one year diploma courses poor. in yoga psychology and one year diploma courses in Applied yogic science. Their other works include, earthquake reliefs in Gujarat, yoga therapy courses, children’s The glory of BYB does lie not only in yoga fellowship and yoga in education. teaching the ancient Yoga Vidya in modern (From BSY Publications) format, but in the greatness of the personality of Swami Satyananda Saraswati and Swami Niranjan, the true masters.
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MATA AMRITANANADA MAYI AND HER MISSION
orn in the house of a humble fisherman in Kerala, Mata Amritananda Mayi (Amma) has risen to spiritual heights by sheer Tapasya. She is hailed as the Divine Mother (Amma) by millions of people across the world. She is the Divine symbol of Motherhood and she embraces the whole world with all its living beings in her loving fold. She is the living example of the Divine qualities of love, compassion, simplicity, culture and renunciation. Cutting across differences of caste, creed and nationality, crores of people come to Amma’s feet seeking consolation from the cares of the world.Her mission headquarters are located at Amritapuri, Her birth-place. More than 2000 sannyasins and celebates, both men and women stay there, serving the people. They, under the direct supervision of Mataji serve humanity. A large number of local people help the programmes succeed. The projects include spiritual ministry and social service. Amma has established temples in India and abroad to enable devotees perform direct worship. Amma herself undertakes tours during which she sings enchanting songs, gives lectures on spiritual and social topics and trains people in Meditation. Her aim is to instruct people on the noble goals of human life and bring about a spiritual revolution in the world.
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In 2003, Amma’s 50 th birthday was celebrated with participants from 191 countries, rededicating themselves to selfless to work for Amma’s world vision. The participants included India’s top government leaders and artists, painters, singers and social activitists from all over the world. On a permanent basis the Mata Amritananda Mayi Mission runs the following activities: 1. An orphanage with 600 children is being run by the Mission in Paripalli in the Kollam district of Kerala. 2. Under the Amrita Kuteeram scheme, 30,000 houses have been constructed for the poor in all parts of India. In the next ten years, it is planned to extend the scheme to build 1,000,000 houses. 3. In the earthquake-hit Gujarat, the Mission has rebuilt 3000 houses, prayer halls and
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has helped in the comprehensive development of 3 villages. 4. Every month, the mission renders monetary help to 50,000 widows and destitutes. 5. There is a special school in Trichur in Kerala, run by the mission for the dumb and deaf. 6. A hospital of international standards has been built at Kochi, to serve the people either freely or at affordable costs. A medical college, a pharmacy college and a Nursing college are part of this medical complex. 7. For terminal cancer patients, the mission runs a home in Baglapur in Maharashtra. The Mission is opening an AIDS RefugeHome in Tiruvanantapuram. 8. There are more than 45 Amrita Vidyalayas functioning across the country. 9. Three Engineering Colleges are being run by the mission in Amritapuri (in Kerala), Coimbatore, and in Bangalore. Recently
they have been brought under a Deemed university,. Amrita Vishwa Vidya Peetham. 10.There are eleven computer centres of the Mission functioning in various parts of the country. Mata Amritananda Mayi was invited to address the Sarva Dharma Conference in Chicago in 1993. The Confence commemorated the 100 th year of Swami Vivekananda’s Chicago speech. In the Golden Jubilee year of the United Nation, Amma was invited again to address the world forum. She addressed the World Conference of women in Switzerland in October 2002. Amma was conferred the Gandhi-King award for her work for world peace. With all her eminence, spiritual and social achievements, Amma remains simply what she really is, a true respresentative of Sanatana Dharma and a real example of India’s spiritually inspired motherhood. (From Mission Publications)
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INDIA’S SAVIOR OF SACRED PLANTS “
reservation through documentation and education”, “This is the modus operandi of Dr.S.K.Jain, the retired yet tireless defender of India’s infinitely useful and especially sacred plants and trees. Jain, now 73 and still very active in the field, is the Scientist Emeritus of the National Botanical Research Institute in Lucknow. He began in the early 1960s by studying the ethnobotany of the Adivasi tribals in central India, in what then was unprecedented efforts. His objective was to record in scientific detail the tribals’ medical use of plants. Later, his sister, a scholar of the Vedas, revealed to him how the same plants are described in the Vedas. His interest germinated, and soon his research blossomed to include recording how and why India’s flora are found to be sacred. With this dual objective, he served the Botanical Survey of India for nearly three decades and was its director for almost seven years. He initiated and organized broad-based ethnobotanical studies in several parts of the country and coordinated all-India research projects in endangered species and ethnobotany. His work attracted funding from the Ford Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution of the US. Dr.S.K.Jain says: “The extent to which plants in India are used in worship and medicine is unrivalled. The closest match perhaps be the forest and mountain-dwelling tribals of Central and South America. Retired Harvard University professor Richard Evans
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Schulters, who is now over 90 years old, acknowledged this fact. In 1991 he described how India is “A nation blessed with an extremely diverse flora but likewise an extraordinarily large population of tribals who still have an unequalled, rich knowledge of the properties of their ambient vegetations.” In India, this deep knowledge of and faith in plants, animals, and forests has largely contributed to natural conservation of the environment and its biodiversity. There is hardly any sphere of human activity in India where sacred plants do not play a role. Even nonbelievers who usually scorn at “mythology” and “magic-o-religious” beliefs are likely to pray at a particular tree or offer certain specific flowers when it comes to helping their ailing kith and kin. In my book, Directory of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany (1991, Deep Publication, New Delhi), I have enumerated some 2,500 species and 15,000 folk uses of plants in India. But there is much more knowledge yet to be codified.” Apart from individual plants, some whole forest patches are considered hallowed. These sacred groves are known locally as vanrai, and there are hundreds of large and small vanrai in India. A study has revealed the presence of several hundred and groves, in the state of Maharashtra alone. (From ‘Hinduism Today’)
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SPIRITUALITY AND SERVICE
Dr.K.Subrahmanyam pirituality is the soul and invincible potentiality of Indian view and way of life. It is at the core of all activity and the very bedrock of Bharat. Depending upon the requirements of the time and situation, it has its mighty manifestation as Dharma, which is both sanathana and yuga. Sanathana dharma is the propeller of spirituality. Yuga dharma is the rudder to render it responsive to social and individual needs of the age. Sun’s light is colourless, straight and bright. But it becomes colourful and curved as the rainbow of seven hues when refracted. The core spirituality manifests as service activity of diverse dimensions and intensity when refracted and reflected by the prism of societal needs of the age. Individually it is Vyashtidharma as the Ashrama dharma wherein the unfoldment of spirituality is but selfpreparation through the unselfish service as a celibate, householder, recluse and renouncer placing one’s all at the disposal of others. Collectively it is Samashti dharma as the Varnadharma wherein the manifesting evolution is through the unselfish division of labour or the service activity as physical, financial, administrative and intellectual—all vibrant with the spiritual undercurrent. Dharma, thus is spirituality both unmanifest and manifest, at the individual and social levels for the realization of Self through the unselfish service of all. All the organizations and institutions in India thus have the spiritual undercurrent of selfpreparation for self-realization and the social service activity in the required areas of societal needs. No area of public welfare has
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ever been neglected. Enough research preceded every developmental activity. And the persons who engaged themselves in the research and development were called rishis in ancient times. Vasishta is a rishi of spiritual science. Patanjali is of yogic science. Dhanvantari is of medical science. Bharata rishi is of music and dance. Sex too has been thoroughly studied and its art and science are provided by rishi Vatsayayana in Kama sastra. In every field of study and in every walk of life, we find stalwart researchers and benefactors, evolving to the peaks of spiritual perfection while simultaneously elevating, by their loving guidance, the society around them through a harmonious advancement of action, emotion and intellect for everybody’s realization of SELF. Thus every welfare activity in India has ever been spiritually oriented. It is for all, all time and for realizing the highest bliss. There is no patch work. Nor is it lop-sided or transient to fulfill the day’s needs. In the ancient India of glorious spirituality and self-ennobling zeal, there was not much of necessity to be equipped with patriotic fervour. Self-respect and self-rule are but inseparable facets of spirituality. When they were at stake, the attention of the rishis was drawn to the pressing need of independence from the foreign yoke. Therefore we find a host of spirituality. When they were at stake, the attention of the rishis was drawn to the pressing need of independence from the foreign yoke. Therefore we find a host of spiritual stalwarts resorting to nationalism as the need of the hour to help evolove smoothly in spirituality. Along with the
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innate spiritual splendour, nationalist dynamism became vibrantly visible in all welfare activities of the self and society. Patriotism has gradually been very closely identified with the core spirituality and the allied service activity. Swami Vivekananda thus has become the pioneer in the spiritually oriented nationalist activities of social welfare. Taking the cue from him we find a host of leaders establishing institutions or organizations for the spiritual unfoldment through service activities of nationalism. In a way, spirituality and nationalism have been the twin ideals of all. Bala Gangadhara Tilak, Gopalakrishna Gokhale and Mahatma Gandhi are basically of spiritual sublimity. They have directed the flood of spirituality to flow through the canals of patriotism to irrigate every field of service activity. Religion too has been made patriotic. Every thought, word and deed was for them charged with patriotic fervour. Subhash Chandra Bose was so inspired by Swami Vivekananda’s message that he was ready and spontaneous to declare: “Had he (Vivekananda) been alive, I would have been at his feet.” Sri Aurobindo who was basically a yogi of spiritual science was inspired by Vivekananda to be a patriotic yogi. Rabindranath Tagore of poetic exuberance
and educative zeal turned out to be a person of patriotic fervour. His creative genius in art and education has not only been spiritual but nationalistic as well. His Gitanajali and Santiniketan are fragrant, vibrant and bright with the flood of nationalism, whose fountain-head is in spirituality. Foreigners like Dr.Annie Besant, Sister Nivedita and the Mother of Pondicherry were so impressed with the spiritual luminosity of Bharat that they became a part and parcel of Indian soil and established institutions for nationalistic purposes. Indian Nationalism is in tune with the spiritual undercurrent. Patriotism, if it is separated from the spiritual foundation, will be lifeless and will fall like a castle built with playing cards. Nationalism derives its life force from spirituality. For any activity in India spirituality is the saproot. And spirituality when made visible or tangible is but unselfish service activity. Self-realization is made easy and possible through service activity. Swamiji therefore has established in his master’s name “Sri Ramakrishna Math and Mission”. Math is for self-realization and Mission is for service. Self realization is the goal of life. Service is the means of Atmano mokshartham, Jagat hitayacha…
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THE NATION OWES SO MUCH TO THEM
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he sections III & IV on Brilliant individuals and Shining Institutions could have included many more great names. Mother India continues to bring forth great children and create great institutions. Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel, Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Atal Behari Vajpayee, Narasimha Rao, Jaya Prakash Narayan, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Kamaraj and a host of political-luminaries, have served the Nation in their chosen field. B.C.Roy, Dr.Sethi, Dr.K.M.Cherian, Dr.Pratap Reddy, Dr.A.S.Paintal, Dr.G.Venkataswamy and other doctors have served India in the medical fields along with great Ayurveda Centres like Arya Vaidya Shala and Vaidya Madom. Great Siddha Vaidyas and Yoga therapists have helped India serve humanity. Great educationists, great scientists, great sportsmen have made India proud.
Agricultural and Dairy Scientists, great artists who took India’s cultural message across the world have served the Indian cause so well. Organizations such as R.S.S, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Gita Press, Gorakhpur and The Ramakrishna Math have shown to the world, that the organizational base, the needed strength and consolidation of the forces of emerging India could be provided from within. Saints like Swami Vivekananda, Sri Aurobindo, Vinoba, and many others have guided India during her critical times and have predicted great future and a great role for India in guiding human destiny. The section I & II of the book chooses to high-light only a small section of such great people and great institutions.
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RELIGIOUS GURUS Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
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aharishi Mahesh Yogi, founder of Transcendental Meditation (TM), is perhaps the most suc-cessful of all the gurus who have taken Hindu philosophy to the West. By 1994 there were over 1,200 TM centres in 108 countries around the world, employing more than 30,000 trained teach-ers. He has established two universities: the Maha-rishi European Research University in Switzerland and the Maharishi Inter-national University in Iowa, USA. The Maharishi was born Mahesh Varma in 1917. He studied with the guru Swami Brahmananda who, he claims, taught him the yogic technique that he later developed into TM. He founded the Spiritual Regeneration movement in 1957, and in 1959 set off for the United States where his success owed much to the secular, psychologi-cal nature of his doctrine, in contrast to the spiritual emphasis of other gurus. Nearly fifty years of constant teaching activity around the world have made His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi widely known and revered. He is the latest significant teacher in the long history of the Vedic tradition. Having received his university degree in physics before studying with the most illustrious recent master of the Vedic tradition (His Divinity Brahmanda Saraswati), Maharishi combines expertise from both modern science and ancient wisdom. He has thus been uniquely qualified to bring about a synthesis of objective,
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materialist science with the subjective Vedic science of consciousness. For his contributions to this profound body of knowledge (in more than 20 books and 14,000 hours of videotaped lectures), Maharishi is widely recognized as the world’s foremost Vedic scholar, as well as its leading scientist of consciousness. It was due to Maharishi’s constant inspiration to researchers, and his clear predictions about measurable results, that research on his Transcendental Meditation technique first made meditation, and Transcendental Consciousness, scientific realities. After the appearance of more than 600 studies, Maharishi’s success in establishing the benefits of meditation for the individual can be judged, in part, by nearly $20 million in federal research grants awarded to scientists at Maharishi University of Management (Fairfield, Iowa) for in-depth studies on the TM technique. Maharishi now oversees a teaching organization established in nearly 100 countries around the world. After long centuries of confusion, Maharishi has brought to light the Vedic truth that meditation is not based on effort and concentration, but rather takes place spontaneously and naturally once the mind is given the correct start. It is this transformation in understanding, embodied in his Transcendental Meditation technique, which has opened the benefits of meditation to people of all cultures and walks of life. For his ability to teach the transcending
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process, and make available the experience of the unified field (in Transcendental Consciousness) to people of all ages, religions, and walks of life, he is recognized worldwide as the most effective teacher of enlightenment in many generations. For centuries into the past, only a few people were deemed worthy of meditation, and society as a whole was left to fend for itself, but Maharishi’s stated goals are to bring enlightenment to every individual on Earth, and to establish a state of permanent peace in the world.
As this site is created, terrorism and war endanger the world. Maharishi, however, has revived the knowledge of peace creation— the use of large groups of peace-creating experts to radiate a measurable influence of harmony and coherence into society. He is determined not to wait for governments to act, but to assemble and maintain large peace-creating groups as quickly as possible. At this dangerous time in world history, all people who love peace are invited to participate—to take part in this historic undertaking to bring an end to the age-old legacy of violence and war, and to create a permanent state of peace on Earth. (Please see What can I do?) (From the Web Site)
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WHO ARE THE BRAHMAKUMARIS ??
Introduction rajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya is, in many ways, a Vishwa Vidyalaya with a difference. Whereas most other universities enable a person to attain academic education, this Vishwa Vidyalaya enables him to be the master of his own thoughts, desires, emotions and sense-organs and to be a doctor, so to say, of the philosophy- of - life so that he can lead a healthy and happy life. The thrust of knowledge imparted in this Vishwa Vidyalaya, is, first, to make man, in reality, a man and to enable him to have practical wisdom and to learn lessons for constant peace and happiness and for excellence in life.
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focus is the development of human potential. They aim at bringing harmony in human relations and changing the attitudes and outlook of man so that there is the spirit of brotherhood, love and co-operation.They teach theory and practice of Rajyoga Meditation so that the mind becomes free from tension, bias, prejudices, hypocrisy, jealousy, hatred, greed, ego and such other negative tendencies that cause conflict in the society and degrade the person himself. It gives special guidance for the effort of inculcating moral values and divine virtues in the self and enables a person to experience deep peace and bliss through Meditation and Spiritual Wisdom.
The emphasis is on promoting the qualities Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa of humanism, tolerance and never-ending Vidyalaya, (Brahma Kumaris in short) is a enthusiasm for spreading the knowledge of unique Vishwa Vidyalaya (university) and a truth in every sphere of life. well known spiritual value based educational As an international institution, the Brahma institution. Through it’s teachings, the Kumaris offers people of all backgrounds an institution has gained global acceptance and opportunity to learn meditation and deepen unique international recognition. The their understanding of universal principles institution believes in the parenthood of God and innate values through a variety of and the brotherhood of man and is open to educational programmes, courses and the people of the entire globe irrespective learning resources. As a worldwide family of their caste, creed, age and social, of individuals from all walks of life, the economic or political status. institution provides a caring, co-operative Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya and the two and supportive environment, which other institutions created by it, namely Raj encourages individuals to bring out the best Yoga Education and Research Foundation in themselves. As a global organization, the and Brahma Kumaris Academy for a Better institution has created opportunities for World are dedicated to the goal of people across the world to participate in a establishing a Value-based society. The main variety of initiatives aimed at creating a
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better world where people live in peace and it remains to this day. Prajapita Brahma left harmony. his mortal coil in 1969. Brahma Kumaris is an institution with a difference. It is run mostly by women with a spirit of dedication, devotion, renunciation and sacrifice for the welfare of the society as a whole, without any distinction on the basis of race, religion, nationality, caste or creed and without charging any fees. It is supported by voluntary contributions of its students. The institution was established by the incorporeal God Father through the human medium of Prajapita Brahma. He surrendered his mind, body and wealth and dedicated the remaining 33 years of his life to this task. In 1951 the Institution’s world headquarters moved to Mt Abu in Rajasthan, India, where Dadi Prakashmaniji is the present Adm Head and Janaki Dadiji is the additional adm head. The Institution has created opportunities for people in 129 countries to participate in a variety of initiatives aimed at creating a better world where people live in peace and harmony. Fundamentals of spiritual teachings Fundamental Spiritual Teachings The Instituition has now grown into a gigantic tree with more than 6000 branches, spread over India and more than 80 other countries. About 7,00,000 persons daily study moral and spiritual values and practice meditation at these centres. Some of the teachings imparted here are about God, inculcation of divine qualities in human beings, preparing for a golden age, re-establishing Satya Yuga. (From the Web Site)
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ART OF LIVING
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stablished in 1982, The Art of Living Foundation is an educational and humanitarian foundation, registered in the US as a tax-exempt and nonprofit organization. It is not a religious organization, but as one adhering to the basic spiritual principles of love, kindness and unconditional service to the world. It carries out numerous charitable, educational and humanitarian programs throughout the world on the basis of donations. All the activities of the foundation are based on the saying of its founder teacher Sri Sri Ravishankar—”a truly religious person will be secular in nature. Secular means one who thinks all human beings are his or her own.” The Art of Living works in special consultative status with the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the UN, and as such it has accredited representatives at the UN in New York, Geneva and Vienna. It also works in formal consultation with the World Health Organization (WHO). 1.DOLLAR-A-DAY PROGRAM From 1985, the Art of Living started supporting the Dollar-a-Day service program, for rural children of India, which provides them with the basic amenities of life and much more. This innovative activity is pursued under Care for Children program where children learn, other than the traditional courses, the fine art of living, the skill of making friends, handling negative emotions and value of service to the fellow beings. The children are taught to take the studies as an enjoyable challenge, pick up the habit of hygienic living and most
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importantly, develop the skill of community living, a sense of belonging to each one of it. 2.THE 5H PROGRAM One of its many commendable programs is the 5H Program, which focuses on—Home, Health, Hygiene, Harmony in Diversity and Human Values. It aims at bringing about a social transformation so that the complete potential of each individual is expressed. Sri Sri Ravishankar is the inspiration behind the program. 3.ART EXCEL The Art Excel program is perhaps the most popular program, which offers courses for all round development of children and youth (8 to 21 years old). Through simple playway techniques and awareness games the participants learn how to develop their personal potential and manage stress in their life. This highly admired program is currently offered in major Indian cities like Mumbai, Delhi and Calcutta, and in countries like Canada and the USA. The Art of Living program is working closely with UNICEF to make this program available to the world community at large. 4.PRISON SMART Prison SMART is another laudable program providing training on stress management and rehabilitation for juvenile and adult prisoners, prisoners on parole and probation, victims of crime, at-risk youths, and even the law enforcement officers and probation staff. The Prison SMART Foundation Inc. that carries out these services was established in
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effortless meditative technique. It admits that all its self-development courses and programs are a form of yoga, which is nothing but a “union with the Self.” The sudarshan kriya and other related techniques, propounded by the Foundation, are all based on the ancient yogic science of breathing, which explores the connection between 5.INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION mind, body, the emotions and rhythms of breath. Over a million people in more than FOR HUMAN VALUES 100 countries have taken Art of Living courses. 6.YOUTH TRAINING PROGRAM The Youth Training Program (YTP) in India focuses on the education of the rural The Foundation has Vyakti Vikas Kendras youth and encourages them to work for the all over India, to teach people how to revive betterment of their community. Arranging love among themselves, improve their medical camps, distributing clothes to the interpersonal interactions and to reach out poor, creating sanitation facilities and set- to the world in a positive manner. Corporate courses are offered to executives and all, to ting up local cooperative groups. Working on the principles of love and enhance their efficiency and team spirit. essential human connectedness as delineated by their founder member, Sri Sri Above all, the Foundation endeavors to drive Ravishankar, the Art of Living tries to follow home Sri Sri Ravishankar’s message that— a holistic way of living coupled with even though practices remain different, all humanitarian values. It teaches a wide great religious traditions share the same variety of courses including a meditation common goals and values, and mankind course called sahaja samadhi, a natural and would do well to cut across these barriers and anomalies to connect with each other through love. 1992. This unique foundation is the first of its kind in the USA and now has gained national recognition to offer services in the prisons and juvenile halls across the country. The foundation provides vision, resources and a committed corps of talented volunteers. (From the Web Site)
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GAYATRI PARIWAR
Mission & Vision Aims and Objective In words of Gurusatta Their Assurance · Awaken individual’s inner spiritual force by sound body and clear mind · Create addiction free society· Promote Vegetarianism · Work towards establishing a well balanced, pollution free ecosystem · Harmony, friendship, brotherhood, peace and prosperity of the whole universe · Promote Scientific Spirituality · Inculcate family and cultural values in younger generation via Multimedia and other state-of the art technology · Women awareness Establishments: 1.Akhand Jyoti Sansthan, Mathura: Akhand Jyoti magazine publication center, and a residence of Poojya Gurudev Pt. Shriram Sharma Acharya from 1941 to 19712. 2. Gayatri Tapobhumi, Mathura: Publication and mass training through religious establishments 3. Janmabhumi Anvalkheda: The birthplace of Poojya Gurudev, Girl’s Inter and Degree college, a Mata Bhagwati Devi Hospital 4.Gayatri Teerth Shantikunj, Brahmavarchas Shodh Sansthan & Dev Sanskriti University, Hardwar: A Research Center dedicated to Inter communion of Science and Spirituality 5.Gayatri Shaktipith: Centers for mass propagation of Gurudev’s teachings (Approximately 4000 centers worldwide) 6. Pragya Mandal, Mahila Mandal: About 24000 centers spread all over India. They
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give basic lessons of self-sufficiency through cottage industry training Mission Highlights: o Diksha: More than 50 million people have taken Diksha (initiated) of Gayatri Mantra o Samaydan: Around 1 million workers devote three months to one year time as and when needed for noble cause o Herbal healing: An herbal system has been established as a recognized method of healing. The institute conducts distinctive research on more than 500 plants o Personal development: More than 15 million people have left their bad habits and addictions, families have been reunited and imbibed with spiritual disciplines o Eco-friendly rural industrialization: This has been promoted all over the Indian subcontinent and such objectives are advocated all around the world o Lessons of national integrity: Accepting whole ecosystem and mother earth as our deity, have been widely accepted by millions of Gayatri Pariwar disciples o Awakening of collective consciousness: Through Yug sandhi mahapurashcharan (recitation of specific number of Gayatri Mantra with meditation in early morning and evening hours till critical transition phase is over). It has been one of the gigantic endeavors of this Century in which more than 250 million people will be participating this year o Women emancipation: : The mission carries out activities and programs outlining the significant role that, women of modern world have to play by conducting rituals and
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reciting Gayatri Mantra. This is one of the unique achievements of this organization o Grand Ashwamedha yagnas: To this date, total of 27 such grand scale Ashwamedha yagyas have been performed. The Purnahuti in Anwalkheda have been performed successfully with participation of about 2.5 to 3 million people or more o Gurudev’s Writings: Pujya Gurudev has handwritten an enormous amount of materials on various subjects. This amounts to more than 100,000 pairs of encyclopedia Britannica size books. Our Manifesto-Solemn Pledge
2. Considering the body as the Temple of God , we will be ever watchful to keep it healthy and full of vitality by adopting the principles of self-control, order and harmony in our lives. 3. With a view to keeping our minds free from the inrush of negative thoughts and emotions, we will adopt a regular programme of study of ennobling and inspiring literature (Svadhyaya) and of keeping the company of Saints (Satsanga).
4. We will vigilantly exercise strict control over our senses, thoughts, emotions and in The foundation of Yug - Nirman movement the spending of our time and resources. of Gayatri Pariwar is the ‘Solemn Pledge’ 5. We will consider ourselves inseparable [Satsankalp] on which rests the emergence parts of the society and will see our good in of all-round peace, happiness and bright the good of all. future. This is our manifesto, declaration on which all the ideologies, planning and 6. We will abide by basic moral code, refrain activities of Gayatri Pariwar are based. These from wrong doing and will discharge our declarations incorporate the formulas for duties as citizens committed to the wellchanging and reforming individual, the family being of the society. and the society. These precepts promote unity & equality and materialize the concept 7. We will earnestly and firmly imbibe in our of ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’. Immense and lives the virtues of Wisdom, Honesty, limitless is our power of determination. Let Responsibility and Courage. us read, understand and digest these concepts [pledge] daily. They motivate us 8. We will constantly and sincerely to concentrate on self-reformation rather endeavour to create an environment of than on giving advice to others. A change in loving kindness, cleanliness, simplicity and every individual is bound to lead to the goodwill. formation of a better society. The incarnation 9. We will prefer failure while adhering to which needed for Yug Parivartan [Change basic moral principles to so-called success of the Era] will initially be in the form of obtained through unfair and foul means. aspiration & determination. The subtle form of this incarnation is this Yug Nirman 10. We will never evaluate a person’s Satsankalpa. greatness by his worldly success, talents and riches but by his righteous conduct and 1.Firmly believing in the Omnipresence of thoughts. God and His Unfailing justice, we pledge to abide by basic Divine principles (Dharma).
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11. We will never do unto others what we 16. We will remain committed to the would not like to be done unto us. principles of national unity and equality of all human beings. In our conduct, we will 12. Members of opposite sexes while not make any discrimination between person interacting with each other will have feelings and person on the basis of caste, creed, of mutual warmth and understanding based colour, religion, region, language or sex. on purity of thoughts and emotions. 17. We firmly believe that each human being 13. We will regularly and religiously is the maker of his own destiny. With this contribute a portion of our time, talents and conviction, we will uplift and transform resources for spreading nobility and ourselves and help others in doing so. We righteousness in the world. believe the world will then automatically 14. We will give precedence to change for the better. discriminating wisdom over blind traditions. 18. Our Motto is: “ Ham Badlenge - Yug 15. We will actively involve ourselves in Badlega” , “ Ham Sudhrenge - Yug bringing together persons of goodwill in Sudhrega” . When we transform ourselves, resisting evil and injustice and in promoting the world will be transformed. When we reform ourselves, the world will be reformed. New Creation. (From the Web Site)
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INDIAN SPIRITUALITY IN THE AGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
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ll over the world, the growth of Science and Technology has had two adverse effects on civilization, though Science & Technology (S&T) have fought against hunger, contained diseases and have helped in the growth of knowledge and communications. The adverse effects are (1) Giving a fractured vision of Reality, S&T have allowed man to destroy his family, community, his tradition, his National identity and break his ties with Nature and the Rest of the creation. (2) S&T have condemned man to a life of materialism, destroying his faith in God and in himself. With exceptions, this is the overall scenario. The West has been fed on the conviction that Religion cannot survive the onslaught of reason in the form of S&T. In India the growth of S&T has been put to proper use. While certainly helping India achieve, material prosperity, better communication, transport and health, for her children, Science also has joined hands with spirituality to help man get a fuller vision of reality. 1. Science has given spirituality better tools of communications and propagation. Shri Morari Bapu can speak to a million people on the Ramayana, thanks to fine public address systems and closed circuit TV. The Gita Press can print millions of copies of the Gita and Vishnu Sahasra Nama. Sri Ramananda Sagar can make crores of viewers see the Ramayana TV show. Swami Dayananda Saraswati says that in the modern era, cassettes and CDs can supplement a living Guru in spiritual teaching.
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2. Scientific tools have helped man understand better the effects of yoga practices on his body, mind and breathing systems. Man can use feedback loops etc. to improve his efficiency in yoga practices. 3. Scientific studies of yoga, expansion of consciousness etc have prodded man to extrapolate the stretch of consciousness and ask “What more?” Science has certainly sharpened and extended man’s spirit of enquiry. 4. Science itself has come to realise its imitations in describing truth and has improved its language, refined its tools and expanded its understanding. It has also become humbler in the bargain. 5. Great Indian men of modern science, like Jagadish Chandra Bose, Raja Ramanna, Dr.Bhagawantam and Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam have helped narrow the gap between the common man’s understanding of science and his notion of religion and spirituality. 6. Studies on consciousness all over the world and in India have shifted Religion and Spirituality from the Realm of mere FAITH to the Realm of experimentation and experience. The lives of Sri Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda, Sri Aurobindo and Sri Ramana, have told us that spirituality is logical, learnable, experimental, experiential and is truly a systematic search for truth. Faith is but one aspect of spirituality. 7. Many spiritual movements employing scientific tools and methods in the service of society have helped in dispelling the doubts in the minds of the common people-doubts about the ‘practical’ use of spirituality. 8. At least a few scientists have taken the stand, ‘Spirituality for its own sake’
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If there is any land on this earth that can lay claim to be the blessed Punya Bhumi,... The land where humanity has attained its highest towards gentleness, towards generosity, towards purity, towards calmness, above all, the land of introspection and of spirituality --it is India. As I look back upon the history of my country, I do not find in the whole world another country which has done quite so much for the improve-ment of the human mind. Therefore I have no words of condemnation for my nation. I tell them, ‘You have done well; only try to do better.’
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Thus spake Swami Vivekananda
“Arise, awake, and stop not till the desired end is reached”. Be not afraid, for all great power, throughout the history of humanity, has been with the people. From out of their ranks have come all the greatest geniuses of the world, and history can only repeat itself. Be not afraid of anything. you will do marvellous work. The moment you fear, you are nobody. It is fear that is the great cause of misery in the world. It is fear that is the greatest of all superstitions. It is fear that is the cause of our woes, and it is fearlessness that brings heaven even in a moment. Therefore, :Arise, awake, and stop not till the goal is reached”.
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SRINIVASA RAMANUJAN
Born: 22 Dec 1887 in Erode, Tamil Nadu state, India Died: 26 April 1920 in Madras, Tamil Nadu state, India K. Srinivasa Rao, The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Madras-600 113.
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rinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920) hailed as an all-time great mathematician, like Euler, Gauss or Jacobi, for his natural genius, has left behind 4000 original theorems, despite his lack of formal education and a short life-span. In his formative years, after having failed in his F.A. (First examination in Arts) class at College, he ran from pillar to post in search of a benefactor. It is during this period, 1903-1914, he kept a record of the final results of his original research work in the form of entries in two large-sized Note Books. These were the ones which he showed to Dewan Bahadur Ramachandra Rao (Collector of Nellore), V. Ramaswamy Iyer (Founder of Indian Mathematical Society), R. Narayana Iyer (Treasurer of IMS and Manager, Madras Port Trust), and to several others to convince them of his abilities as a Mathematician. The orchestrated efforts of his admirers, culminated in the encouragement he received from Prof. G.H. Hardy of Trinity College, Cambridge, whose warm response to the historic letter of Ramanujan which contained about 100 theorems, resulted in inducing the Madras University, to its lasting credit, to rise to the occasion thrice - in offering him the first research scholarship of the University in May 1913 ; then in offering him a scholarship of 250 pounds a year for five years with 100 pounds for passage by ship and for initial outfit to go to England in 1914 ; and finally, by granting Ramanujan 250 pounds a year as an
allowance for 5 years commencing from April 1919 soon after his triumphant return from Cambridge “with a scientific standing and reputation such as no Indian has enjoyed before”. Ramanujan was awarded in 1916 the B.A. Degree by research of the Cambridge University. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in Feb. 1918 being a “Research student in Mathematics Distinguished as a pure mathematician particularly for his investigations in elliptic functions and the theory of numbers” and he was elected to a Trinity College Fellowship, in Oct. 1918 (- a prize fellowship worth 250 pounds a year for six years with no duties or condition, which he was not destined to avail of). The “Collected Papers of Ramanujan” was edited by Profs. G.H.Hardy, P.V. Seshu Aiyar and B.M. Wilson and first published by Cambridge University Press in 1927 (later by Chelsea, 1962 ; and by Narosa, 1987), seven years after his death. His ‘Lost’ Notebook found in the estate of Prof. G.N. Watson in the spring of 1976 by Prof. George Andrews of Pennsylvania State University, and its facsimile edition was brought out by Narosa Publishing House in 1987, on the occasion of Ramanujan’s birth centenary. His bust was commissioned by Professors R. Askey, S. Chandrasekhar, G.E. Andrews, Bruce C. Berndt (‘the gang of four’!) and ‘more than one hundred mathematicians and scientists who contributed money for the bust’ sculpted by Paul Granlund in 1984 and another was commissioned for the Ramanujan
Tata group chairman Ratan Tata has bagged the Telecome Man of the year award by Voice and Data magazine.
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Institute of the University of Madras, by Mr. Masilamani in 1994. His original Note Books have been edited in a series of five volumes by Bruce C. Berndt (“Ramanujan Note Books”, Springer, Parts I to V, 1985 onwards), who devoted his attention to each and every one of the three to four thousand theorems. Robert Kanigel recently wrote a delightfully readable biography entitled : “The Man who knew Infinity : a life of the Genius Ramanujan” (Scribners 1991; Rupa & Co. 1993). Truly, the life of Ramanujan in the words of C.P. Snow: “is an admirable story and one which showers credit on nearly everyone”. During his five year stay in Cambridge, which unfortunately overlapped with the first World War years, he published 21 papers, five of which were in collaboration with Prof. G.H. Hardy and these as well as his earlier publications before he set sail to England are all contained in the “Collected Papers of Srinivasa Ramanujan”, referred earlier. It is important to note that though Ramanujan took his “Note Books” with him he had no time to delve deep into them. The 600 formulae he jotted down on loose sheets of paper during the one year he was in India, after his meritorious stay at Cambridge, are the contents of the ‘Lost’ Note Book found by Andrews in 1976. He was ailing throughout that one year after his return from England
(March 1919 - April 26, 1920). The last and only letter he wrote to Hardy, from India, after his return, in Jan. 1920, four months before his demise, contained no news about his declining health but only information about his latest work : “I discovered very interesting functions recently which I call ‘Mock’ theta-functions. Unlike the ‘False’ theta-functions (studied partially by Prof. Rogers in his interesting paper) they enter into mathematics as beautifully as ordinary theta-functions. I am sending you with this letter some examples ... ”. The following observation of Richard Askey is noteworthy: “Try to imagine the quality of Ramanujan’s mind, one which drove him to work unceasingly while deathly ill, and one great enough to grow deeper while his body became weaker. I stand in awe of his accomplishments; understanding is beyond me. We would admire any mathematician whose life’s work was half of what Ramanujan found in the last year of his life while he was dying”. As for his place in the world of Mathematics, we quote Bruce C Berndt: “Paul Erdos has passed on to us Hardy’s personal ratings of mathematicians. Suppose that we rate mathematicians on the basis of pure talent on a scale from 0 to 100, Hardy gave himself a score of 25, Littlewood 30, Hilbert 80 and Ramanujan 100”. G.H.Hardy, in 1923, edited
Chairman and chief mentor of Infosys Technologies. N.R.Narayanamurthy, has become the first Indian to win the Ernst & Young World entrepreneur of the year award.
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Chapter XII of Ramanujan’s second Notebook on Hypergeometric series which contained 47 main theorems, many of them followed by a number of corollaries and particular cases. This work had taken him so many weeks that he felt that if he were to edit the entire Notebooks “it will take the whole of my lifetime. I cannot do my own work. This would not be proper.” He urged Indian authorities and G.N.Watson and B.M. Wilson to edit the Notebooks. Watson and Wilson divided the task of editing the Notebooks - Chapters 2 to 13 were to be edited by Wilson and Chapters 14 to 21 by Watson. Unfortunately, the premature death of Wilson, in 1935, at the age of 38, aborted this effort. In 1957, with monetary assistance from Sir Dadabai Naoroji Trust, at the instance of Professors Homi J Bhabha and K. Chandrasekaran, the Tata institute of Fundamental Research published a facsimile edition of the Notebooks of Ramanujan in two volumes, with just an introductory para about them. The formidable task of truly editing the Notebooks was taken up in right earnest by Professor Bruce C. Berndt of the University of Illinois, in May 1977 and his dedicated efforts for nearly two decades has resulted in the Ramanujan’s Notebooks published by Springer-Verlag in five Parts, the first of which appeared in 1985. The three
original Ramanujan Notebooks are with the Library of the University of Madras, some of the correspondence, papers/letters on or about Ramanujan are with the National Archives at New Delhi and the Tamil Nadu Archives, and a large number of his letters and connected papers/correspondence and notes by Hardy, Watson, Wilson are with the Wren Library of Trinity College, Cambridge. “Ramanujan : Letters and Commentary”, by Bruce C. Berndt and Robert A. Rankin (published jointly by the American Mathematical Society and London Math. Society, 1995) is a recent publication. The Ramanujan Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics of the University of Madras is situated at a short distance from the famed Marina Beach and is close to the Administrative Buildings of the University and its Library. The bust of Ramanujan made by Mr. Masilamani is housed in the Ramanujan Institute. In 1992, the Ramanujan Museum was started in the Avvai Kalai Kazhagam in Royapuram. Mrs. Janakiammal Ramanujan, the widow of Ramanujan, lived for several decades in Triplicane, close to the University’s Marina Campus and died on April 13, 1994. A bust of Ramanujan, sculpted by Paul Granlund was presented to her and it is now with her adopted son Mr. W. Narayanan, living in Triplicane. (From the Web Site)
The greatest hockey player of all times, Dhyan Chand was a magician with a hockey stick. His was the Golden Age of Indian Hockey. In 1928, he won India’s first gold medal in the Amsterdam Olympics, the first of three successive gold medals in hockey that it would win at the Olympics. At the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics, India beat the US 24-1, the highest number of goals ever scored in an international match. India defeated Germany in the 1936 Olympics and Hitler hosted a special dinner of which Dhyan Chand was offered the post of colonel in the German army if he emigrated. He refused. After independence, he was promoted to the rank of major and was honoured with a Padma Bhushan. Indian hockey has declined since then, but Dhyan Chand will remain a legend of Indian sports for times to come.
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RAMANUJAN’S GROWING INFLUENCE A TRIBUTE
Krishnaswami Alladi Srinivasa Ramanujan’s influence seems only to increase and not diminish with time, in the early part of the twentieth century. Ramanujan was perceived as a mathematical phenomenon emerging G.H. Hardy and others at Cambridge University. Although they admired Ramanujan for his genius, Hardy and his contemporaries could not measure the full significance of Ramanujan’s discoveries and the eventual impact this would have. Over the years, the magnitude and importance of Ramanujan’s mathematics has been realized, and its impact in various branches of mathematics such as Number Theory, Combinatories, Analysis, Modular Forms, Basic Hyper geometric Series, and Special Functions, is deep and everlasting. Indeed, Ramanujan’s identities have made their presence in other subjects like physics and computer science. Hardy nurtured Ramanujan, and lectured often on Ramanujan’s work. Hardy’s Twelve Lectures on Ramanujan’s is a model of the mathematical exposition. These lectures, along with Ramanujan’s Collected Papers, served as the principal source of inspiration and reference for many years for those who desired to understand the remarkable work of the Indian genius. In the last few decades, there have been several significant publications expanding on Ramanujan’s work, and therefore have impacted a much wider community of research mathematicians. We owe a special debt of gratitude to the great Trinity of the World of Ramanujan—(1) to George Andrews for explaining the significance of many of Ramanujan’s identities, especially in the context of partitions, and for discovering Ramanujan’s “Lost Notebook” and helping us understand hundred’s of deep identities contained therein including those on mock theta functions, (ii) to Bruce Berndt for editing Ramanujan’s Notebooks in Five Volumes, and (iii) to Richard Askey for providing the broad picture of how Ramanujan’s work is in the world of Special Functions. Thus the present-day researcher can easily enter the mansion of Ramanujan’s theorems and make connections with current research. The Ramanujan Centennial, celebrated in 1987, was an occasion when mathematicians around the world gathered to pay homage to the Indian genius. The centennial celebrations showed clearly how alive Ramanujan is in current mathematical research, and how much an inspiration he was to celebrated mathematicians like Atle Selberg. While attending the centennial, I was inspired to create something which would simultaneously be a tribute to Ramanujan and would connect Ramanujan to current research developments continuously. Thus I got the idea to launch The Ramanujan Journal – an international journal dedicated to all areas of mathematics influenced by Ramanujan. This
Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian cosmonaut to go into space, aboard the Suyuz T-11, for a rendezvous with Salyut-7 in 1984.
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desire of mine became a reality in 1997 after this idea received support from the international community of experts, some of whom serve on the Editorial Board with me. In the last decade, Ramanujan has made an impact beyond mathematics, on society in general. Of course, throughout India, Ramanujan’s remarkable story is wellknown, and Ramanujan, a hero to every eager Indian student of mathematics. But with the publication of Robert Kanigel’s book. The man who knew infinity, Ramanujan’s story reached out to society around the world, and the importance of this impact cannot be underestimated. Subsequently, Bruce Berndt and Robert Rankin have published two wonderful books. The first one called Ramanujan – letters and Commentary collects various letters written to, from, and about Ramanujan, and makes detailed commentaries on the letters. For instance, if a letter contains a mathematical statement, there is an explanation of the mathematics with appropriate references. If there is a statement about Ramanujan being elected Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS), then there is a discussion about the procedures and practices for such an election. The second book called Ramanujan—Essays and Surveys is a collection of excellent, articles about certain individuals who played a major role in Ramanujan’s life. Thus both books will appeal not only to mathematicians, but to students and lay persons as well.
In what other ways will we see Ramanujan influence us in the future? Courses on Ramanujan’s work are regularly ordered at various universities where there are groups of experts working on Ramanujan’s manuscripts. In writing the Editorial for the rest issue of The Ramanujan Journal, I said, “The very mention of Ramanujan’s name reminds us of the thrill of mathematical discovery.” Now with the appearance of these books that are now having an impact on society in general, it may not be an exaggeration to predict, that in the future, Ramanujan will be a topic or subject that undergraduate mathematics students worldwide may be studying regularly. The latest big event in the world of Ramanujan is the recent acquisition of Ramanujan’s home in Kumbakonam by SASTRA University. This private university that was founded recently has grown by leaps and bounds. We owe special thanks to prof.R.Sethuraman, Vice-Chancellor of SASTRA University, and his family, for taking steps to ensure that Ramanujan’s home will be properly maintained. Since a university has purchased Ramanujan’s home, we now have the active involvement by administrators, academicians, and students, in the preservation of Ramanujan’s legacy for posterity. (The author is with the Department of Mathematics, University of Florida, and Gainesville) (The Hindu)
For long a colony of the British, the Indian initiative in science could be said to be restricted for many years. Ironically, C.V.Raman could win the Nobel and Bose could come close to it only during the British rule. India has been made self-reliant in manufacturing weapons and missiles, original research has been conspicuous by its absence. One name stands who has made a contribution that has changed history— that of M.S.Swaminathan, whose legacy extends much beyond India.
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RAMANUJAN REVOLUTIONISED MATHEMATICS
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he world is passing through one of the most exciting times with respect to mathematics, George Andrews, Evan Hugh, Mathematics Professor, and Pennsylvania State University, United States, said at Kumbakonam today (22/12/2003).
revolution the world witnessed was nothing but a mathematics revolution and no branch of science could exist without mathematics. Mathematics was a “world language”.
Describing S r i n i v a s a Ramanujan as the g r e a t e s t mathematician of Delivering a lecture in the 21st century, he commemoration of said Ramanujan the 117 th birth revolutionized the anniversary of the subject. Regarding mathematician, use of many tools Srinivasa Ramanujan such as calculators at the Srinivasa Ramanujan centre of Shanmugha Arts and computers in education, Mr.Andrews Science Technology and Research Academy said, “We have to keep machines under (SASTRA), Dr.Andrews said the computer control in education”.(The Hindu).
The list of records achieved by Sunil Gavaskar is long; He broke Donald Bradman’s record of highest number of Test centuries in 1984 and became the first batsman to score more than 10,000 runs in Tests. He was Wisden’s Cricketer of the Year in 1980. He made a great impact on sports not only in his country, but world-wide. He will also be known for helping players and was instrumental in getting for them a better financial deal from the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI). It was Gavaskar who got huge endorsement from companies for players, giving them a better financial security than was earlier available to them. After retirement he is still associated with the game as commentator and as an advisor to young players. Indian cricket owes much of its present popularity to Gavaskar. Milkha Singh was a sporting hero for an entire generation. He won two golds at the Tokyo Asiad in 1958 and came to be known as the ‘Flying Sikh’. However, despite breaking the world record, he could finish fourth in the 400m final at the Rome Olympics in 1960. He stands out for his individual effort and was honoured with the Padma Shri in 1959.
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FIRST ASIAN TO ENTER ‘HALL OF FAME’
M.R.Aravindan
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or eminent persons, honours matter little at one stage of their professional career, as serving the society becomes more important. Dedicated to their service, these men continue to make great contributions to the field they are associated with. However, the society takes pride in honouring the noble services of such stalwarts. D r. G. Ve n k a t a s w a m y , Founder-Chairman, Aravind Eye Hospitals, is a good example. He is inducted into the ‘Ophthalmology Hall of Fame,’ created by the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS), in recognition of his services and contributions to modern ophthalmology. The ‘Ophthalmology Hall of Fame’ was created by the ASCRS in 1999 to honour experts in the field of ophthalmology. In the past six years, 33 outstanding ophthalmologists have been accorded this unique honour by means of global nominations. Another uniqueness of the achievement by Dr.Venkataswamy is that he is the first Indian and Asian to enter this ‘hall of fame.’ Dr.Venkataswamy has so far performed 100,000 successful eye surgeries. He has developed and pioneered the concept of eye
camp and safe, assembly-line techniques. It becomes a model for blindness prevention and treatment programmes worldwide. The induction ceremony was held during a special convention of the ASCRS at San Diego, US, on May 1 this year. Dr.Venkataswamy was conferred with an award, which was presented by Dr.Arvind, Administrator, Aravind Eye Hospitals, as requested by the conveners of the convention. A special brochure released on the occasion said, “The American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery is proud to induct into the Ophthalmology Hall of Fame, three individuals whose contributions to the field have paved the way for the modern ophthalmology, which is being practiced now. These pioneers laid the foundation for the modern practice of ophthalmology by advancing research in ophthalmic biochemistry, developing knowledge and treatment of glaucoma, training thousands of ophthalmologists throughout the world, building institutions that will continue an ophthalmic research for years to come, and creating programmes that could extend the benefit of eye surgery to the people in the underdeveloped nations.” (The Hindu)
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A HOLISTIC VIEW OF EYE CARE N. VENKATESH PRAJNA
Shastry.V. Mallady “About 15 percent of the ophthalmologists in the country would have had some sort of training from us. Since 1996, we have been one of the top post-graduate centres in the country”. the test. “We have shattered the myth among the post-graduates that the FRCS is a tough examination, and that only London could be the centre fro it. For a place like Madurai to be recognized as the only centre outside London is a national achievement,” says N.Venkatesh Prajna, Chief of Medical Education, Aravind Eye Hospital. Coming from a family of distinguished ophalmologists, Dr.Prajna is a cornea expert who keeps his eyes wide open to the global demands, and a local who says he will do anything for Madurai. And his efforts made the city the FRCS exam centre. He recalls the journey of excellence. The efforts made by him to realize his dream of making Madurai an FRCS centre are painstaking. The first was to get international examinations conducted in the city. In the last five years, around 60 post-graduates of the Aravind Eye Hospital have passed the FRCS examination without leaving the country.
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he four letters of the English alphabet, which a doctor covets to adore his nameplate, are F R C S (the Fellow of Royal College of Surgeons)—a qualification that comes from London. The rest of the world travels to the United Kingdom for the test to get this distinction. However, this royal tag can be obtained from the Temple City without having to go to England. The sheer determination of the Aravind Eye Hospital has made it possible for Madurai to get this rare honour. You can get the FRCS right from this place, and the examiners visit the city to conduct
After Milkha singh, Indian athletics has been synonymous with P.T.Usha’s name. Hers is a story of extraordinary courage and motivation. She has been on the sporting scene at an age when others think of retiring—she was 34 when she took part in the Bangkok Asiad in 1998. She dominated athletics during 1983-89 and won numerous medals in Asian Track and Field Championships and at Asiads in New Delhi and Seoul. However, she missed the bronze medal in the 400 m hurdles at the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles. She was back in 1997, winning a national championship and in 1998 won two bronze medals in the Fukuoka ATF meet. A better story of personal courage and motivation would be hard to find.
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A high pass percentage, says Dr.Prajna, has prompted the Royal College to shift its examination centre to Madurai, the only centre in the world outside London. “Earlier, it was considered a big thing, but it is a myth now. Madurai has earned a great distinction,” says this 37-year old doctor, who has a long agenda for the hospital.
from us,” he says with satisfaction. “Since 1996, we have been one of the top postgraduate centres in the country”. The examiners from the United Kingdom oversee the Royal College of Ophthalmology examinations.
Dr.Prajna looks at the eye care system with a holistic view. “When Coke can reach In the background of the whole effort are remote areas and establish its brand, can’t the belief that Indian doctors the healthcare providers go to need not feel inferior and an the rural people,” he asks. The effort to erase the feeling that hospital handles one million the FRCS is not conquerable. outpatients every year, and That ‘complex’ mentality has accounts for five per cent of the been removed now, he says eye surgeries in the country with proudly. The cornea only 0.3 per cent of the consultant, an alumnus of the manpower. Madurai Medical College and the TVS Lakshmi “We want to be like the Indian Matriculation Higher Secondary School, sees Institutes of Technology and the Indian the Aravind Eye Hospital as a brand and a Institutes of Management in eye care, and medical institution that blends sophistication so the aim is to invest in quality training.” with simplicity, “Sophistication in learning and simplicity in practice,” he says, is the He sees the possibility of “health motto. outsourcing” too, as the patients abroad wait for months. So, Madurai should not miss the With the aim of training as many doctors as trend, “Aim, dream and ambition guide the possible to the highest possible standards in hospital,” he says, while expressing delight ophthalmology. Dr.Prajna says the hospital that the President, A.P.J.Abdul Kalam, has has introduced the trainer’s concept. “About mentioned about the hospital in his book, 15 per cent of the ophthalmologists in the ‘Ignited Minds’.And, now Dr.Prajna is country would have had some sort of training igniting the Madurai minds. (The Hindu) Jagdish Chandra Bose worked on radio waves and in 1899 published a paper announcing the invention of the Coherer, an early form of a radio receiver. Marconi’s wireless was based on the Coherer but though Marconi won the Nobel Prize, Bose’s contribution was not recognised. Despite this, he remained an inspiration for Indian scientists during the first half of the century. Through his work, he showed that Indian scientists could be as good as any in the world despite limitations of materials and resources. He founded the Bose Research Institute in 1915.
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A MISSION THAT CARRIES WEIGHT “
here are many more avenues wherein defence technology can be used for a social cause,” says the President, A.P.J.Abdul Kalam. His passion for using the missile technology to construct artificial limbs propelled the authorities concerned to use light-weight carbon material designed for Agni missile to make calipers. The composite material reduces the weight of calipers from the conventional four kg to just 400 gm.
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high-density polyethylene material will be heated to reach 206 degree to 230 degree Celsius. The artificial limb is made inserting the mould into the molten material. After making the limb, it is fitted with the rubberized foot imported from Jaipur. The limbs and foot come in black and skin colour,” R.Sankara Subbu, Orthotic and Proshetic technician, says.
The van visited several places based on requests from people of particular place. “We make two limbs a day. We visit places on requests from amputees. In keeping with this mission of This time we have come down the President, the Rotary Club to Madurai and made 23 of Coimbatore Mid-Town, in artificial limbs, which were association with the Rotary distributed by the Rotary Club Club of Madurai, introduced the Rotary’s Artificial Limb Centre on of Madurai,” says Mr.Sankara Subbu. Wheels, a mobile artificial limb manufacturing unit, in Madurai, and So far more than 1000 persons have provided artificial limbs to the deserving benefited from the programme. The mobile unit visited the Thiruvananthapuram Medical persons free of cost. College and provided artificial limbs to The project identified amputees, who lost patients who lost their limbs owing to cancer. their limbs in accidents, occupational hazards The unit has also visited Neeleswaram, or because of diabetes, etc., in Tamil Nadu Parur, Kodunkalur, Mulenthuruthi and Pulpalli. and Kerala. Various campsites were identified and mobile workshop unit was also stationed at the camp. The unit had the entire required infrastructure to fabricate required size and type of walking and (limbs, boots, etc.)“We take measurements of the handicapped people, then we cast the mould using Plaster of Paris. The weightless and unbreakable
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In Tamil Nadu, the unit has already visited Sathyamangalam, Udhagamandalam, Dharmapuri, Namakkal, Salem, Udumalaipettai, Palani and Madurai.“We plan to visit Andaman and Nicobar Islands next month and in February 2005 we will visit Philippines,” Mr.Shankara Subbu says.
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SERIOUSLY RICH
Billionaire faces in globalizing India wheelers among other things, has a turnover of more than $2 billion. The Tata group companies Telco, Tisco and TCS have all crossed the billion dollar figure. In this process not only are big corporations being created, but also many individual billionaires. They in turn create many jobs. The TVS group in the South employs 23,000 people. Wipro has almost 30,000 on its rolls and the much smaller Biocon has a staff strength of about 1,000. Size brings recognition, particularly g l o b a l recognition. Today international business magazines include Indian billionaires among the lists they prepare. A much-anticipated list is the American magazine Forbes’ list of Indian billionaires. Some of them are inheritors and some are first generation entrepreneurs. Their elevation to big league has come in the last few years. (The New Sunday Express - TNSE)
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ow things have changed! There was a time when Indian tax rates were so high they exceeded people’s incomes. In less than ten years, the country has seen companies growing super-fast and rushing past the $1 billion turnover. Till five years ago IT was a $150 million business. Today IT majors Infosys and Wipro have become billion dollar companies. The scales are much higher now then they were ten years ago. Even twenty years ago Rs.100 crore turnover was considered big. Companies today talk in terms of putting up global size plants. Ranbaxy, the pharmaceutical leader, is nudging towards a $ 1 billion turnover. Kiran Mazumdar, the newest Indian billionaire, is confident of taking her company, Biocon, to the billion dollar league in the next few years. It is happening in all sectors. The TVS group, which makes auto components and two
Every major defence or space related development in recent times in the country carries the involvement of A.P.J.Abdul Kalam, who has been with the DRDO or ISRO for over 40 years. He was responsible for the success of the Satellite Launch Vehicle and missiles like Agni, Prithvi, Trishul and Nag, using indigenous technologies. He has also been the guiding force behind the nuclear tests of May 11-13, 1998. He will be remembered for making India a nuclear power and of making the weapons required for the country’s defence.
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SHIV NADAR
Reclusive CEO
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he rather low profile Shiv Nadar is the brain behind the HCL group, which is rated as one of the biggest companies in the Indian IT industry. Shiv Nadar along with friends like Arjun Malhotra who now runs Tech Span, started the HCL from a small flat in Delhi in 1976. An electrical engineer from Coimbatore, Nadar was among the first to work out the onsiteoffshore model, realizing the limitations of the offshore business model. He spearheaded strategic alliances, joint ventures and acquisitions during 1995-97, the period during which HCL laid the foundation for
its growth. In 1996, Nadar’s clout in the industry was such that when Microsoft chief Bill Gates visited India he met with Nadar soon after his breakfast with the Prime Minister. In December 1999, the company successfully completed an IPO and raised Rs.823 crore (Rs.8.23 bilion). Apart from HCL technologies, Nadar has two other major investments: NIIT and HCL Infosystems. However, he stepped down as chairman from both these companies and, in the last three years, has almost completely disappeared from the limelight. With a fortune of $1.8 billion, the 58-year-old Nadar bags the 310 th spot in the Forbes list. (TNSE)
ANIL AGARWAL
Cable Czar
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terlite Industries’ Anil Agarwal is a typical first generation risk taker. And he has had his share of hits and misses. In 1998, Sterlite made a hostile bid for Indian Aluminum Company but got pipped to the post by Hindalco in one of the most vitriolic takeover battles that corporate India has seen. But in 2002, Sterlite bid for Balco successfully and turned Balco into a model for the government’s divestment programme. Agarwal set out as metal scrap merchant, a cable manufacturer and then branched into telecom. Corporate India started taking notice of this first generation entrepreneur
in the early 1990s, when he decided to integrate his cable business. Today, Sterlite is a near monopoly in the optic-fibre industry. Meanwhile, Agarwal has become an integrated player in cables, copper and aluminum, all businesses integral to the fast growing telecom sector. He plans to double Sterlite’s annual turnover to around $3 billion by 2005-06. fifty-year-old Agarwal, with a worth of $1 billion, is ranked 552nd in the Forbes list and is poised to be the infrastructure king of India’s telecom sector. (TNSE)
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SHOEMAKER LEADS GOVERNMENT WAR AGAINST TB
Toufiq Rashid
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takes care of all. Be it the neighbourhood Chachi who was heard coughing for months before Lal took her to the doctor, or his helper Kanaya, whose illness has turned chronic by the time. It was this work that earned him a WHO honour at a function held But try telling him that. A shoemaker, who in the capital in the third week of March 2004 lost his father to the disease and saw his as part of the second Stop TB conference. brother struggle against it, has turned Lal decided to a small room in his join the TB war, run-down doublefor which he takes storey house in no remuneration, Karnal’s Sadar Bazar after his younger area into a TB clinic brother got and for nearly 110 survived the patients. disease. After having joined as Everyday TB a community patients from volunteer in the TB. nearby houses line TB control up outside Lal’s programme of the house to take their government a year daily dose of ago, he has put 50 medicine. If the patients on the path to recovery. Starting from identifying possible queue gets too long, his teenage daughter TB patients in his neighbourhood to ensuring Madhu and his younger brother Mohan Lal they take their medicines on time, Bansi Lal pitch in. Inside the small room doubling as a t’s an unlikely battleground in India’s fight against TB, a disease that Prime Minister recently said poses a serious threat to the country’s progress and wellbeing. And Bansi Lal is an unlikely warrior. After almost a decade of working as assistant accountant-general C.V.Raman returned to his first love, science. In 1930 he became the first Asian to win the Nobel prize in science, for his discovery, the Raman Effect. The Nobel came at a time when India was not independent and nobody believed any worthwile research could come out of the country. Raman was not merely a scientist but a builder of institutions: He founded the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1935 and the Raman Institute in 1947.
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clinic, the furnishings include a water cooler, a small stool holding two glasses, greencoloured almirahs stocking hundreds of boxes of medicine, a few old pieces of furniture and a register with the names and addresses of the patients. A graduate, Lal updates the registration cards of the patients as well as his own records. Doctors at the district TB centres register the names of the patients and after a full examination and diagnosis refer them to Lal if they happen to be from his neighbourhood. The TB health visitor introduces him to the patients, besides giving him a copy of their registration cards and boxes of their medicines for the entire regimen. Lal is one of the hundreds of volunteers registered as DOTS provider under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in India. The programme advocates taking help from the community to implement DOTS, wherein a patient is given medicines under the supervision of a doctor or a paramedic. Bansi Lal also constantly reminds the patients of the dates of their check-ups and sputum examination. “If the patient fails to come on the fixed day, I send out my family members to look for him,” he says.
What works in this system is the personal rapport shared by a volunteer like Lal and the patients, most of whom are his neighbours or acquaintances. A tea shop owner, Mohan Lal lives in the house next to Lal’s and has been taking medicine at his DOTS centre for seven months. Kamala, who is to complete her six-month treatment this month, is gushing in her praise for Lal. “Sabki Seva Karte hain aur ek paisa bhi nahin lete (He serves everyone else, takes nothing for himself),” she says: TB in-charge of the district Dr.N.Saini says: “To have each and every TB patient monitored by a doctor is not possible in India, as the patient load is very high and the number of doctors very less. So these community volunteers are a great help.” Though Karnal district has about 10 community volunteers, what puts Bansi Lal apart, says Dr.Saini, is his compassion and the number of people who have been cured through him. He himself says that’s all he want-to be able to serve. “I met the Prime Minister (at the TB conference last week), saw a totally different world in my two days of stay in Delhi. I have got everything I want,” Lal says. But there is one thing. He is looking forward to his 17 year-old daughter Kanchan becoming a doctor and carrying on his work. [TNIE]
Ornithologist Salim Ali’s books are an authority on Indian birds. He studied ornithology in Berlin and worked for the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS). In 1941, the first of his books, The Book of Indian Birds, was published. He earned worldwide recognition and 1976 won the Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Prize, the amount of which he donated to BNHS.
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AMBANI: AMBITION SPELT DIFFERENTLY!
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his is the story of a man who had nerves of steel and an astonishing resolve flowing in his veins. A man of modest beginnings, he was instrumental in spurring the industrial sector to life in India and giving the country its largest private sector enterprise—Reliance Industries. The ‘polyester prince’ Dhirajlal Hiralal Ambani, better known as Dhirubhai, spawned a behemoth Rs.65,000 crore empire and gave entrepreneurship its real meaning in the Indian context. He passed away on July 6, 2002.
was no looking back. Vimal, the textile brand he set up, flourished and remains a household name in India today. Dhirubhai’s efforts began in an era that was infamous as the license-permit raj. The Indian industrial scene then was dominated by a few names. For any other individual or firm to gatecrash into this coveted kingdom of few names, acquiring the license was the first major hurdle to be overcome. Numerous stories abound about Dhirubhai’s acumen for controlling the factors that could have affected his business. Some attribute the success of this silver-tongued man to his suave ways and the element of ruthlessness with which he pulled strings behind the curtains, to have the tide turn his way.
Reliance is the only Indian private company to make the global Fortune 500 list of the world’s largest corporations, and Ambani was listed by Forbes as the 138th richest In 1980 the party in power is said to have gone a long way in facilitating many of person in the world this year (2002). Ambani’s mega plans, including the This forerunner of indigenous enterprise was Patalganga project. Luck was also playing born to a school teacher in Chorwad, a small along and by the time Dhirubhai was ready, village in Junagadh district of Gujarat. the licensing system was proving to be totally Cherishing dreams of making it big, this futile. Ambani’s desire from the very young man made Aden his home at the age beginning was not to become competitive of 17, where he worked as a gas station globally, but to acquire world class attendant for Besee and Co. Fate had etched capacities, so that the enterprise had strong some great plans for Dhirubhai and he foundations before it ventured out steadily moved ahead, gathering the funds internationally. that would serve as the capital for starting the life that would gain epic dimensions in For setting up the requisite capacities, the times to come. He returned to India in another major obstacle was the funds. 1958 and established Reliance Commercial Dhirubhai Ambai broke the convention that Corporation that exported spices and general had hitherto been followed—obtaining loan merchandise and imported-polyester yarn. from the banks. He went on to sell dreams of instant riches to the ordinary individuals, In a few years’ time, the foundations were these were dreams that he was committed laid for Reliance textiles and from then there to making a reality. He raised incredible 77 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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amounts on the stock markets. The household savings were mobilized initially, when the foreign companies (under pressure from Foreign Exchange Regulation Act) first sought to dilute their equity by offering them to the public in small lots. Dhirubhai smelled blood and went for the kill. Besides money raised in this manner, Reliance also used the convertible debenture route and the American Depository Receipt (GDR) issues. The razor sharp Dirubhai rose to instant fame in 1982 when he averted Bear hammering of Reliance shares at the Bombay Stock Exchange. Reliance brokers acted well in time to purchase the company’s shares and upset all plans of pulling down the company. The impact of the incident was more on the bears, who had to suffer heavy losses.
and further upstream into basic building blocks like paraxylene. The company also went about managing horizontal diversification into petrochemical endproducts such as linear alkyl benzene (LAB), or thermoplastics like high density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethelene (LDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR— synthetic rubber) and a lot more. With inflow of large profits from its petrochemical operations (the Reliance refinery in Jamnagar is the largest in the world with a capacity of 27 million tonnes. The company has acquired a 10 per cent stake in Petronet India Limited, set up for establishing a network of pipelines across the country), share premium reserves and additional equity and debt coming from the markets, Reliance fuelled its growth bringing it where it stands today. Sensing that the time was right, Reliance decided to take the route of diversifying entering sunrise industries like telecommunications along with power and financial services.
Reliance has over 40 lakh shareholders, which is a record of sorts. Its shares offered genuine value, and those fortunate enough to have had faith in the company in its early year eventually became millionaires. Annual general meetings were held in sports stadiums, where Ambani would be heroworshipped by shareholders. Setting up and implementing mega projects is known to be Reliance’s core competence. Along the road to growth, Dhirubhai Reliance Infocom is a new venture in which managed to earn a good number of enemies Reliance Industries has a 45 per cent stake. too, who spelt hindrance in Reliance’s It is the conduit for wire line telecom, while growth. After change of government it was Reliance Telecom is mostly involved with the a smooth sailing for Reliance again. wireless business. It has already started work on fixed line, mobile, long distance and It was Ambani’s decision to integrate international telephony. Reliance is in the vertically in the initial years and concentrate process of establishing an international scale on petrochemicals and downstream broadband, IP backbone, connecting India’s products. Reliance moved from manufacture top 115 cities. Reliance Telecom has licenses of synthetic textiles into the manufacture of for cellular mobile telephone services in polyester fibre and filament yarn; from yarn seven circles spanning 15 States. With a and fibres to intermediates like purified subscriber base of nearly 2 lakh, Reliance terephthalic acid and mono-ethylene glycol; Telecom is active in 86 towns. 78 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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The unmatched business sense of Mr.Ambani showed up again when the privately-held Reliance Life Sciences shot to fame when it figured on the list of 10 laboratories world wide that met US President Bush’s eligibility guidelines for becoming a source of stem cells and eligible for federal funding. The company invested $5 million in stem cell research in 2001, at the Harkisondas Narrotamdas Hospital in Mumbai. The venture now has an investment of $25 million for a period of nearly four years, during which the biotech arm plans to set up skin banks for burn patients. Power generation also fitted the bill and is now part of the company’s portfolio. Its power plans started taking shape almost a decade ago when it picked up a 10 per cent stake in Mumbai-based power utility BSES. Reliance has tied up with Mirant Asia Pacific Limited and is setting up a thermal power plant at Hirma in Orissa. In addition, there is the 447 mw Patalganga project and the 500 mw project at its Jamnagar complex in Gujarat.
Reliance set up two subsidiaries (Reliance General Insurance Company and Reliance Life Insurance Company) when the insurance sector was thrown open for private players. Reliance General Insurance, giving attention to the corporate sector, has booked a total premium income in excess of 60 crore rupees in fiscal year 2002. However, Reliance Life Insurance Company is yet to become operational as it awaits the ascent from the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA). The subsidiary plans to sell insurance online. For a man who moved from the village to working as an attendant, to living in a chawl in Mumbai, to giving the common man a means to realising his dreams and realising his own, life was one well lived. To the man who proved it that it is possible for a rank outsider to storm the bastion of the elite, that miracles do happen, a few faults are forgivable. (Adapted from “The Competition Master”)
N.R.Narayana Murthy: Co-founder and Chairman of Infosys, he has been named in the Time-CNN survey of the top 25 influential global executives. He is the only Indian to be named in the list. 79 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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INDIA SHOWS THE PATH
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ll over the world, elections in any country are attaching observers from many other Nations. But the 2004 elections in India were unique and were watched with special attention from many places. Special observers come from many countries to watch the huge exercise of electronic voting machines being put to use at such a large scale. The world wanted to know how India handled this mammoth event.
assembly elections the EVMs were pressed into service. All this showed that the Indian voter is open to new ideas. The limitation of EVM is that it can handle a maximum of 64 contestants only is a constituency. Its credibility was proved beyond doubt in the 2004 elections. This system is catching on across the globe. Mauritius, Singapore, Malaysia, and Sri Lanka hve placed orders for EVMs for experimental work in those countries. US may use such machines in this year’s Presidential poles.
From 1952 general election onwards India has been introducing innovation in every election. The culmination of that series of experiments is that this year, 67 crores of Many envoys of countries accredited to New people were pressing buttons in 10 lakhs of Delhi have seen the functioning of EVMs and have landed them. voting machines in the 2004 poles. The first electronic voting machine (EVM) was designed in 1982. But to perfect it and to put it to public use, it took eight more years. In one or two by-elections the EVM was used experimentally and then across the states in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in the assembly elections. In Tamilnadu’s 2001 Many Commonwealth countries which participated in the 2003 London meet on Democracy have opted to follow the Indian Example. In its fifty years as a Democracy, the Indian republic has given the world a good example and a useful lead. (Translated from an Editorial in Tamil Newspaper Dinamani) One of the enduring pictures of Indian sports has been of Kapil Dev holding the World Cup in 1983. Kapil Dev is undoubtedly one of the greatest cricketers that the country has produced. He was an incredible all rounder, who wielded the bat with as much aplomb as he bowled. He demolished the myth that the country could not produce a genuine pace bowler. He held centre-stage in bowling for almost 15 years. In 1975 he made his debut in First Class Cricket and had led India to a World Cup win in 1983, scoring 175 not out in the finals after he took the bat at 17 for 5. by 1994 he had broken Hadlee’s record to become the highest wicket-taker in Tests.
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VERITAS HAILS ITS INDIAN INVENTORS
Anand Parthasarathy
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he dinner party at “The Corinthian” Among those who got special mention was country club on the outskirts of Pune Veritas India’s director of technology, Anand city a few days ago (3/10/2003) had A.Kekre, who has personally contributed to an unusal entry qualification: you needed to have an innovation in Information Technology-and a patent application—in your name. Of the nearly 100 who attended, nearly 70 were Indian software engineers named in a U.S. patent application field on behalf of the global storage management leader, Veritas. It was possibly the most awesome display of ‘desi’ Intellectual Property (IP) over 30 of the recent patent filings of the in one place. company—mostly in the area of storing, backing-up, restoring, and replicating critical Except for a handful of engineers from the business data. With Ankur-Panchbudhe, he United Kingdom and the United States shared the special annual award instituted operations of Veritas, all those present by the company for an innovative and farworked with the Pune-based R&D centre of reaching invention. the company, currently 940 strong, and poised to becoming its largest development Basant Rajan was honoured for “outstanding centre anywhere. contribution” and Niranjan Pendharkar drew wild cheers for being one of four engineers The party was the Mountain View, whose patent has just been granted. The (California, U.S.)-based player’s way of Indian engineer’s innovation constitute ‘a saying ‘thank you’ to the massive Indian phenomenal performance,” said the contribution to its portfolio of products in company’s Vice-President in-charge of the emerging technology area known as Intellectual Property—a special post created ‘utility computing’. after the flood of ideas flowing from engineers. In fact, one in three patents filed Dr.Sharadkumar Dicksheet; Four time Nobel Peace Prize nominee, he has been awarded the $ 100,000 Kellogg’s Hannah Neil World of Children Prize in recognition of his dedication to providing free plastic surgery to 57,000 poor children in India.
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by Veritas world wide, names an Indian Sharad Sharma, vice-president, product engineer, he added. operations, who heads the India units, said India-based engineers have worked on every “We had to constitute a special patent filter Veritas product in its portfolio and now committee just to whet the suggestions,” exercised global responsibility for them, from Veritas executive president, said “We have Pune. six guys from our Pune centre in the committee.” The chief guest and NASSCOM president, Kiran Karnik, said the association was trying Radha Shelat, the chief technology officer to work with the Government to increase of the Pune unit, who has been with the team awareness on the need to protect Indian. since Veritas came here in 1991, said the Intellectual Property Rights and create company’s policy of giving credit to the special IPR courts to help enforce them if engineers who came up with innovations in necessary. formal patent filings, distinguished it from (The Hindu) many other IT majors.
SUNIL MITTAL
Dial M for Riches
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unil Bharti Mittal’s schedule has been hectic during the last few months. A chairman of the Rs.4,000 crore Bharti group finalized a $ 250 million deal with IBM to outsoure the group’s entire IT infrastructure to Big Blue. That comes close on the heels of a $400 million deal with Ericsson to outsource and manage the groups mobile infrastructure. He is also getting into aviation infrastructure and is partnering Singapore’s Changi Airport to bid for the Delhi and Mumbai airports. Mittal, after graduating from Punjab University, started a tiny bicycle business in the 1970s. That company, Bharti
Enterprises, has grown to be one of India’s biggest telecom service providers. The turning point in Mittal’s life came in 1992 when the cellular licence for the Delhi metrocircle was being given out to the private sector. He partnered with French telecom company, Vivendi, to bag the licence. He has not looked back since. Today Bharti offers cellular services, basic telephony, and is laying optic fibre cable across 200 cities with its partner Singapore Telecom connecting Chennai with Singapore. And Sunil Bharti Mittal dreams of making Bharti one of the top two telecom player in the country. He now has a net worth of $2.7 billion and a ranking of 186 in the Forbes list. (TNSE)
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DEVELOPMENT WITH A HUMAN FACE
Students of unaided engineering colleges are cranking out absolutely first-rate stuff these days.
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ake for instance, a bright young duo from Sri Sai Ram Engineering, West Tambaram, R.C.Aravindakshan and R.S.Bharath (II year Computer Sciences and Engineering). They have jointly developed the “I-Cane” or intelligent cane that helps visually impaired persons. The cane has a guidance motor and a computerized ‘brain’ and scanner that warns the user about obstacles—pits, bumps, objects, or overhanging wires, branches or other static obstacles. It also factors in dynamic obstacles, though that is yet to be perfected. Aravindakshan is bursting with pride and with good reasons: he has an invitation from organizers of Robomaxx 2004 to display the ‘I-cane’ in Grants Pass, Oregon, U.S. next month. He and Bharath are, meanwhile, trying to cut the weight of the cane to less than a kilo.
with three IIT professors S.Ramesh, G.T. Manohar and Ravindran and Sri Sairam College’s head of computer sciences department Saravanan guiding the youngsters. A versatile sniffer robot developed by P.Rajan, A Raja and E.Lavakumar, of the same college, won the “Innovation potential of students” project award this year from the Indian National Academy of Engineering. Triumphant return
Two third-year Electronics and Communication Engineering students of Velammal Engineering College, V.K.Lakshmanan and S.Gayatri, created ripples at an international meet on nanotechnologies at the Technical University of Munich, Germany last month. They were the youngest and the only two undergraduate participants at the Arvindakshan points out that safety is the meet. biggest concern for visually impared persons. “Walking or taking the next step comes Their paper, “A basic Architecture for a naturally to normal persons, not so for these Multi-state Memory System using Nanopeople. I want to perfect the equipment Antennas,” described an architecture to before going commercial. We are in the improve the memory states from two to ‘n’ process of patenting the idea…” the adds. states—thereby representing more than one bit per state. A private company, Essem Systems, is helping them fabricate the parts for the cane, 83 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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The students won 400 euros (Rs.23,000) each for the best research paper award. The August 16-19 2004 conference dealt with the latest advancements in nanostructure, nanophotonics, nano-materials and their applications.
teacher at the IIT. Madras, M.Kumaravel helped them raise the air fare and other expenses for the five-day trip.
After their interaction with foreign scientists, the two say they hope to pursue post graduation in material and nano-material Says Lakshmanan, “The optical memory sciences. systems supporting present day computers use two state memoris (which represent 1’s Innovative software & 0’s). Commercial software makers are eyeing To increase the memory capacity one can another development, this time by a woman increase the media density and reading speed. student of Jeppiaar Engineering. This is a “combination of front-end and back-end” But this has its own limitations. created by B.Shanmugapriya, a computer Our paper describes how the memory sciences student. capacity can be increased by increasing the number of states that a memory system can With this, one can use the same tool to create represent. If a memory system can have four front-end controls such as labels and text states, then each state can represent two bits boxes and creating tables. “It has only use each, thereby doubling the memory capacity data type ‘Text’ to view, add, delete, update and modify the design and contents of the i.e. (00,01,10,11) for each state. table. Essentially it provides an inbuilt The conference organizers readily accepted connectivity between the front-end and backthe paper and even waived the registration end,” she adds. (The Hindu) fee. Velammal Engineering College and a
BINDESHWAR PATHAK, FOUNDER, SULABH INTERNATIONAL
Pathak has touched the souls of the erst-while ‘untouchables’. Sulabh International, a social service organisation, provides cost-effective sanitation systems in cities, at bus-stops, railway stations and other public places. It converts dry/bucket privies to sanitary toilets, supplies toilets to houses where no latrines existed before, provides well-designed and maintained community facilities, trains and most importantly, rehabilitates scavengers to find other jobs. (TNIE)
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SIR CHANDRASHEKHARA VENKATA RAMAN (C.V.RAMAN)
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handrashekhara Venkata Raman or C.V.Raman, as we popularly know him, was born on 7th Nov. 1888 in Thiruvanaikkaval. He finished school by the age of eleven and by then he had already read the popular lectures of Tyndall, Faraday and Helmoltz. He acquired his BA degree from the Presidency College, Madras, where he carried out original research in the college laboratory, publishing the results in the philosophical magazine. After joining the financial services of the Indian Government at the age of eighteen, he carried out and published extensive research on acoustics and optics in his free time for a decade.
before the prize was announced. From 1933 till 1970 (his death) he lived and worked in Bangalore, first at the IISc and then his own (Raman Research Institute). All in all, he published 475 papers and wrote five monographs on an incredibly wide range of topics. He enthused generations of younger people with his excitement about nature and science, and left an incredible mark on the landscape of India. THE RAMAN EFFECT For more inquisitive minds, the Raman effect occurs when a ray of incident light excites a molecule in the sample, which subsequently scatters the light. While most of this scattered light is of the same wavelength as the incident light, state (i.e. getting the molecule to vibrate). The Raman effect is useful in the study of molecular energy levels, structure development, and multi component qualitative analysis. some is scattered at a different wavelength.
Also around the time he was married to ‘Loksundari’. In 1917 he was offered the ‘PALIT CHAIR’ in physics in Calcutta University by the then Vice Chancellor Ashutosh Mukherjee. In 1921 he delivered a lecture at the Oxford conference on the theory of stringed instruments. In 1924 he became ‘FELLOW’ of the Royal society and was eventually knighted by the British Government. This inelastically scattered light is called ‘RAMAN SCATTER’ which, results from While in Calcutta, he made enormous contri- molecule changing its molecular motion. butions to vibration, sound, musical Energy difference between incident light & instruments, ultrasonics, diffraction, the Raman scattered light is equal to the photoelectricity, colloidal particles, X-ray energy involved in changing the molecule diffraction, magnetron, dielectrics, and the vibrational. celebrated “RAMAN” effect which fetched “Great advances in knowledge came him the Noble Prize in 1930. The mood of through questioning the orthodox view” self-confidence can be gauged from the fact -SIR CV RAMAN that he had his tickets to Sweden booked (The Competition Master)
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INDIAN ORIGIN SCIENTISTS AMONG TOP 100
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even Indian origin scientists, including Srinidhi Varadarajan who built a supercomputer from off-the-shelf commercial products, were named among the world’s top 100 young researchers by Technology Review published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technolocy.
technology, which provides the high speeds needed for streaming media applications with low power consumption.
Raskar, 34, a visiting research scientist at Mitsubishi Electric was named for building large computer display systems that seamlessly combine images from multiple The top 100 honour, an event by the institute, projectors. recognises exceptional talent in fields like biotechnology, medicine, Nano-technology The computer scientist’s image-processing and computing. Besides Varadarajan, other and graphics research may lead to new young Indian origin researchers selected applications in entertainment, image-guided were Anuj Batra, Ramesh Raskar, Chaitali surgery, and user interfaces. Chaitali Sengupta, Ravi Kane, Vikram Sheel Kumar Sengupta, 34, is a systems architect with and Ananth Natarajan, according to the Texas Instruments which oversees the magazine., architecture of the communication chips. Varadarajan, director of Terascale computing These chips are useful in multimedia cell facility, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and phones which handle internet access, videoState University, conceived and built the conferencing, and mobile commerce. Ravi world’s third-fastest supercomputer from a Kane, 32, assistant professor, Rensselaer cluster of 1,100 Apple Macintoshes. The Polytechnic Institute, was selected for project cost at around $5 million when creating a highly potent anthrax treatment. world-class supercomputers cost $100 Another young researcher, Vikram Sheel million or more. The young researcher used Kumar, 28, co-founder and CEO, Dimagi, off-the-shelf commercial products to design developed an interactive software that the supercomputer in less than three months motivates patients to manage chronic as he did not have the hundreds of millions diseases such as diabetes and AIDS. Ananth of dollars for the purpose. Batra, 34, is a Natarajan, 33 CEO, Infinite Biomedical systems engineer at Texas Instruments. He Technologies, was named for devising leads one of the industry’s top teams technology that enables implantable cardiac advancing ultra wideband Wireless devices to detect heart attacks. PTI
Raghav and Lavanya Haran: Raghav of Visvesvaraya College of Engineering, Bangalore; and Lavanya of the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi are among 103 of the ‘world’s brightest students” from 20 countries chosen by Lucent Technologies at its second annual world-wide summit of the Lucent global science scholars programme. (T.N.I.E.)
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MS – SHE SINGS ONLY FOR THE LORD: BUT HUMAN BEINGS ALSO LISTEN
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he music of MS had that strange ability to subdue the most egoistical of humans. And yet, all the honours and encomia that she had received in her life had not made this greatest musician of our times one whit arrogant. MS is the supreme role model for all aspiring musicians anywhere in the world. She took every concert as her first one rendered with total dedication, commitment and expertise. A master of concert technique, gifted with a fine voice and mastery of raga and bhava all backed up by relentless sadhana, MS strode the Indian musical scene like a clossus for more than sixty years. Amidst all the fame and popularity, MS has retained her humility, grace and friendliness for all to remain an inspiration and an object of reverence from one and all.
Over the past six decades, no one could keep count of the number of organizations and public causes that MS had helped fund and fructify. From America to Europe to the Far East, she had given concerts in international forums and musical audiences.
She never lent her voice to commerce or Unlike many top classical musicians, MS personal enrichment. never flinched from rendering songs from other systems. Music for her is not a skill or talent but a divine sanction to be sustained by rigorious Be it Meera Bhajan, Rabindra Sangeet, Sikh Sadhana and relentless practice. Well past hymn from Gurbani, ‘Alwar’ Pasuram in 80, she still spends three hours in a day fine Tamil or Marathi abhang, she took to all turning her voice and practicing ragas. music with the avidity of a seeker. Her voice resonates in the sacred hill of Thirumala All that she would like is for our “young lady every morning chanting the Venkatesa artistes not to lose their identity with Indian Suprabhatam as much as in Indias’ homes in womanhood however famous they become the USA and Europe. in the field.” M.S.Subbulakshmi symbolizes the best of Indian womanhood. (From The Bhavan’s Journal 31-9-2004)
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LATA MANGESHKAR
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or close to 55 years, when Lata sang, all of India sang with her. It is a song which has no end. Recognised by the Guinness Book of World Records as the world’s most prolific singer with over 25,000 songs to her credit, Lata is a living legend and an icon of icons. Lata is a monument of committed and devoted singing. She is a very private person and not much about her private life has ever been discussed in the media. She is rarely discussed in the social circles except for her
divine vocal chords, which plumbed the tearducts of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru when he heard Lata singing the unforgettable ‘Ae Mere Vatan Ke Logo’. Few eyes remain dry when this song is heard by people even today. The attributes of Lata as a singer are that of a stern disciplinarian who is never late to a recording session and her riyaz never fails to come through. Her songs often outlived the films in which they figure and even the composers of the songs. (The Bhavan’s Journal 31.8.2004)
DR.VARGHESE KURIEN – AND THE AMUL-MOVEMENT
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n 2000, India emerged as the world’s largest milk producer, all because 50 years earlier, a young man named Verghese Kurien joined the Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union in Anand, Gujarat, as a manager. Starting with two village cooperatives and 250 litres of milk per day, Kurien went on to create India’s White Revolution. His Operation Flood, launched in 1970, followed a simple structure (called the Anand pattern): at the core were farmers and the cooperatives; on top was a district-level milk producers’ union, and finally there was a state federation that did the marketing. The National Dairy Development Board, which
Kurien founded in 1963 (he won the Ramon Magsayasay Award for Community leadership in the same year), today runs a co-operative network comprising 170 milk unions and 10.7 million farmer members. According to Indiadairy.com, the industry racked up Rs.1,05,000 crore from milk, cheese, butter, and other dairy products. There are an estimated 96 million milch animals producing 203 million litres of milk per day. The World Bank estimates that Operation Flood resulted in dairy farmers making $9 billion more per year than they would have if milk production had continued at the 0.7 percent growth rate prior to the launch of Operation Flood. (The Bhavan’s Journal 31.8.04)
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TENDS FARMS, WINS LAURELS
P.Sudhakar
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espite his age, excruciating knee pain, regularly invasion by wild animals and, finally, water shortage, 73- years old N.S.A. Velu Mudhaliar of Puliyangudi, a small town about 70 km from Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu has grown over 10,000 trees of various species on a rocky terrain of 20 acres at the foothills of Western Ghats. Still he yearns to grow more and more trees, which got him the ‘Indra Priyadharshini Vriksha Mitra Award for 2001’. Shri Velu will receive the award in New Delhi on September 9 in recognition of his concern for protecting environment.
coconut, lemon, mango, casuarinas, teak, sapota, guava, drumstick etc, “Not a single drop of water goes out of my farm and I judiciously use every drop of water the Almighty gives me.” As he uses organic manure, water requirement is very less. When he plants saplings, he digs pits and fills it with tank silt. “In the first year, we have to water the plant according to requirements. In the second year, watering once in two months is enough and in the third year it may be done once in three months, as the tank silt retains water. In the fourth year, the plant will start yielding.” Shri Velu unravels the trade secret. Never does he use the hybrid varieties, which he believes, could not withstand diseases and other adverse conditions.
When he started intensive farming, paddy was the only crop which occupied his entire field. But a truant monsoon and an alarming fall in groundwater table forced him to plant The withered leaves of trees on the farm are trees of various varieties. This effort has won converted into manure. A small portion of leaves is allowed to portion of leaves is him laurels. allowed to pile up around the roots, which Enriched by experience, Shri Velu has protect the water flowing from the drip for designed his own rainwater harvesting an extended priod. system, setting up land at various elevations. As his teak farm starts just from the foothills Peacock plays guard of the Western Ghats, rainwater from the hill immediately enters it. He has separated the Besides getting good revenue from the farm, teak farm into small portions, each the satisfaction Shri Velu draws from his measuring about 100 x 100 feet, with small farming operations is unmatched. bunds to store rainwater. After filling the first portion kept at a significant height, water He does not rear any dog to guard his farm; overflows through pipes to the next section this duty has been “assigned” to peacocks and the process continues. After covering the of the Western Ghats which crow last portion, water flows to the next plot, continuously on seeing strangers. When his where Shri Velu has raised neem, tamarind, family members cross the main entrance, the
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bird crows just once or twice and becomes silent soon.“Never do we harm the wild animals which enter our farm, though spotted deer and wild boar cause extensive damage to small tress and saplings we grow against all odds,’ says Shri Velu. For Shri Velu, a father of six children, his farm, three km west of Puliyangudi, is his
first child as he spends over 12 hours everyday in his ranch. His vision is sharp and he does not wear spectacles, his spirit is high and he enjoys every moment of farming operation. “I’ll plant more trees to make this part of the earth more viable for living,” says Shri Velu, who has studied up to Standard IV. (The Hindu)
CHESS CAREER- VISHY ANAND
Aruna Anand
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iswanathan Anand, popularly known as “Vishy, the Tiger from Madras” learnt chess at the tender age of six. His assets, his lightning speed of play & intuition saw him through as the Youngest National Champion at the age of 16. In 1987 he became the First Asian to win the World Junior Championship. He also earned the coveted Grandmaster title. He carved a special place on the chessboard by winning the strongest tournament at that time, The “Reggio Emilia” in Italy in 1991 ahead of Kasparov & Karpov. He has been a World Championship challenger in the PCA(New York 1995) & FIDE(1997 Lausanne) cycles. He has the distinction of winning the Strongest knock out tournament in recent chess history in Groningen in December 1997. He has also won the Linares Super Torneo in 1998, the strongest tournament at this point. His other great victories include the Melody Amber tournament (1994 & 1997),
the Credit Suisse Masters (1997), Dos Hermanas (1997) and Wijk Aan Zee(1998). Anand is currently rated NUMBER Two in the World in both the rating lists, namely, the PCA & the FIDE lists. Anand has been awarded many prestigious titles in India like the Arjuna Award, the Padmashri (the youngest recipient of the title), the first recipient of the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award, the Soviet Land Nehru award, the BPL Achievers of the World, Sportstar, Sportsworld “Sportsman of the year 1995” Award. Anand holds a degree in commerce, his other hobbies are reading, swimming & listening to music. Anand, known as the “One man Indian Chess revolution,” keenly promotes the game, through innovative methods in the country, where the game first originated. He lives in Collado Mediano in Spain with his wife Aruna. (From the Web Site)
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RAHUL DRAVID
Full Name Birthday Birth Place Country Batting Bowling ODI Debut Test Debut : : : : : : : : Rahul Sharad Dravid Jan. 11, 1973 Indore India Right hand batsman Right arm Off Break Vs. Sri Lanka at Singapore, on 3/4/96 India v England at Lord’s, 2nd Test, 1996
Rahul has been one of the main pillars of the Indian batting with his blend of technical proficiency & stylish strokes. His strokes are so perfect technically that he is considered as the “wall” of the Indian Team. His batting style was regarded slow for the ODI’s initially but with his imaginative placing of the ball & innovative strokes he made himself as an integral part of the Indian team for both Tests as well as ODI’s. His temperament for both the versions of the game is exemplary and has earned him respect from all the other players. The Indian Vice Captain has frequently played the sheet anchor role to perfection. . He was
verily the batsman of the 1999 World Cup with two hundreds and the highest aggregate. For this, he was named as Wisden cricketer of the year, one of the few Indians to receive this special accolade. In 2004 Rahul was named I.C.C.Cricket of the year and I.C.E. Test player of the year. (From the Web Site)
One of the top ten batsmen of all time, Sachin Tendulkar is an icon of the present times. He made his debut in first class Cricket in 1987 at the age of 14 and is the youngest Indian to play Test Cricket. In 1998 he broke the record of Desmond Haynes of the highest number of centuries in one-day internationals. The legendary batsman Donald Bradman, has likened Tendulkar’s batting to his own. Known as ‘Little Champion’ Tendulkar still has many years of cricket ahead of him.
World title: Nineteen year old Pankaj Advani brought the World Snooker crown back to India after a 19-year gap when he out-played Saleh Mohammed of Pakistan 11.6 for the title at Jiangmen in China.
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P.GOPICHAND
Born: 1973
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ullela Gopi Chand is the brightest star to emerge on the Indian badminton scene in a long time, after Prakash Padukone He was born on November 16th 1973, in Nagaland to Pullela Subhash Chandra Bose and Subbaravamma who were both interested in sports. Gopichand is indeed a story of sheer hard work, dedication and pure determination for the game of Badminton. Though Gopichand nicknamed Gops, favoured cricket earlier, his elder brother made him switchover to Badminton. Gopi’s skill at Badminton was the talk at St.Pauls where he had his schooling, when he was hardly around 10 years old. He suffered a setback in 1986, when he suffered a multiple ligament rupture. But this young fighter came back to the field with sheer determination and reached the finals of Andhra Pradesh State Junior Badminton ship in 1987, even though he lost the title to his elder brother Rajashekar. By the time he passed out of school in 1988, he had already made a mark in the Badminton field. He did his graduation in Economics from AV College, Hyderabad. In 1989 he won his first single title at the National Championship at Goa and then went on to win the doubles championship also. By 1999, Gopichand achieved a world ranking of 26 winning the Indian international, Scottish, Toulouse, French championships etc. He received the SAARC gold medal the same year. Always a fighter,
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he refused to be crushed by his defeat in the 2000 Sydney Olympics and true to his recognition out played the Olympics champions to reach the finals of the All England Badminton ship, finally arriving at the forefront of international badminton. He defeated Olympic Gold medallist Anders Boeson in the Quarterfinals of this tournament. In the Semifinals he defeated world No.1 ceded player Peter Gade of Denmark, and in the finals he defeated Chen Hong of China. He achieved his career best world ranking of 5 in April 2001. Gopichand was awarded the ‘Arjuna Award’ India’s highest recognition for sportspersons, in 2000 for his excellent performance in the sport. He has tremendous respect for the rich Indian culture and tradition. He is the follower of ‘The Art of Living’ Guru Sri Sri Ravishankar. He is proficient in yoga and practices it in his spare time which help him to relax and focus better. Gopichand is also interested in music. A disciple of Prakash, this gentleman is considered a good defensive player, precise in his net play. He is employed by the Indian Oil Corporation in Hyderabad, but the IOC has permitted him to spend most of his time training at the Sports Authority facilities in Bangalore. This great player, with the vital combination of mental strength and concentration is sure to take the sport of badminton in India to new heights. P.Gopichand was bold enough to turn down the rich offer by a multinational soft drink company. He would not allow his name to be used in advertising endossments. (From the Web Site)
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Azim H. Premji
Clifford Sawhney
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zim H. Premji, Chairman, Wipro CorporationIn a world where integrity purportedly counts for naught, Azim Hasham Premji symbolizes just that. The 55-year-old Wipro chairman made international waves in 2000 ever since his group became a Rs 3,500-crore empire with a market capitalization exceeding Rs 500,000 million! If any stargazer had been foolish enough to predict in 1966 that a 21year-old Indian at Stanford University would one day achieve all this, he’d have been laughed out of business. At that juncture, Premji was forced to discontinue his engineering studies in the States due to the untimely death of his father. Returning to India to take charge of a cooking oil company, the youth infused new life into the family’s traditional mindset and trade. Over the years, Premji diversified into sectors like computer hardware and lighting, disregarding marketing laws that extolled the virtues of core competence and frowned on brand extensions into unrelated segments. Despite all the success, the media-shy Premji maintained a low profile, letting his work do all the talking. Until early last year the media broke the story that Azim Premji had become the second-richest man in the world… In spite of his billions, however, he still travels economy class and stays in budget hotels.When the man was recently honored with the Businessman of the Year 2000 award, he attributed his stupendous success to the 12,000 people who work for Wipro Corporation. Nor did he forget to mention his family. The great man then shared some tips for success:
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• Have the courage to think big. • Never compromise on fundamental values, no matter what the situation. • Build up self-confidence, always look ahead. • Always have the best around you, even if they are better than you are. • Have an obsessive commitment to quality. • Play to win. • Leave the rest to the force beyond. Premji the businessman practices what he preaches. When it comes to upholding personal values, there’s no margin for error. Wipro managers speak in awe of the time they received a terse message that their chairman was flying down to Bangalore for a meeting. It was clear that something major was in the offing. Premji came straight to the point. A senior general manager of the company had been given marching ordersbecause he’d inflated a travel bill. The man’s contribution to the company was significant; the bill’s amount was not. Yet he had to go for this solitary lapse. It was, Premji stressed, a matter of principles. Wipro’s code of conduct for employees says it all: Don’t do anything that you’re unwilling to have published in tomorrow’s newspaper with your photograph next to it. It’s that kind of integrity that has catapulted Premji and Wipro to unprecedented heights. (From the Web Site)
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INFOSYS
Mukta Hegde N.R.Narayana Murthy, Chairman, Infosys Technologies Ltd
in the distribution of wealth that made Infosys one of the first Indian companies to offer employees stock-option plans. Infosys now has 400 employees who are dollar millionaires. In a poll conducted by Asiaweek, the quiet, soft-spoken man was selected one of the 50 most powerful people in Asia for 2000. And 50 per cent of the respondents in an online poll conducted by The Economic Times voted him the best CEO of India. Heading a company with the largest market capitalization hasn’t changed Murthy’s lifestyle much. The man still doesn’t know how to drive a car! On Saturdays-his driver’s weekly off-the Infosys chief is driven to the bus stop by his wife, from where he boards a company bus to work! Incidentally, Sudha Murthy is now chief of the Infosys Foundation, which channels Rs 50 million into charity every year.
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n Indian IT chief who’s really made it big without dropping his ethical precepts by the wayside is Nagawara Ramarao Narayana Murthy, Chairman of Infosys. Born in 1946, Murthy’s father was a schoolteacher in Kolar district, Karnataka, India. A bright student, Murthy went on to acquire a degree in Electrical Engineering from Mysore University and later studied Computer Science at the IIT, Kanpur, India.
The Infosys legend began in 1981 when Narayana Murthy dreamt of forming his own company, along with six friends. There was a minor hitch, though-he didn’t have any seed money. Luckily, like many Indian women who save secretly without their husband’s knowledge, his wife Sudha-then Simplicity, humility and maintaining a low an engineer with Tatas-had saved Rs 10,000. profile are the hallmarks of this super-rich Bangalorean. And the man is principled to a This was Murthy’s first big break. fault. Murthy’s unprecedented wealth has The decade until 1991 was a tough period catapulted him into the public glare. After when the couple lived in a one-room house. the kidnapping of Dr Rajkumar by forest The second break came in 1991 when In- brigand Veerappan, the Home Ministry has dian doors to liberalization were flung sounded out the local government about open… Murthy grabbed the opportunity with providing Z-category security to Murthy and both hands and has never looked back ever Premji. Both characteristically turned down since. Today, Infosys is the first Indian com- the offer. In a letter to the police top brass last month, pany to be listed on the US NASDAQ. While working in France in the 1970s, Murthy said he was a simple man who had Murthy was strongly influenced by socialism. no intentions of annoying his neighbors and The bubble was pricked, however, when he disturbing traffic with an intrusive entourage was arrested in Bulgaria on espionage of security vehicles and personnel. charges. Today, he says: “I’m a capitalist in That’s Narayana Murthy for you. (From the Web Site) mind, a socialist at heart.” It was this belief
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NARAYANAN VAGHUL
Former CEO, ICICI
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e retired in 1996 as chairman of the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI), During his 11-year tenure as CEO, ICICI came to be transformed from a small size, long-term credit bank to a large diversified financial conglomerate. Besides, Vaghul is also on the board of several companies and his work takes him all over the country though he is now settled in Chennai, India. Since 1998 he has been a visiting professor at New York University, teaching a regular course “Emerging Economies” to MBA students.Next to finance, spirituality is his forte. Vaghul was one of the earliest people to introduce spirituality at the workplace. His spiritual journey, he says, went through different stages. “I belong to a traditional, religious family of Chennai. In my early years, I had deep abiding faith in God. During my twenties, my scientific temperament questioned the concept of God. In the next two decades, I explored various beliefs, delving into the metaphysical and the concept of spirituality. I sought knowledge from various religious texts and also met luminaries: Swami Chimayananda, Dayanand Saraswati, Swami Parthasarthy. Gradually the realization dawned on me that it is not possible to find the solution merely by reading books. The truth lies within our own selves, and we alone have to explore and
reach it.”About 12 years ago, seeking answers to some of his doubts led him to S.N. Goenka. He learnt Vipassana and ever since, he has been an ardent follower.”Purifying the mind involves deconditioning it, which is difficult as it is already conditioned in many ways and also full of impurities such as self-centeredness. Look at it this way, suppose there is this huge tree to be cut down. You can either snip the branches or go to the root level, which is more difficult. To gain control of the mind, you have to still it first and then slowly work towards getting rid of the ego that is the ‘I’ consciousness.” At work, Vaghul’s spiritual values influenced the work culture in many ways. “I don’t favor forcing anyone to do anything, but I feel the best way to teach anything is by example. I used to often talk about Vipassana and encourage people to go for it. I believe in merely acting as a catalyst. Those days, we used to send our middle-level executives to the Vivekananda Yoga Kendra near Bangalore to introduce them to spirituality. This has the immediate effect of bringing about a level of calmness and lowering blood pressure. These days there seems to be a trend towards conducting stress management workshops in many organisations, but more often than not, it is superficial.” (From the Web Site)
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KIRAN MAZUMDAR-SHAW
Bioqueen
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azumdar-Shaw joins the league with a net worth of Rs.2,303 crore. Kiran took Biocon from an enzyme research company to a biopharma unit with a market-cap of over $1.11 billion. Kiran, who holds 39.64 percent of Biocon’s capital, hit the big time after the company’s scrip closed at Rs.581.20 on the Bombay Stock Exchange recently. Her net worth is Rs.1,920 crore. Kiran’s biocon is an amazing success story almost with no parallel in India.
A 25-year-old middle class girl started a company 25 years ago. The company grew steadily for many years. With accumulated knowledge, Kiran transformed her industrial biotechnology company. It has now become a major international pharma player. Kiran says she would rather concentrate on building her business than keeping a watch on the billionaire’s list. (TNSE)
George, Anju Bobby: Her feat of winning the long jump bronze at the World Athletics Championship in Paris on August 30, 2003, has put her on a pedestal in Indian athletics reached by very few. She leaped to 6.70 metres at the Stade de France that gave her a bronze and India a historic medal. No Indian athlete has ever won a medal of the World-level. Anju, in fact, is the only second Indian at a world final, the first being discus thrower Neelam Singh. She was declared the Best female athlete of National Games 2001-2002. She was honoured with Arjuna Award in 2003. she is the first Indian woman athlete to secure Commonwealth medal. She is also the first Indian woman to win Asiad gold in long jump and the only Asian woman to reach World Indoors finals.
An Indian American, Akshay Buddiga, 13, won the second spot in the prestigious 77th National Spelling Bee in Washington.
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BIOTECH QUEEN IS INDIA’S WEALTHIEST WOMAN
iran Mazumdar Shaw probably became India’s wealthiest woman in 2003 after shares on Biocon Ltd, the biotechnology company she pioneered, had a blockbuster opening on the Bombay Stock Exchange. For Mazumdar, the initial public officer (IPO) marks a high point in a 26-year journey that transformed Biocon from a small enzyme maker into a drug firm challenging global insulin makers such a Eli Lily and Novo Nordisk.
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“To me it is just a number”, Mazumdar told Reuters after the listing. “I built this company to deliver a different kind of value. These numbers are just notional but it makes me very proud. The team has made this possible.”
Bangalore-based Biocon aims to grow its revenue by 30 percent a year, and is India’s first significant biotech company to list its shares in the nascent industry. Besides making enzymes and drugs to fight diabetes, cancer and cholesterol, Biocon has separate units offering contract research and clinical The 50-year-old, who founded the firm with trial services for global clients, a bid to cash 10,000 rupees ($229) in 1978, holds nearly in on India’s relatively inexpensive scientists. 40 percent of Biocon, India’s flag-bearer biotech company. Biocon was named after Mazumdar’s initial Irish joint venture partner, whose stake was Biocon sold 10 percent of its capital to raise later acquired by Unilever. The Indian co$72 million, an offer that was subscribed founders bought back that stake when the more than 32 times. Anglo-Dutch group exited the JV in 1998. The daughter of a master brewer at leading The shares were priced at 315 rupees each Indian beer maker United Breweries, through a book-built issue, and zoomed up Mazumdar is proud of her father. to 507 rupees after opening at 435. They had drifted to around 490 rupees later. She followed her father to take a master’s brewing degree in Australia after graduating At this price, the company’s value crosses in zoology in her hometown, Bangalore, and $1.1 billion, putting Mazumdar’s stake at later co-invented a unique cauldron that 19.6 billion rupees ($449 million) and blended her skills. Biocon’s patented making her one of India’s richest women. biotechnology reactor based on fermentation
Satyajit Ray (1921-1992) Ray is the greatest film director India has produced. He won special Oscar award and Bharat Ratna in 1992. His most famous films are Pather Panchali, Aparajita, and Charulata.
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techniques is a key showpiece of the social worker in public-private partnerships company’s achievements. to boost the creaking infrastructure of India’s technology capital. Sporting a fancy scarf, and a friendly smile, Mazumdar hardly looks like a bookish Thanks to her Irish connection, Mazumdar’s scientist who heads a 1200-strong team of office in Biocon’s 80-acre campus on technical experts and a company with 130 Bangalore’s outskirts doubles as the city’s patents to its credit. Irish consulate. She works with her Scottish husband, who quit his job as a financial Biocon aims to grow its revenue to more expert in a textile company to become than $1.0 billion over the next decade from Biocon’s vice-chairman. “Art brought us an estimated $126 million in the year to together,” says Mazumdar. The couple have March (2003), for which final results are yet a collection of 250 paintings, four of them to be released. Mazumdar is also active as a by a famed Indian artist. (T.N.I.E)
“OUR FUTURE DEPENDS ON AGRICULTURE”
M.S.Swaminathan nly three Indians find a place in TIME magazine’s 20 most influential Asians of the 20th century. Professor M.S.Swaminathan is one of them. The other two being Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore. A plant geneticist by training, Professor Swaminathan is considered the architect of the Green Revolution. His advocacy of sustainable agriculture leading to an ever-green revolution makes him an acknowledged
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world leader in the field of sustainable food security. Professor Swaminathan has won many awards including the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership in 1971, the Albert Einstein World Science Award in 1986, and the first World Food Prize in 1987. Recently, the Union government appointed him as the head of the National Commission on Farmers.
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar (1891-1956) Indian Jusist, social worker, Politician, Writer, educationist, Emancipator of the downtrodden, fighter for social justice. He framed the Indian constitution. He was minister in the Indian Cabinet. Bharat Ratna – 1990.
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PROF. M.S.SWAMINATHAN
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rof. M S Swaminathan has been acclaimed by TIME magazine as one of the twenty most influential Asians of the 20th century and one of the only three from India, the other two being Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore. He has been described by the United Nations Environment Programme as “the Father of Economic Ecology” and by Javier Perez de Cuellar, Secretary General of the United Nations, as “a living legend who will go into the annals of history as a world scientist of rare distinction”. He was Chairman of the UN Science Advisory Committee set up in 1980 to take follow-up action on the Vienna Plan of Action. He has also served as Independent Chairman of the FAO Council and President of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. A plant geneticist by training, Prof. Swaminathan’s contributions to the agricultural renaissance of India have led to his being widely referred to as the scientific leader of the green revolution movement. His advocacy of sustainable agriculture leading to an ever-green revolution makes him an acknowledged world leader in the field of sustainable food security. The International Association of Women and Development conferred on him the first international award for significant contributions to promoting the knowledge, skill, and technological empowerment of women in agriculture and for his pioneering role in mainstreaming gender considerations in agriculture and rural development. Prof. Swaminathan was awarded the Ramon Magsaysay Award for
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Community Leadership in 1971, the Albert Einstein World Science Award in 1986, the first World Food Prize in 1987, Volvo Environment Prize in 1999, and the Franklin D Roosevelt Four Freedoms Award in 2000. Prof. Swaminathan is a Fellow of many of the leading scientific academies of India and the world, including the Royal Society of London and the US National Academy of Sciences. He has received 43 honorary doctorate degrees from universities around the world. Recently, he has been elected as the President of Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. He currently holds the UNESCO Chair in Ecotechnology at the M S Swaminathan Research Foundation in Chennai (Madras), India M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) was registered in 1988 as a nonprofit Trust. The basic mandate of MSSRF is to impart a pro-nature, pro-poor and prowomen orientation to a job-led economic growth strategy in rural areas through harnessing science and technology for environmentally sustainable and socially equitable development. MSSRF is doing research in the following five areas: Coastal Systems Research, Biodiversity and Biotechnology, Ecotechnology and Sustainable Agriculture, Reaching the Unreached, and Education, Communication, Training and Capacity Building. The Foundation operates through the following pathways to agricultural and rural
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development: conservation and enhancement of natural resources, promotion of sustainable livelihoods, gender equity and voicing the voiceless as well as information and skill empowerment. Through the Hindu Media Resource Centre the Foundation
promotes public understanding of science through media practitioners. The Foundation is known for its emphasis on bottom-up participatory approach, which places people before technology. (From the Web Site)
Father of India’s green revolution M.S.Swaminathan was instrumental in making India a net exporter of food grains. In the sixties the question in everybody’s mind was how would India feed its growing population. Several dark prophecies were made and the Malthusian viewpoint was strong. In China, some 30 million people had starved to death. In 1964 Swaminathan developed and introduced high-yielding varieties of food-grains, ushering in the green revolution, and this was to become the most dramatic success story of modern India. Having returned to India after refusing a job abroad, he set up 2,000 model farms near Delhi to show what the new seeds were capable of. He got the support of the political leadership as food dependence was seen as a political weapon. In just a few years, India’s food grain production doubled from 12 million tonnes to 23 million tonnes; today food grain production is above 220million tonnes. In retrospect, we can say that it was this single achievement that has made India self-reliant. Swaminathan set up several institutes, including the International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics and the International Federation of Agricultural Research Systems for Development. He won the World Food prize in 1987, the UNEP Sasakawa Award in 1994 and has also been honoured with the Magsaysay award.
KUMAR MANGALAM BIRLA
Prized Scion
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hen Kumar Mangalam Birla stepped into his father Aditya Birla’s legendary shoes in 1995, he was 28. everybody wondered how he would cope, how he would run the 60 yearold-group. In the eight years he has been at the helm, the turnover of the group has jumped from Rs.7,200 crore to Rs.27,000 crore. “One thing my father used to always say was you should have a view of the long term and no short cuts,” he said in an interview to a business magazine. Birla remains unassuming and is known in the
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corporate circles for his humility although he is estimated to be worth $3.2 billion. Today he has transformed the culture of the Birla group and has steered it to new levels. In late 1997, he decided that the group executives would compulsorily retire at 60 years—something unheard of before in the group. He got the group to enter highpotential sectors such as software, insurance and branded apparels. Despite sitting on wealth, Birla is not the sort to flaunt his money. A non-smoker and a teetotaler, his only passion is paintings. He is ranked 147th in the Forbes list. (TNSE) 100
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THE BUSINESS ETHIC OF J.R.D. TATA
R.M.Lala
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n the public mind, ethics in business is mainly identified with financial integrity. Important as that is, the real meaning of ethics goes beyond that. The dictionary defines it as “the science of morals in human conduct, a moral principle or code.” It encompasses the entire spectrum of human conduct. Business ethics lays down how a person in businesses deals with his or her colleagues, staff and workers, shareholders, customers, the community, the government, the environment and even the nation at large.
J.R.D. Tata was meticulous when it came to financial ethics. When I pointed out to him in 1979 that the Tatas had not expanded as much in the 1960s and 1970s as some other groups had, he replied: “I have often thought about that. If we had done some of the things that some other groups have done, Attitude to colleagues we would have been twice as big as we are today. But we didn’t, and I would not have When he rang us in the office he would first it any other way.” ask: “Can you speak?” or “Do you have someone with you?” or “Except when he was Vikram Sarabhai had varied interests and was involved in many things—business, management institutes and space research. Born into a business family, he started many companies bearing the Sarabhai name. In 1962 he helped found the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. He was to give up the life of an Industrialist for his first love, space research. In 1993 he was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame, a crater on the moon has been named after him by the International Astronomical Union. He was Chairman of the Indian Atomic energy Commission as Homi Bhabha’s successor and was President of the 14th General Conference of the International Atomic energy Agency in Vienna in 1970. He laid the foundation of space and nuclear research and mode it capable of withstanding various sanctions by the developed world. The low-cost infrastructure for launching of satellites that exists today is also because of Sarabhai.
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The well-known tax consultant, Dinesh Vyas, says that JRD never entered into a debate over ‘tax avoidance,’ which was permissible, and ‘tax evasion,’ which was illegal; has sole moto was ‘tax compliance.’ On one occasion a senior executive of a Tata company tried to save on taxes. Before putting up that case, the chairman of the company took him to JRD. Mr.Vyas explained to JRD: “But sir, it is not illegal.” JRD asked, softly: “Not illegal, yes. But is it right?” Mr.Vyas says that during his decades of professional work no one had ever asked him that question. Mr.Vyas later wrote in an article: “JRD would have been the most ardent supporter of the view expressed by Lord Denning: “The avoidance of tax may be lawful, but it is not yet a virtue.”
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agitated, he would never ask you: “Can you wanted their suggestions on the running of come up?” He was always polite. the company. A note that he wrote on personnel policy resulted in the founding of JRD’s strong point was his intense interest a personnel department. As a further in people and his desire to make them happy. consequence of that note came about two Towards the end of his life he often said: pioneering strokes by Tata Steel: a profit “We don’t smile enough.” When I was sharing bonus and a joint consultative writing The Creation of Wealth, he told me council. Tata Steel has enjoyed peace about his dealings with his colleagues: “With between management and labour for 70 each man I have my own way. I am one who years. will make full allowance for a man’s character and idiosyncrasies. You have to Beyond business adapt yourself to their ways and deal accordingly and draw out the best in each Decades later, Tata Steel workers had man. At times it involves suppressing received several benefits. Then JRD looked yourself. It is painful but necessary…To be further. a leader you have got to lead human beings with affection.” In a speech in Madras in 1969 he called on the managements of industries located in It is a measure of his affection that even after rural or semi-urban areas to think of their some of them retired he would write to them. less fortunate neighbours in the surroundings He was always grateful and loyal. To him, region. “Let industry established in the ethics included gratitude, loyalty and countryside ‘adopt’ the villages in its affection. It came about because he thought neighbourhood; let some of the time of its not only of business but also of people. manager, it engineers, doctors and skilled specialists be spared to help and advise the In dealing with his workers he was people of the villages and to supervise new particularly influenced by Jamshedji Tata, developments undertaken by cooperative who at the height of capitalist exploitation effort between them and the company.” in the 1880s and the 1890s gave his workers accident insurance and a pension fund, To put JRD’s ideas into action, the Articles adequate ventilation at the workplace and of Association of leading Tata companies other benefits. He wanted workers to have were ameded and social obligations beyond a say in their own welfare and safety, and he the welfare of employees was accepted as India’s nuclear status owes much to Homi Bhabha. Trained by C.V.Raman at the Indian Institute of Science, he was to become director of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in 1940 and Chairman of the newly formed Atomic energy Commission in 1948. He had the unstinted support of Nehru. He was President of the UN Conference on Peaceful uses of Atomic Energy. India’s nuclear policy has been shaped by Bhabha. It was the foundation laid by him that has resulted in India developing its nuclear capability today.
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part of the group’s objectives. In the 19 century. Baron Edward Thurlow, the poet asked: “Did you ever expect a corporation to have a conscience?” The answer from J.R.D. Tata was: ‘Yes’. Whenever he could, he raised his voice against state capitalism. He never bent the system for his benefit. L.K. Jha recalled in 1986 that whenever JRD came to him when he was a Government Secretary, he came not on behalf of a company but the whole industry. He wanted no favours, only fairness.In his last years he was very conscious of the environment and industry’s part in spoiling it. He wrote in his Foreword to The Creation of Wealth in 1992: “I believe that the social responsibilities of our industrial enterprises should now extend, even beyond serving people, to the environment.”
The J.R.D.Tata Centre for Ecotechnology at the M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation was created in furtherance of his desire. To him India was not a geographical expression; it was people. When he was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1992, Tata employees arranged a function on the lawns of the National Centre for Performing Arts in Mumbai. A gentle breezes was blowing from the Arabian Sea. When JRD rose to speak, he said: “An American economist has predicted that in the next century India will be an economic superpower. I don’t want India to be an economic superpower. I want India to be a happy country.’ This was not only his hope, it was also his life. He brought sunshine into the lives of many of us who knew him. (Russi Lala is the author of “Beyond the Last Blue Mountain: A Life of JRD”)
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G.D.BIRLA-MASTER SCULPTOR
D.P.Mandelia
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hri G.D.Birla was a visionary. He always thought of the future. He remained always a great student of our culture and philosophy. Although he was a Hindu by birth, he revered every other religion as he thought that the basic tenets of all religions were the same. He was a man of character.
The resolution was ultimately passed in the Birla House and it was from there that the British police took Gandhiji and his associates at midnight to the Yeravada Jail in Pune. That shows the principles to which Birlaji attached the greatest value and to which he adhered till the very last moment of his life
His wife died when he was only in his thirties, I would compare Birlaji to a superb masterbut he decided to lead the life of a celibate sculptor. Birlaji did not sculpt inanimate objects but animate subjects—young men. till his last breath. Whenever he chose persons to take charge In 1942 when the Quit India Resolution was of his industries, charitable institutions, passed, Mahatma Gandhi with all his educational institutes or any other projects associates was staying with Birlaji in that he thought worthwhile undertaking, he Bombay. He and his elder brother, would not care to go in for an experienced Rameshwardasji were the hosts. One fine man, as ordinary men do; he would go and morning Gandhiji decided that nothing look for a novice, a young man. But not any would help the freedom movement than the young man-not any novice just picked up “Quit India” Resolution. As he was staying from the street. No, he would first look to with a big industrialist having great stakes his heredity. under the British rule, Gandhiji did not want to embarrass his hosts. He, therefore, Birlaji never left for the morrow anything decided to shift to the Congress Office in that could be done today. This was the key Bombay. When Rameshwardasji and to his success. Birlaji wanted India to Ghanshyamdasji heard of this, they were become independent and strong and for that shocked, and felt insulted. They approached purpose started industries. Not only Gandhiji humbly and told him that he would conventional industries, basic industries, new be doing injustice to them if, for fear of their industries, but he wanted to improve the bearing the anger of the British Empire, he agricultural produce quantity-wise and shifted to the Congress Office and passed quality-wise. He introduced new vegetables, the resolution there. “God willing, we will new fruits. He even started an Agricultural be able to weather the storm, if it comes, Farm and a Dairy at Pilani. and we would request you to stay on here (The Bhavan’s Journal 31-8-2004) and pass the resolution,” they said.
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SECTION - 3 Shining Institutions National Treasures
Each soul is potentially divine. The goal is to manifest this Divinity within, by controlling nature, external and internal. Do this either by work, or worship, or psychic control,or philosophy —by one or more or all of these — and be free. This is the whole o f re l i g i o n . D o c t r i n e s , o r dogmas, or rituals, or books, or temples, or forms, are but secondary details. Sitting in luxurious homes, surround with all the comforts of life, and doling out a little amateur religion may be good for other lands, but India has a truer instinct. It intuitively detects the mask. You must give up. Be great. No great work can be done without sacrifice…… Swami Vivekananda
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Thus spake Swami Vivekananda
This is the time to decide your future - while you possess the energy of youth, not when you are worn our and jaded, but in the freshness and vigour of youth. Work - this is the time; for the freshest, the untouched and unsmelled flowers alone are to be laid at the feet of the Lord and such He receives. Rouse youselves, therefore, for life is short. There are greater works to be done than aspiring to become lawyers and picking quarrels and such things. A far greater work is this sacrifice of yourselves for the benefit of your race, for the welfare of humanity.What is in this life?
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BHILAI STEEL JOINS LONG RAIL CLUB
N.N.Sachitanand
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he Indian Railways, which operates the second largest railway network in the world under one management, with nearly 109,000 km of rail tracks, will soon be taking one step closer to being able to run high speed trains such as those in Japan and France. This is because its sole supplier of rails, the Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) of the Steel Authority of India Ltd., has recently joined a select group of rail manufacturers in the world who can roll long rails of up to 80 metres in length. Such long rails, when welded together, form the tracks on which high speed trains can glide smoothly. In the post-Independence period, rail track length and route distances in India have grown by 33 per cent and 17 per cent respectively, but passenger traffic has snowballed by 550 per cent and freight by 600 per cent. To cope with this surge in traffic, the Railways have taken up several projects to enhance transit speed, axle load and safety. One of these is the upgradation of rail tracks. The BSP commenced manufacture of rails in 1960 and has since then supplied over 11 million tonnes of rails to the Indian Railways. It has been fulfilling the ever-changing needs of the Railways by producing first 45 kg, then 52 kg and now 60 kg class of rails with strength from 72 UTS to the present 90 UTS. Today the 90 UTS 60 kg rails supplied by
Bhilai to the Railways are the same rails as used by the advanced countries for the most demanding traffic conditions. This has been made possible by the continuous enhancement in the quality of steel and rolling practices. One of the most common reasons of rail failure in service is fatigue cracking caused by hydrogen embrittlement. Thanks to the installation of the latest secondary refining facilities of molten steel, before it goes for rail making, the BSP is able to produce the world’s cleanest rail steel with less than 2 ppm (parts per million) of hydrogen. So far, Bhilai’s Rail and Structural Mill was able to deliver rails in maximum lengths of 26 metres only. Work on the Long Rail Project, costing about Rs.400 crores, started in 2002 and the first 80 metre rail was commercially rolled and finished in April 2004. In the next few months, with the installation of special welding facilities, the BSP will be able to deliver rolled rails up to 80 metres in R52 and 65 metres in R60 category and welded panels of 240 metres in R52 and 260 metres in R60 category. The BSP will be the world’s second rail making facility after VAI, Austria, to have a unique yard mapping system for automatic storage and loading of long rails. (The Hindu)
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STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA
Business Summary (up to 3200 mm) and heavy plates, catering to the needs of the construction, automobile, shipbuilding, engineering and other sectors. SAIL’s plants and units have received ISO 9002/1 certifications and are well-equipped with the state-of-the-art technology to meet advanced needs and applications. ISO 9002certified stainless steel is exported to several developed countries.The Govt of India has approved the Financial and Business Restructuring of SAIL involving waiving of loans advanced to it from Steel Dvpt Fund to a value of Rs.5073 cr and Rs.381 cr from Govt of India; Provision of Govt guarantees with 50% interest subsidy for loan and interest thereon on Rs.1500 cr to be raised by SAIL from the market to finance reduction in manpower through voluntary retirement scheme; Provision of Govt guarantee for loan and interest thereon of Rs.1500 cr (incl.Rs.500 cr already agreed) to be raised by SAIL from the market primarily for meeting repayment obligation on past loans during 1999-2000. To initiate the process of divestment of the following non-core assets into a joint venture with protecting jobs of the existing employees
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ncorporated in 1973, the Steel Authority of India (SAIL) is a giant among the steel majors in India. It is the largest steel conglomerate in the country and the world’s ninth-largest steelmaker. It manages and operates five integrated steel plants at Bhilai, Madhya Pradesh; Bokaro, Bihar; Durgapur, West Bengal; Rourkela, Orissa; and Burnpur, West Bengal. It also has four units for special and alloy steels and ferro alloys at Durgapur, West Bengal; Salem, Ta m i l n a d u ; C h a n d r a p u r, Maharashtra; and Bhadravati, Karnataka.SAIL operates nine iron ore, five limestone, three dolomite and three coal mines besides generating 700 MW of captive power. The Central Marketing Organisation, with its headquaters at Calcutta, monitors its domestic market through an expanding network of stockyards, dockyards, branch sales offices and consignment agents while the International Trade Division looks after its export of world-class steel to as many as 70 countries across the globe, by establishing close liaison with buyers abroad.The company is the only producer of extra-wide
Two prominent non-resident Indians—Arun Sarin and Lakshmi Mittal—figure among the 25 most powerful people in Business in Europe, according to the Forbes magazine. SMARTHA BHARATA 108
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venture agreement with Tata Iron & Steel and Kalyani Steel for the creation of a company to manage their steel emarketplace, metaljunction.com.The company tied-up with the National Building Construction Corporation (NBCC) for formation ofa consortium to help reconstruction activity in quake-hit Gujarat. The combine will initially concentrate on building low-cost, quake-hit and cycloneresistant dwelling units suitable for rural Gujarat.The company has completed the
Modernisation Programme at Bhilai Steel Plant and also the Upgradation of Durgapur Steel Plant has also been completed during 2001-02. At Bokaro Steel Plant the equipment work is in progress and the Furnace was commissioned in 2002-03. The company incurred a capital expenditure of Rs.241 crores. The Company has entered into an agreement with Corus Consulting Ltd UK for Long Rail facility and the UK company will provide a technical back up support for SAIL. (From the Web Site)
INFOSYS IN $1 b CLUB, RECOMMENDS 3:1 BONUS
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T bell-wether, Infosys Technologies, the large outsourcing deals in the BPO sector Bangalore headquartered IT services could be ‘on hold,’ K.Gopalakrishnan, company, announced on Tuesday (13/04/ Infosys’ chief operating officer said. 04) that it had earned On the billion-dollar revenues of over a billion revenues, an ebullient dollars for the year ended Chairman and Chief March 31, 2004. This year, Mentor, N.R.Narayana a firmer rupee was still a Murthy, termed it “a cause for concern, but historical milestone”. prices would hold and the Nandan M.Nilekani, company would grow CEO, President and revenues by 24 per cent, Managing Director, senior Infosys executives said, “We have grown told reporters at Bangalore. from $121 million in Infosys Plans include higher investments in 1999 to a consolidated revenue of $1.06 subsidiaries in China, Australia, the BPO arm billion in 2004. Today, we have the required Projeon and in a new consulting firm, size, brand, compelling value proposition and Infosys Consulting, in the U.S. More ambition to build the next generation investments were also planned in improving software services and consulting company.” Infosys’ banking product, Finacle. However,
The technology of the Leh Berry drink comes from the Defence Research and Development Organisation’s field Research Laboratory in Leh, thereby making it the world’s highest life science laboratory. Leh Berry is an innovative fruit nector extracted from a Himalayan Shrub Seabuckthorn.
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AT INFOSYS, THEY DON’T REINVENT THE WHEEL
B.M.Thanuja
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ost knowledge management (KM) literature shows that a company should constantly invest in managing, as well as renewing its intellectual capital on an institutionalised basis. This is especially true of companies in software sector, which has a high knowledge component and evolves in a fast-paced globalised economy. Bangalore-based IT major Infosys has been one of the pioneers when it comes to knowledge management. During late 1999, when the company was on a particularly aggressive growth path, the seeds of a formal, organisation wide, integrated KM initiative were sown. The intiative is now driven by a steering committee consisting of the key heads plus members of the board of directors, with a formal budget process. One of the key initiatives under KM was the establishment of the Infosys Knowledge portal, “At Infosys, the focus has been on the culture and incentivisation of knowledge sharing, attention to the currency of information and ensuring its utility. The basic idea is that if something has been done already, that knowledge should be shared with the other employees. The process should not be repeated,” M.P.Ravindra, vice president and head-education and research says.
newcomers don’t have to go through a trial method. They can just log on to the internal KM portal and get the information they want,” he adds. Most companies put technology first, believing that if technology is in place, then everything will be fine. “The environment should be conducive and non-threatening for people to share knowledge. Infact, around 45 percent of our Infosys community are part of the KM initiative now and we expect it to grow fast. This is completely voluntary,” Ravindra says. The knowledge management portal provides the technology infrastructure for the KM initiative. Built on a platform of Microsoft suite of servers, the homegrown knowledge portal has an impressive array of features that facilitate the user in knowledge sharing and reuse. There ware nearly 2400 knowledge areas in the Infosys-proprietary knowledge taxonomy, arranged in a simple and intuitive4-level hierarchical structure which includes case studies, project snapshots, FAQs, experiential write-ups, tutorials, publications/white papers, etc.
“The knowledge thus generated is even delivered to clientfacing Infoscions and those outside the corporate intranet through appropriate delivery channels,” Ravindra says.The company’s KM initiative has made “We started this initiative in 1999 and since it the first Indian company to win the Global then there has been fantastic progress. We MAKE (Most Admired Knowledge (TNIE) take in almost 7,000 freshers every year. So Enterprises) award for 2003. the information stored helps a lot as these SMARTHA BHARATA 110
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LITTLE KNOWN FACTS ABOUT BEST KNOWN TCS
Romme Rodrigues heir recall value will tell you that Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) is one of the largest software development and services companies in the world. However, there is another facet to their commercial line of business, perhaps not known to many.
According to Takle, TCS has been working on the CBFL programme with several NGOs spread across 1000 literacy centres in India, and so far has helped over 20,000 illterates The company is also the pioneers in developing between the ages of 18-50 years who have missed formal a n d schooling but implementing speak some computer-based dialect of the programmes, language. which help in educating “In India we illiterate adults. conducted The company extensive provides this trials in software and in tandem with some cases the the State literacy mission in Andhra Pradesh, hardware absolutely free to literacy endeavours taken up by NGOs and government agencies. and have been working with various other Atul Takle, vice president (communication) of NGOs involved in this areas”, he said. TCS said, “The software we have created is a object-oriented visual recognition software, TCS is now planning to aggressively implement called computer based functional literacy this programme in South Africa. The company programme (CBFL), which uses the objects has been working with local linguists and and sounds as implements to teach a language. NGOs for a few months now assisting them in This helps the illiterate person to actually mapping the sounds and developing a script understand and learn the language. Through for one South African language, viz. Northern this aid we have seen that a completely illiterate Sotho, spoken by one of the Zulu tribes. South person can start reading a newspaper in about Africa has 11 official languages including 45 days”. The CBFL model is presently offered Afrikaans English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa,
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in six Indian languages including Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Hindi, Marathi and Gujarati.
The Tata Power Trading Company Ltd (TPTCL) has been awarded the first-ever power trading licence in India, by the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC). SMARTHA BHARATA 111
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isiZulu, Spepedi, Sosotho, Setswana, Siswati, Tshivenda and Xitsonga, besides several dialects. Many of these dialects do not have their own script and therefore use the Roman Script.
local language. The programme will now be implemented and we expect that it will spread throughout the region in the next few years”.As part of its social commitment, the company also provides the hardware in terms of computers and other peripherals required to run and use Takle said, “We have been working with the software, where it spends a substantial various agencies in South Africa in adult amount. Takle, however, did not want to reveal literacy programme for some time now, and any figures. have completely adapted the software to the
NO.1 WEALTH CREATOR IN THE MAKING
T.Bhanu
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CS is Asia’s largest exporter of IT crore), Tata Motors (Rs.11,866 crore) and services and India’s first IT services Reliance Engg. (Rs.13,431 crore). company to post revenues in excess of US $1 billion, and is rated as the number Analysts believe that by 2005-06, “TCS one IT Services Company in could well get past Reliance India in terms of revenue and Industries to take the No.1 profits. Now, with the inclusion wealth creator position among of TCS, the Tata Group market all individual companies.” To capitalization would jump from back their optimism, analysts a level of Rs.57,664 crore to point out that with the some Rs.98,375 crore and before company’s vision to become long achieve the nice, round, a ‘global ten by 2010’, both magic figure of Rs.100,000 turnover and profits would crore. rise sharply as was witnessed in 2004 and secondly Tata As it is, even among individual Group which holds nearly 85 private sector companies, TCS percent of the stock is not would be just behind Reliance known to offload its scrips in Industries’ market capitalization the market. “Like Wipro, TCS of Rs.75,132 crore with its market too in the medium term attracts a price capitalization figure of Rs.40,611 crore, earning multiple of 40 plus,” analysts feel. ahead of Bharti Tele-Ventures (Rs.28,662 Expect a lot of action when the share gets listed on the bourses. [T.N.I.E.] 70,000 units of notebook computers were sold in our country last year. SMARTHA BHARATA 112
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IOC, SBI TOP INDIAN PACK IN FORBES
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wenty-seven Indian companies have made it to Forbes magazine’s list of 2000 top firms worldwide with their ranking based on composite sales, profits, assets and market value. The Indian pack is led by Indian Oil Corporation followed by State Bank of India and is dominated by banking, oil and gas industries. Among the Indian companies making it to the list are ten banking organizations, five oil and gas industries. two and gas are led by Indian Oil Corporation, telecommunications firms and two software followed by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation giants, Infosys and Wipro. (273), Reliance industries (303), Bharat Petroleum Corporation (804) and Hindustan Indian Oil is ranked 243 and Oriental Bank of Petroleum Corporation (856). Among Commerce just about makes it, getting the last telecommunication companies, Mahanagar position—2000. The number of Indian firms Telephone Nigam is placed at 1922nd position making to the list is up from last year’s 20. followed by Bharti Tele Ventures at 1983. Besides State Bank Software company Infosys Technologies, is of India, which is ranked 1320 just above Wipro whose position ranked 251, the is 1343. Indian banking GAIL (India) is ranked 1238 and ITC gets a group making it to rank of 1311. the list include ICICI The Steel Authority of India is placed at 1393 Bank (820), Canara position much above Tata Iron and Steel Bank (1271), Punjab Company, which is ranked at 1530. Among National Bank others, HDFC gets 1380th ranking, Ranbaxy (1286), Bank of Lab 1621, Neyveli Lignite Corporation 1975 India (1344), Bank and Hindalco Industries 1998. Of the four of Baroda (1358), parameters set by Forbes, IOC leads in sales I n d u s t r i a l ($25.26 billion), SBI in assets ($104.80 billion) Development Bank of India (1555), Union and ONGC in profits ($2.20 billion) and market Bank of India (1642) and Indian Overseas value ($23.26 billion) Bank (1984). The companies dealing with oil Reliance Industries had made two new gas discoveries of its D-6 block, the site of the world’s largest gas find of 2002, in the Bay of Bengal. SMARTHA BHARATA 113
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WIPRO FOLLOWS RIVAL INFY INTO BILLION- DOLLAR CLUB
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hree days after rival IT firm Infosys crossed the $1 billion-in-revenue landmark, Wipro Ltd too has followed suit, bringing a lot of cheer to the industry (on 16/04/2004). The company has registered a total revenue of Rs.5,881 crore for fiscal 2004, an increase of 36 percent year-on-year. Its global IT services and projects revenue was Rs.4,358 crore, an increase of 43 percent over last
year, thus taking the company’s IT global services business revenues past the $1 billion mark. The IT giant surpassed market expectations with a total profit after tax of Rs.1,032 crore, a jump of 26 percent over last fiscal, while profit before interest and tax (PBIT) in global IT services and products was Rs.954 crore, an increase of 14 percent year-on-year.
RELIANCE STRIKES GAS OFF ORISSA COAST
Ramnath Subbu
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n a significant development in oil and gas exploration, Reliance Industries has struck gas off the Orissa Coast in the Bay of Bengal in the exploration block NECOSN-97/2. “We have made an initial estimate of the potential from seismic and other studies,
which indicate an in-place volume of about 4-5 trillion cubic feet. We will, however, declare the value only after we have a certificate”. The Reliance authorities claimed.
Sundaram-Clayton won the Demining award for quality, a coveted honour. Last year four Indian companies, Rane Brakes, Brakes India, Mahindra and Mahindra and Sona Koya landed this award. The number of Indian companies operating in the United Arab emirates has crossed the 10,000 mark.
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AMUL - THE PRICELESS
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he mighty Ganges at it’s origin is but a tiny stream in the Gangotri ranges of the Himalayas. Similar is the story of Amul which inspired ‘Operation Flood’ and heralded the ‘White Revolution’ in India. It began with two village cooperatives and 250 liters of milk per day, nothing but a trickle compared to the flood it has become today. Today Amul collects, processes and distributes over a million liters of milk and milk products per day, during the peak, on behalf of more than a thousand village cooperatives owned by half a million farmer members. Further, as Ganga-ma carries the aspirations of generations for moksha, Amul too has become a symbol of the aspirations of millions of farmers.Creating a pattern of liberation and self-reliance for every farmer to follow.
o rg a n i s a t i o n . This realisation is what led to the establishement of the Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Limited (popularly known as Amul) which was formally registered on December 14, 1946. The Kaira Union began pasteurising milk of for Bombay Milk Scheme in June 1948. An assured market proved a great incentive to the milk producers of the districts. By the end of 1948, more than 400 farmers joined in more village societies, and the quantity of milk handled by one Union increased from 250 to 5,000 liters per day. Obstacles: Springboards for success. Each failure, each obstacle, each stumbling block can be turned into a success story. In the early years, Amul had to face a number of problems. With every problem came opportunity. A chance to turn a negative into a positive. Milk by-products and supplementary yield which suffered from the same lack of marketing and distribution facilities became encumbrances. Instead of being bogged down by their fate, they were used as stepping-stones for expansion. Backward integration of the process led the cooperatives to advances in animal husbandry and veterinary practice. Milk by-products: An excuse to expand. The response to these provided stimulus for further growth. For example, as the movement spread in the district, it was found that the Bombay Milk Scheme could not absorb the extra milk collected by the Kaira
The revolution started as an awareness among the farmers that grew and matured into a protest movement and the determination to liberate themselves. Over four decades ago, the life of a farmer in Kaira District was very much like that of his counterpart anywhere else in India. His income was derived almost entirely from seasonal crops. The income from milch buffaloes was undependable. The marketing and distribution system for the milk was controlled by private traders and middlemen. As milk is perishable, farmers were compelled to sell it for whatever they were offered. Often, they had to sell cream and ghee at throwaway prices. In this situation, the one who gained was the private trader. Gradually, the realisation dawned on the farmers that the exploitation by the trader could be checked only if marketed their milk themselves. In order to do that they needed to form some sort of an SMARTHA BHARATA
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Union in winter, when the production on an average was 2.5 times more than in summer. Thus, even by 1953, the farmer-members had no assured market for the extra milk produced in winter. They were again forced to sell a large surplus at low rates to the middlemen. The remedy was to set up a plant to process milk into products like butter and milk powder. A Rs 5 million plant to manufacture milk powder and butter was completed in 1955. In 1958, the factory was expanded to manufacture sweetened condensed milk. Two years later, a new wing was added for the manufacture of 2500 tonnes of roller-dried baby food and 600 tonnes of cheese per year, the former based on a formula developed with the assistance of Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore. It was the first time anywhere in the world that cheese or baby food was made from buffalo milk on a large, commercial scale. Another milestone was the completion of a project to manufacture balanced cattle feed. The plant was donated by OXFAM under the Freedom From Hunger Campaign of the FAO.To meet the requirement of milk powder for the Defense, the Kaira Union was asked by the Government of India in 1963 to setup additional milk drying capacity. A new dairy capable of producing 40 tonnes of milk powder and 20 tonnes of butter a day was speedily completed. It was declared open in 1965. The Mogar Complex where high protein weaning food, chocolate and malted food are being made was another initiative by Amul to ensure that while it fulfilled the social responsibility to meet the demand for liquid milk, its members were not deprived of the benefits to be had from the sale of high valueadded products. Cattle: From stumbling blocks to building blocks.Traditionally dairying was a subsidairy occupation of the farmers of Kaira. However, the contribution to the farmer’s income was SMARTHA BHARATA
not as prominent as his attachment to dairying as a tradition handed down from one generation to the next. The milk yield from animals, which were maintained mainly on the
by products of the farm, was decidedly low. That together with the lack of facilities to market even the little produced rendered the scientific practice of animal husbandry irrational as well as unaffordable. The return on the investment as well as the prospects of being able to market the product looked very bleak. It was a vicious cycle reinforced by generations of beliefs. The Kaira Union broke the cycle by not only taking upon themselves the responsibility of collecting the marketable surplus of milk but also provided the members with every provision needed to enhance production. Thus the Kaira Union has full-fledged machinery geared to provide animal health care and breeding facilities. As early as late fifties, the Union started making high quality buffalo semen. Through village society workers artificial insemination service was made available to the rural animal population. The Union started its mobile veterinary services to render animal health care at the farmers’ doorstep. Probably for the first time in the country, veterinary first aid services, by trained personnel, were made available in the villages.The Union’s 16 mobile veterinary dispensaries are manned by fully qualified staff. All the villages are visited bi-monthly, on a predetermined day, to provide animal health care. A 24-hour Emergency Service
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is also available at a fee (Rs. 35 for members and Rs. 100 for non-members). All the mobile veterinary vans are equipped with Radio Telephones. The Union runs a semen production center where it maintains high pedigreed Surti buffalo bulls, Holstein Friesian bulls, Jersey bulls and 50 per cent crossbred bulls. The semen obtained from these bulls is used for artificial breeding of buffaloes and cows belonging to the farmer members of the district. The artificial insemination service has become very popular because it regulates the frequency of calving in cows and buffaloes thus reducing their dry period. Not only that, a balanced feed concentrate is manufactured in the Union’s Cattle Feed Plant and sold to the members through the societies at cost price. Impressive though its growth, the unique feature of the Amul sagas did not lie in the extensive use of modern technology, nor the range of its products, not even the rapid inroads it made into the market for dairy products. The essence of the Amul story lies in the breakthrough it achieved in modernizing the subsistence economy of a sector by organizing the rural producers in the areas. The Kaira experiment: A new beginning in more ways than one. A system which involves participation of people on such a large magnitude does not confine itself to an isolated sector. The ripples of its turbulence affect other areas of the society as well. The cooperatives in the villages of Kaira are contributing to various desirable social changes such as: · The yearly elections of the management committee and its chairman, by the members, are making the participants aware of their SMARTHA BHARATA
rights and educating them about the democratic process. · Perpetuating the voluntary mix of the various ethnic and social groups twice-a-day for common causes and mutual betterment has resulted in eroding many social inequilibria. The rich and the poor, the elite and the ordinary come together to cooperate for a common cause. · Live exposure to various modern technologies and their application in day-today life has not only made them aware of these developments but also made it easier for them to adopt these very processes for their own betterment. One might wonder whether the farmer who knows almost everything about impregnating a cow or buffalo, is also equally aware of the process in the humans and works towards planning it. · More than 900 village cooperatives have created jobs for nearly 5000 people in their own villages — without disturbing the socioagro-system — and thereby the exodus from the rural areas has been arrested to a great extent. · The income from milk has contributed to their household economy. Besides, women, who are the major participants, now have a say in the home economy.
Independent studies by various individuals and institutions have shown that as high as 48 per cent of the income of the rural household in Kaira District is being derived from dairying. Since dairying is a subsidairy occupation for the majority of the rural population, this income is helping these people not only to liberate themselves from the stronghold of poverty but also to elevate their social status.
(From the Web Site)
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AMUL, ALL OF 40 YEARS
Ramesh Narayan
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read somewhere that Amul completed 40 years as a brand. The mind is filled with images. To me Amul has always been even more than a brand. It has symbolized a movement. Another way to look at it is that Amul the brand symbolizes a movement. A co-operative movement where thousands of villages have gotten together to pool their resources and create wealth for themselves, and for the nation. Milk was a scarce commodity 40 years back. I distinctly recall the trouble one had to take to get a milk card. This card entitled you to a specified quantity of milk at a particular time from a government run milk booth. Today, half of India’s urban population will not even believe this. They have been born and bred in a scenario where several brands of milk jostle with each other for precious shelf space in retail stores.
took away from the Amul butter outdoor campaign. Though I do not have first hand information, I also see the hidden hand of a mature client behind the clever copy of a dedicated, thinking advertising agency. Interference by a lesser client would have ruined the entire effort. It is something that most clients can learn from. Amul chocolates were launched at a time when Cadbury’s was a generic name. “A gift for someone you love” was the tagline that positioned the chocolate as a special gift. Interesting packaging added the unique positioning and Amul chocolates clawed its way into an almost monopolistic market scenario.
Amul milk has always had advertising with To a large extent this happy situation is on a fun theme. I believe a great consumer account of a brand called Amul. And the insight has driven this effort. Children seem movement it represents. On the advertising to go through a phase where they detest milk front, Amul has meant several only because it is very high on things to me. Firstly there have the list of compulsion that is been some of the finest trotted out to them by their examples of topical outdoor mom’s. “It’s good for you” advertising from Da Cunha’s transforms into “it’s boring” in for Amul butter. Sometimes the mind of the child. The provocative, sometimes funny, “Doodh dooh..” film has the always interesting, never with lively lilt in its music and the malice. That’s the message I energetic bounce in its action India’s fixed line telecom network is estimated to touch 47 million by March 2005. SMARTHA BHARATA 118
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that converts milk into a frothy, splashy, fun the late Smita Patil was a tribute to the drink. That it is healthy is just a bonus. movement and to the communication process as well. Apart from the products, the The entire range of milk products from Amul corporate film that is still showing holds a including cheese have been a modern case very special place for me. The music, the study. Their abortive foray into pizzas, words, the ‘super’ at the end of the film all though intellectually sound could be contribute to make it worthy of the dismissed as an aberration. movement itself. All in all, it’s been a wonderful four decades of brand building for Amul has helped produce a movie a wonderful brand. Their agencies can take “Manthan’, The wonderful film that starred a collective bow.
TELCO CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT COMPANY
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he company manufactures construction equipment that is used in major infrastructure projects in India. It has remained a market leader for the past five years, despite stiff competition. It has revolutionised the Indian construction equipment industry, with the introduction of the V series of hydraulic excavators. The company has an extensive customer base that includes government and institutional buyers, and contractors. The company was the country’s first construction equipment manufacturer to receive ISO 9001 certification. Areas of business The company has used state-of-the-art technology to manufacture excavators and backhoe loaders. It enjoys a 90 per cent share of the crawler crane market in India. It is the only Indian manufacturer that produces
100 tonne cranes. These are the largest machines made locally. The company was the first to introduce mini-excavators in India, and its brand EX60, is the most successful machine to be made in India so far, with more than 1,300 machines being sold in the last three years. It is the largest manufacturer of hydraulic excavators in India, with over 6,000 machines in the market. It offers the widest available range of hydraulic excavators, eight models ranging from 2 tonnes to 60 tonnes in size. The company can indigenously design and develop products.The company’s revenue in 1998 was Rs. 3.81 billion. It has an average annual growth rate of 21 per cent. (From the Web Site)
Knitwear exports from Tirupur are expected to touch Rs.10,000 crore by 2007. SMARTHA BHARATA 119
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AMUL ADS-MAKE YOUR DAYS
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MUL means “priceless” in Sanskrit. The brand name “Amul,” from the Sanskrit “Amoolya,” was suggested by a quality control expert in Anand. Amul products have been in use in millions of homes since 1946. Amul Butter, Amul Milk Powder, Amul Ghee, Amulspray, Amul Cheese, Amul Chocolates, Amul Shrikhand, Amul Ice cream, Nutramul, Amul Milk and Amulya have made Amul a leading food brand in India. Today Amul is a symbol of many things.... Of high-quality products sold at reasonable prices.... Of the genesis of a vast co-operative network.... Of the triumph of indigenous technology.... Of the marketing up overnight. “It was the first Amul hoarding savvy of a farmers’ organisation.... And of a that was put up in Mumbai,” recalls Sheela Mane. “ People loved it. I remember it was proven model for dairy development. our favourite topic of discussion for the next 50 years after it was first launched, Amul’s one week! Everywhere we went somehow sale figures have jumped from 1000 tonnes or the other the campaign always seemed to a year in 1966 to over 25,000 tonnes a year crop up in our conversation.” in 1997. No other brand comes even close to it. It was all because a thumb-sized girl Call her the Friday to Friday star. Round climbed on to the hoardings and put a spell eyed, chubby cheeked, winking at you, from strategically placed hoardings at many traffic on the masses. lights. She is the Amul moppet everyone Bombay: Summer of 1967. A Charni Road loves to love. How often have we stopped, flat. Mrs. Sheela Mane, a 28-year-old looked, chuckled at the Amul hoarding that housewife is out in the balcony drying casts her sometime as the coy, shy cine star, clothes. From her second floor flat she can a bold sensuous actress or simply as herself, see her neighbours on the road. There are dressed in her little polka dotted dress and a other people too. The crowd seems to be red and white bow, holding out her favourite growing larger by the minute. Unable to curb packet of butter. her curiosity Sheela Mane hurries down to see what all the commotion is about. She That October, lamp kiosks and the bus sites expects the worst but can see no signs of an of the city were splashed with the moppet accident. It is her four-year-old who draws on a horse. The baseline simply said, her attention to the hoarding that has come Thoroughbread, Utterly Butterly Delicious SMARTHA BHARATA 120
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Amul,. It was a matter of just a few hours before the daCunha office was ringing with calls. Not just adults, even children were calling up to say how much they had liked the ads. “The response was phenomenal,” recalls Sylvester daCunha. “We knew our campaign was going to be successful.” For 30 odd years the Utterly Butterly girl has managed to keep her fan following intact. So much so that the ads are now ready to enter the Guinness Book of World Records for being the longest running campaign ever. The ultimate compliment to the butter came when a British company launched a butter and called it Utterly Butterly, last year. India looked forward to Amul’s evocative humour. If the Naxalite movement was the happening thing in Calcutta, Amul would be up there on the hoardings saying, “Bread without Amul Butter, cholbe na cholbe na (won’t do, won’t do). If there was an Indian Airlines strike Amul would be there again saying, Indian Airlines Won’t Fly Without Amul. There are stories about the butter that people like to relate over cups of tea. “For over 10 years I have been collecting Amul ads. I especially like the ads on the backs of the butter packets, “says Mrs. Sumona Varma. What does she do with these ads? “ I have made an album of them to amuse my
grandchildren,” she laughs. “ They are almost part of our culture, aren’t they? My grandchildren are already beginning to realise that these ads are not just a source of
amusement. They make them aware of what is happening around them.” From the Sixties to the Nineties, the Amul, and their ads have come a long way. While most people agree that the Amul ads were at their peak in the Eighties they still maintain that they continue to tease a laughter out of them. Where does Amul’s magic actually lie? Many believe that the charm lies in the catchy lines. That we laugh because the humour is what anybody would enjoy. They don’t pander to your nationality or certain sentiments. It is pure and simple, everyday fun.
2003 Saw Maruti 800 Model production grow by 12% to reach 1,70,000 cars. Maruti Zen, the higher priced vehicle achieved a 3% growth to sell Rs.2864 crores worth cars. SMARTHA BHARATA 121
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TATA STEEL’S COMMITMENT TO STAY AHEAD IN INDIAN INDUSTRY
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stablished in 1907 by its founder J.N.Tata, Tata Steel is Asia’s first and India’s largest integrated private sector steel company. Over the years, Tata Steel has emerged as a thriving steel enterprise due its to ability to transform itself rapidly to meet the challenges of the highly competitive global economy and commitment to become a supplier of choice by delighting its customers with service and products. Constant modernization and the introduction of the state-of-the art technology at Tata Steel has enabled it to stay ahead in the industry and successfully meet the expectations of all sections of the stakeholders. Tata Steel’s four phase modernization programme in the steel works has enabled it to acquire the most modern steel making facilities in the world. Recently the company commissioned its 1.2 million tonne capacity Cold Rolling Mill complex at Jamshedpur at global speed and cost. Its fifth phase of modernization programmed leveraged the intellectual capabilities of its employees to generate sustainable value for the stakeholders. Tata Steel is taking knowledge management initiatives to shift focus from creating new physical assets to utilizing them with ingenuity and a study business sense. The company has been recognized as Asia’s Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise at the World Knowledge Forum in Seoul, South Korea.
Most recently it has embarked on a programme for the expansion of its existing steel making capacity by one million tonne to reach a rated capacity of five million tonne per annum. Tata Steel’s turnover in the 02-03 fiscal was nearly Rs.9800 crore. The company’s profit in the same financial period was Rs.1012 crore which is the highest that it has ever
achieved. The company also produced a record 3.98 million tonne of saleable steel. And if indications are to be believed, the 0304 fiscal will produce much better results. With the steel industry passing through a boom, officials of the company believe that the profit margin may increase by more than 25 percent. In the 02-03 financial year, the company also announced a record dividend of 80 percent.
Some Senior business executives stress that outsourcing is nothing but a “natural flow money to a more efficient system”. SMARTHA BHARATA 122
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It should also be mentioned here that Tata Steel’s community based initiatives far exceed its business mandate. Its numerous socially responsible activities are aimed at those living in and round its areas of operations, including its mines and collieries. The Community Development and Social Welfare, Rural and Tribal Services, Centre for Family Initiatives and Sports departments run and manage programmes which are designed to improve living conditions of the socially and economically under-privileged. These are self-sustaining programmes and involve the maximum participation by the target groups. Income generation scheme for the women, farmers, and youth, providing safe drinking water in the rural areas, health clinics, drugs, alcohol and HIV/AIDS awareness programmes, youth involvement in sports and cultural pursuits are some of the significant activities undertaken by the company. Tata Steel has also been conferred with the Global Business Coalition Award for 2003 for Business Excellence in the community for its outstanding contribution in the field of HIV/AIDS awareness campaign. Its civic branch services, the municipal and all other civic services and amenities that are required for the township of Jamshedpur and has been awarded the
ISO 14000 Environment Management System Certificate, the first in the country. The quest for excellence at Tata Steel is not just a process but a way of life. It was adjudged the Best Integrated Steel Plant by the Ministry of Steel in 2000-01 and was conferred the Prime Minister’s Trophy for the third time in a row and fourth overall. Tata Steel also received the JRD Quality Value Award and Sustained Excellence Award: the Export Engineering Promotion Council Award in 2000-01. The Tata Steel website was declared the best in 2002 by the International Iron and Steel Institute in Belgium. All its divisions including its steel works, mines and collieries have been ISO 14001 certifies for environment management. This certification is a reaffirmation of Tata Steel’s belief that better environmental management leads to superior business performance. The company has also been recognized by World Steel Dynamics as a world class steel maker. The steel company caters to a wide gamut of customers in India and abroad. They include automobile manufacturers, producers of white goods, the construction industry and consumers of tubes, bearings etc. (The New Indian Express)
Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd, celebrated its 14th Foundation Day and the 6th successful year of its operation phase on October 15,2003. On this momentous occasion it announced the launch of its revolutionary ‘Sky Bus Technology’ which is designed to eliminate 2000 tonnes of carbon emission daily. SMARTHA BHARATA 123
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TATA STEEL TO PUSH FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF BUSINESS
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he Tata Iron and Steel Company (Tisco) will announce in the course of this year and policy framework whereby it “will do business” only with entities which show a commitment to corporate social responsibility. “We want to encourage our suppliers and customers to adopt social responsibility because business has an obligation to give something back to society”, said B.Muthuraman, Managing Director of Tisco, which is known for its committed budgets down the decades for community welfare beyond the confines of its own employees. Mr.Muthuraman disagreed with the proposition that the “business of business is business and adding to shareholder value” and that social welfare was beyond its purview. For business to be “sustainable in the long term”, they had to commit themselves to social good, he said. The Tisco MD said his company was already the lowest cost producer of steel in the world, thanks to huge investments it made
in modernization in the post-1991 years and total involvement of the workforce up to the lowest level in evolving and implementing the company’s vision. Further cost cuts would be possible only if externalities like infrastructure and rail freight improved. The steel industry the world over had performed poorly till the last three years or so, because of slump in demand with developed countries with limited populations having crossed the stage of creation of infrastructure. The revival in the fortunes of steel at present was due to the demand shifting to countries like India and China, which had both large programmes for building infrastructure like roads and ports and huge populations that could sustain a rising domestic demand, he observed. Mr.Muthuraman said his company has started drilling work for its Titanium dioxide project in Tamil Nadu and had commissioned studies on availability of water, power and other requirements.
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TATA STEEL BUYS NAT STEEL DIVISION
Ramnath Subbu
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n line with its stated objective of growth and globalization, the Tata Iron and Steel Company has signed definitive agreements with Nat-Steel Ltd., Singapore, $486.4 million (about Rs.1,313 crores). Nat Steel will spin off its entire steel business into a wholly owned subsidiary. Nat Steel Asia Pte.ltd., subsequent to which Tata Steel will acquire 100 per cent of the equity interest in Nat Steel Asia.. The steel business of Nat Steel reported a turnover of S$1.4 billion (Rs.3,820 crores) and a profit before tax of S$47 million (Rs.127 crores).
Nat Steel is the dominant steel producer of Singapore and owns steel mills in China, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Australia. The business is focused on long products and has a capacity to produce about two million tones annually of rebars, wire rods, pre-stressed concrete wires and strands. The acquisition also includes a 26 per cent equity interest owned by Nat Steel in Southern Steel Berhad, a 1.3 million tonne steelmaker in Malaysia. The board of the new company will be reconstituted only after the Expansion plans transaction is completed. The company is at present implementing a one million tonne expansion project at its Globalisation initiative Jamshedpur works, which will raise capacity B.Muthuraman, Managing Director, Tata to five million tones annually by September Steel, said the acquisition was a significant 2005. Further expansion to 7.4 million step in Tata Steel’s globalization initiative tonnes is in an advanced stage of planning and will act as a beach-head investment for and will be commissioned in 2008-09.
3,84,935 units of automobiles were exported by India between April 2003 and January 2004.
Tata Steel in the high g r o w t h geographies of China and Southeast Asia. Through this transaction, Tata Steel will increase its manufacturing footprint to seven new countries in Asia. “All of these countries are strong in steel consumption. The opportunity to go beyond the seven countries is even greater now than earlier. We will look for more acquisitions and acquisitive growth and this is a good platform for further acquisitions in Southeast Asia,” said Mr.Muthuraman. Mr.Muthuraman added that plans were being worked out for Nat Steel to source semi-finished steel form India. “Steel billets could be sourced from Tata Steel and hop for better value addition. Infact, the value addition would start as soon as the billets are supplied by Tata Steel,” in 2003-04, Tata Steel produced and sold our million tonnes of flat and long products.
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IDEAS THAT HAVE WORKED: THE INDIAN CAR – 1 [ TATA INDICA]
Ajay Kumar
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ill about two years ago, India was no different from other less developed countries in one crucial aspect: it had not designed and produced a car indigenously. India’s case was even curiouser: the country had sent missiles into space but had not been able to produce an indigenous car. That situation changed with the launch of the Tata Indica in December 1998. How did Tata Engineering achieve this feat? R N Tata, Executive Chairman of Tata Engineering, shared his experience of creating the Indica with a select audience in New Delhi recently.
One: the company’s record of having developed its own products. In the early ’80s, Tata Engineering had developed a range of commercial vehicles — the popular 407 and 709 series— followed by the Tata Estate and Sierra, both built on a pick-up platform, and later by the Sumo and the Safari. Two: Mr Tata’s faith in the capabilities of the company’s engineers, particularly its 300-odd young engineers, whose talent and skills, he said, are symptomatic of India’s spirit of wanting to dare.
The basic concepts of the car were set out Mr Tata was speaking for an ongoing lecture in 1995. The car should, it was decided, be series on “The Ideas That Have Worked”. designed around the specific needs of the Indian car owner. The story began, said Mr Tata, in 1993, when, speaking at the annual convention of With these as the specs, the company’s the Automotive Component Manufacturers’ designers at its Engineering Research Centre Association (ACMA), he put forth the idea (ERC) created some renderings of the car of an Asian car to be produced as a which were refined and finalised in collaborative effort by the Indian automobile association with the famous Milan-based industry. The response of the industry, Mr design house, I.D.E.A. Tata recalled, was a mix of skepticism and Computer aided designs of the Indica cynicism. • Total number of engineers who worked on the Indica project: 700. Tata Engineering then decided it would • Time taken from conception to attempt to produce the car on its own. In completion: 31 months. taking this decision, it was emboldened by two factors: Sardar Patel University in Gujarat has become India’s first varsity to have a radio station of its own. SMARTHA BHARATA 126
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• Number of components specially developed for the Indica: 3,885 • Number of dies specially manufactured for the Indica: 740 • Number of production fixtures created for the Indica: 4,010 • Cost of the project: Rs 1,700 crore, sub-divided into: development Rs 206 crore, tooling Rs 74 crore, and plant Rs 1,420 crore.
77 per cent of the vehicle’s cost. In doing all this, Mr Tata says, the vendors have created some 12,000 jobs.
The Indica has now been on the Indian roads for the last 20 months. How has it done? According to the latest figures available, Tata Engineering has sold nearly 82,000 Indicas and has captured a market share of 14.4 per cent in Compared to the $400 its segment. For million that Tata its passenger Engineering spent on cars, Tata creating the Indica, Mr Engineering Tata said, the creation decided to create of a new car in the West a separate typically entails an S t r a t e g i c investment of well over $1.5- $2 billion in Business Unit (SBU) with its own sales and creating the production facilities, with marketing set-up. Currently, the Indica is development and tooling costing in the sold and serviced at over 70 dealers and 164 region of $800 million more. authorised service centres. The work is done in the five shops that create the Indica: the engine shop, the transmission shop, the press and welding shop, the paint shop and the assembly shop. As far as the Indica is concerned, Mr Tata said, Tata Engineering’s next challenges are: one, to begin exports — with a batch of 200 on its way to Italy as a “seeding” operation; two, to tackle quality-related issues, and, The other initiative that Tata Engineering three, to speedily come out with variants. took was to involve its vendors in the development of the car in a major way — Together, R.N.Tata concludes, “We can right from the concept stage. Eventually, make things happen; we just need to do it.” over 300 vendors supplied some 1,360 parts Like Tata Engineering did, with the Indica. of the Indica to Tata Engineering, comprising (From the Web Site)
Scientists of the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic plants (CIMAP), Lucknow, have got a US patent for developing a disease-resistant and high straw and seed yielding variety of poppy plant. The new, plant, known as “Rakshit” took about seven years to develop by a long process of hybridisation, both in the laboratory as well as in the fields. SMARTHA BHARATA 127
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TISCO NOTES ON VISION 2007
1. To seize the opportunities of tomorrow and create a future that will make us an EVA positive company: 2. To continue to improve the quality of life of our employees and the communities we serve. 3. Revitalize the core business for a sustainable future: 4. Venture into new businesses that will own a share of our future: 5. Uphold the spirit and values of TATAs towards nation building: Strategic Goals: 6. Move from commodities to Brands: 7. EVA Positive Core Business: 8. Continue to be lowest cost producer of steel: 9. Value creating partnerships with customers and suppliers: 10. Enthused & Happy employees: 11. Sustainable Growth: Strategy 12. Manage Knowledge: 13. Outsource Strategically: 14. Encourage Innovation and Allow the Freedom to Fail: 15. Excel at TBEM: (The TATA Business Excellence Model) 16. Unleash people’s potential and create leaders who will build the future: 17. Invest in attractive new Businesses: 18. Ensure Safety & Environmental Sustainability: 19. Divest, Merge, Acquire: (From the Web Site)
Four Indian companies have made it to 2004 edition of fortune 500 the list of the world’s largest corporations (by sales) brought out by the Fortune magazine—up from three in 2003. Till 2003, Indian Oil was the only company to feature on the list. It has now been joined by Reliance Industries, Bharat Petroleum and Hindustan Petroleum. SMARTHA BHARATA 128
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150 YEARS OF THE INDIAN POST OFFICE
he Indian Post Office was recognised as a separate organisation of national importance and was placed, for the first time, under the unitary control of a Director General on October 1, 1854 Today, India has the largest postal network in the world with 1,55,618 post offices (as on March 2003), of these, 1,39,081 post offices are in rural areas. At the time of Independence, there were 23,344 post offices in India. A look at how the Indian postal network compares with some other countries
Countries Population (Million) Area (lakh Sq.Km.) No.of Post Office People per Post Office Service Area per Post Office (Sq.KM)
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USA UK Germany Brazil South Africa Nigeria China Australia Japan Egypt India
284.8 59.5 82.4 172.4 44.3 116.9 1284.9 19.4 127.3 67.9 1027.0
93.72 2.44 3.57 85.12 12.21 9.24 95.96 77.13 3.78 10.01 32.88
38,123 17,633 13,000 12,520 2,650 4,624 57,135 3,872 24,760 5,399 1,55,618
7,471 3,377 6,335 13,769 16,728 25,288 22,490 5,008 5,143 12,575 6,602
245.85 13.84 27.46 679.87 460.77 199.78 167.97 1,992.09 15.26 185.49 21.13
Some landmarks *1854: Post Office Act XVII introduced * 1863: Railway Sorting * 1873: Embossed envelopes on sale * 1876: India joins Universal Postal Union * 1877: VPP and parcel services started * 1879: Postcard introduced * 1880: Money Order launched * 1935: Indian Postal Order * 1972: PIN introduced * 1985: Post and Telecom departments separated * 1986: Speed Post launched * 2004: e Post introduced (The Hindu)
$120 billion is the size of the apparel and textile industry in our country. SMARTHA BHARATA 129
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COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
he council of Scientific and Industrial 9. CSIR has invented the first-ever once a Research (CSIR) has remarkably week non-steroidal family planning pill in transformed itself into a performancethe world-Saheli. driven and user-focussed organization. 10. CSIR has designed India’s first-ever parallel processing computer 1. CSIR transformation is listed as being FLOSOLVER amongst the top ten achievements of Indian 11. CSIR spearheaded the discovery of a new Science and Technology in the 20th Century anti-tubercular molecule after a gap of 40 by J.V.Narlikar. years through a unique public-private 2. CSIR is listed along with WIPRO, Infosys partnership. and Reliance as organizations that managed 12. CSIR has developed an oral genetically radical change, the best in the postengineered vaccination to treat cholera. liberalized India-in the book “World Class 13. CSIR has developed a potential in India”-by Sumantra Ghoshal. therapeutic agent from herbal sources for 3. Business India says that the CSIR labs have chronic myelogenous Leukaemia. been transformed by the power of 14. CSIR has saved thousands of lives worldenterprise and proactive management. over by developing the anti-cerebral 4. Making India globally competitive in Malaria drug E-MAL. Science and Technology is CSIR’s job. It 15. CSIR has developed Asman the novel achieved the first-ever breakthrough of herbal therapeutic, which is giving relief flowering of Bamboo within weeks as to thousands of Asthma patients. against 20 to 120 years in Nature. 16. CSIR has set up the biggest net-worked 5. CSIR was the first to analyse genetic programme on bioactives for drug diversity of the most enigmatic tribes of discovery based on traditional medicines. Andaman and established their origin out 17. CSIR has partnered more than 50,000 of Africa 60,000 years ago. companies with turnover ranging from 6. CSIR developed the first transgenic Rs.5 lakhs to Rs.five lakh crores. Drosophile model for drug screenings for 18. CSIR has spearheaded India’s largest human cancer. public-private partnership programme of 7. CSIR introduced DNA finger-printing in New Millennium Indian Technology India which is very critical in crime Leadership Initiative with over 220 private detection, paternity determination and wild sector and institutional partners. life preservation. 19. CSIR has heralded the dawn of Civil 8. CSIR catapulted India to be the first Aviation in the country by the inaugural Pioneer Investor under the U.N. Law of flight of a 14 seater multi-role aircraft Sea Treaty. SARAS. 3,63,655 units of motorcycles were sold in India during February 2004. SMARTHA BHARATA 130
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20. CSIR has rejuvenated India’s one hundredyear old refinery at Digboi using the most modern molecular distillation Technology. 21. CSIR has, provided the critical technology for NMP Lube Extraction plant of the capacity 2,50,000 tonnes per annum. 22. CSIR is the first to break the cartels in high technology areas of catalysts and do reverse transfer of technology to the Europe and the US. 23. CSIR has provided the leverage to the biotech and pharma industry by spearheading the development of a versatile portable P.C. based Software ‘Bio-suite’ for Bioinformatics. 24. CSIR has successfully challenged the grant of a patent in the US for use of Haldi
(turmeric) for wound-healing, now popularly known as the “Second Battle of Haldighati” 25. CSIR fought at the global fora to give Indian Traditional Knowledge its pride of place, so that it could be treated at par with industrial property system. 26. CSIR has established-the first-ever-in the world-“Traditional Knowledge Digital Library” accessible in eight international languages. 27. CSIR has remained among the top three in the list of PCT patent applications amongst all the developing countries during the last three years. 28. CSIR has topped the list of U.S. patent holders for the last 5 years in India (From the CSIR Bulletins)
LIC has emerged the biggest term lending institution in the country, up from its number three position a year ago. LIC loan disbursements grew 154%, to Rs.15,781 crore in 2003-04, which is 12% higher than the combined disbursements of IDBI, IFCI, IDFC, SIDBI and IIBI. India exports 4 lakh tonne of stainless steel every year valued at Rs.4,000 crore. SMARTHA BHARATA 131
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THE INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH (ICAR)
Kalpana Rajaram and Dr.P.K.Suri
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he ICAR is a registered society, an autonomous body under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education. It promotes, conducts and coordinates research, education and primary extension and educates in agriculture, animal sciences, fisheries, and allied sectors. Each distinct agro-climatic zone of India has a multi-disciplinary regional research station under the National and Research Project.
28 Agricultural universities, The Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, IVRI Izat Nagar, National Dairy Research Institute, NDRI Karnal and Central Institute Latest technological advances made by of Fishery Education CIFE (Bombay) are the scientists are demonstrated to farmers and constituent bodies of ICAR. extension workers. ICAR has established three National Research Centres in Bio-technology in agriculture, animal health and animal production. ICAR’s priority and thrust areas for future research are a) conservation and planned exploitation of germ plasm resources b) enhancing productivity through evolution of high yielding high birds and varieties with Working through National Demonstration Projects, Operational Research Projects, Krishi Vigyan Kendras, and lab to land programmes, the ICAR takes the fruits of research to the farmer directly.
tolerance to Biotic and aboitic stresses c) development of integrated pest management practices for optimum plant protection d) breeder seed protection e) research on export-oriented commodities f) diversification with emphasis on agroforestry, livestock and fisheries g) development and refinement of dry-farming technology h) improving nutrient management system i) inventory of natural resources j) energy managements k) postharvest technology, l) fostering excellence in research and education m) transfer of technology and improving communications system and n) human resource development.
Appropriate technology, low cost technology, reliance on locally available materials, utilisation of optimum levels of inputs, etc. form ICAR’s strategies.
Three Indian corporate heads, Wirpro’s Azim Premji, Mukesh Ambani of Reliance group and Nandan Nilekani of Infosys have been chosen as “the most powerful people in business” in Asia’s power 25 list. According to the latest issue of the Fortune magazine, Premji has been ranked 10th, while Ambani is 13th and Nilekani 23 rd. SMARTHA BHARATA 132
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Some recent Achievements of ICAR • The first variety of super rice in the world named ‘Lunishree’ was developed at Central Rice Research Institute. It has been commercially cultivated in coastal Orissa. Renu, Bipasa, Amrut, etc. are rainfed-rice varieities Hybrid rice seed production is being made An integrated rice-fish-prawn, vegetable, horticultural farm system has been developed. 160 varieties of wheat have been released for different agro-climatic regions. Genetically engineered mustard variety has been released. Cross maize hybrid ‘Paras’ has come in for commercial production. Man-made cereal Triticale, non-toxic-strains of Kesari dal, high-yielding varieties of tuber crops and cotton hybrids, have been developed. Methods to improve the shelflife of fruits have been standardised. In the field of animal sciences, DNA finger-printing, studies
• • • • • • •


on major histocompatibility complexes, cross-breeding with improved exotic breeds, evolution of new genotypes, new strains of sheep, for carpet wool and high yielding poultry layers are ICAR’s achievements. Identification of nontraditional feed-resources with high nutritional content, for cattle and poultry and development of vaccines for sheep and poultry, are ICAR’s achievements. The Fisheries’ sector has become self-sufficient in fishseed. Composite carp-culture, air-breathing fish-culture, integrated aqua-culture with crop and animal culture for the benefit of the rural people etc. are the ICAR contributions.
It is to the credit of ICAR, that it has not only managed to feed India’s 1000 million population with food to spare, it has also made India, the world’s number one milk producer. All this ICAR has done with constant efforts at sustainability, cost-effectiveness and ecofriendliness. (Adapted from “Science and Technology in India” Spectrum Books (P) Ltd; New Delhi 58 – 2004)
• •
The Canadian economic writers react differently from Americans on the issue of B.P. outsourcing. Top executives of major corporations take the view that if over the years, the West has forced the emerging markets (read developing countries like India) to make adjustments, “we have to make them as well”. But unlike US this subject is not likely to become a paranoid political issue in Canada. SMARTHA BHARATA 133
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INDIAN RAILWAYS
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he first railway on Indian sub- (Arcot), a distance of 63 miles. In the North continent ran over a stretch of 21 a length of 119 miles of line was laid from Allahabad to Kanpur on 3rd March 1959. miles from Bombay to Thane. The first section from Hathras Road to The formal inauguration ceremony was Mathura Cantonment was opened to traffic performed on 16th April 1853, when 14 on 19th October,1875. railway carriages carrying about 400 guests left Bori Bunder at 3.30 pm “amidst the loud These were the small beginnings which is due applause of a vast multitude and to the salute course developed into a network of railway of 21 guns.” The first passenger train lines all over the country. By 1880 the Indian steamed out of Howrah station destined for Railway system had a route mileage of about Hooghly, a distance of 24 miles, on 15th 9000 miles. August, 1854. INDIAN RAILWAYS, the premier In south the first line was opened on Ist July, transport organisation of the country is the 1856 by the Madras Railway Company. It largest rail network in Asia and the world’s ran between Veyasarpady and Walajah Road second largest under one management.
Indian Railways is a multi-gauge, multi-traction system covering the following: Track Kilometres Broad Gauge (1676 mm) 86,526 Electrified 16,001 Metre Gauge (1000 mm) 18,529 Total 63,028 Narrow Gauge Total (762/610 mm) 3,651 108,706
Route Kilometres
Other Interesting facts of Indian Railways Indian Railways runs around 11,000 trains everyday, of which 7,000 are passenger trains. 7566 locomotives 300 - Yards 37,840 Coaching vehicles 2300 Goodsheds 134 222,147 Freight wagons 700 Repair shops 6853 Stations 1.54 million Work force
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The Salient and new features of Indian (iii) New Steps towards Safety and Security: Railways are: (i) Territorial Readjustment of Zones and In-House Reforms (ii) National Rail Vikas Yojana .• Strengthening of the Golden Quadrilateral to run more long-distance mail/express and freight trains at a higher speed of 100 kmph. • Strengthening of rail connectivity to ports and development of multi-modal corridors to hinterland. (iv) Improving Financial Health : (v) New Trends in Passenger Amenities: To take care of the unreserved segment of the passengers, a new pilot project on computer based unreserved ticketing has been launched this year. Of the 13 million passengers served by the network everyday, nearly 12 million are unreserved passengers. To cater to this huge segment, computer based ticketing systems has been launched for all stations in Delhi area and in due course throughout the country. With this,
unreserved tickets can be issued even from • Construction of four mega bridges – locations other than the boarding station and two over River Ganga, one over River will reduce crowds at booking offices and stations. Brahmaputra, and one over River Kosi. • Αccelerated completion of those (vi) Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation: projects nearing completion and other important projects. Has launched On-line ticketing facility Computerized reservation facilities were The total installed capacity of the Indian cement industry is 142 million tonne. SMARTHA BHARATA 135
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added at 245 new locations. At present these facilities are available at 758 locations in the country covering about 96 per cent of the total workload of passenger reservation. A pilot project for issuing monthly and quarterly season tickets through Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) has been launched in Mumbai this year and has been found very successful. Another pilot project for purchasing tickets including monthly and quarterly season tickets through Smart Card has also been launched. (vii) ‘National Train Enquiry System’ has been started in order to provide upgraded passenger information and enquiries.
performance, profit and dividend to the shareholders during the last three years. Its turn over increased from Rs.172 crore in 1999 to Rs.283 crore in 2002. RITES for its sterling performance secured the prestigious ISO-9001 Certification this year. The company has also entered into export/ leasing of locomotives in different countries in Asia and Africa. RITES is operating all over the world including Columbia, UK, Iran, Malayasia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
(xii) Indian Railways Finance Corporation Limited secured excellent (viii) Freight Operations Information rating for fourth year in succession. System (FOIS) (xiii) Indian Railway Catering & Tourism (ix) Railways have established their own Corporation ( IRCTC ) Internet based intra-net ‘Railnet’. ticket booking has been launched by IRCTC in Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and (x) Sterling Performance by PSUs The Calcutta this year. public sector undertakings of the Railways, especially IRCON and RITES, scored (xiv) Innovative Technologies by Konkan commendable achievements during the last Railway : Konkan Railway Corporation three years. IRCON International has (KRC), the technological marvel of Indian achieved a record turnover of Rs.900 crore Railways, has invented quite a few new during 2001-02 and the foreign exchange technologies. Anti Collision Device (ACD), earnings of this prestigious organisation has state-of-art indigenous technology of KRC increased six fold over the years. At the is currently under-going intensive field trials international level, IRCON is at present and is capable of avoiding collision between executing different projects in Malaysia, trains. Sky bus metro is another innovative, Bangladesh and Indonesia. The PSU has economic and eco-friendly mass rapid registered a strong presence in the transportation solution devised by Konkan international scenario by its sterling track Railway. Self Stablising Track (SST) devised record. by KRC, which is undergoing trials at present, will help Railways run the fastest (xi) RITES, another prestigious PSU under train in the near future and will make tracks the Ministry has scaled new heights in much more safe and sustainable. The IT-assisted education market is estimated at $2 billion out of the total global IT learning industry of $26 billion. SMARTHA BHARATA 136
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(xv) Private Sector Participation:
(xvi) Telecommunication – New Trends : To give improved telecommunication systems on Railways, Optical Fibre based communication systems has been adopted and laying OFC has increased to 7,700 route kilometer this year. (xx) Social obligations and care for weaker sections: Senior citizens, students, (xvii) New Technologies : India became the disabled persons etc. enjoy concessional first developing country and the 5th country benefits from Railways. New initiatives in in the world to roll out the first indigenously this area during the last three years include built “state-of-the-art” high horse power reduction of age limits for special concession three phase electric locomotive when the to senior women citizen from 65 to 60 years, first such loco was flagged off from blind and mentally challenged persons can Chittranjan Locomotive Works (CLW). CLW now travel in AC classes on concessional has been achieving progressive rates. Free second class Monthly Season indigenisation and the cost of locomotives Tickets (MSTs) for school going children has come down to the level of Rs.13.65 upto tenth standard for travel between home crore. Diesel Locomotives Works, Varanasi and school was also introduced. has produced state-of-the-art 4000 HP AC/ AC diesel locomotive in April this year. (xxi) Tie-Up with Foreign Railways: These locos are capable of hauling 4,800 Indian Railways is in constant touch with tonne freight trains at a speed of 100 KMPH Railways across the world to bring in stateand can run continuously up to 90 days in of-art facilities in its system. Towards this, a one stretch without any major maintenance. Memorandum of Understanding was signed (xviii) Honours and Awards: Indian Railways achieved a number of recognitions and awards in sports, tourism sector and for excellence in operational matters. (xix) Darjeeling Himalayan Railways attained the World Heritage Status from UNESCO. Fairy Queen, the oldest functioning steam engine in the world, which finds a place in the Guinness Book of World
Records, got Heritage Award at the International Tourist Bureau, Berlin in March, 2000. On operational front, Delhi Main station entered the Guinness Book for having the world’s largest route relay interlocking system.
during the Eighth Session of the IndoAustria Joint Economic Commission held in Vienna. This seeks to promote and deepen long-term infrastructure-specific cooperation between Indian and Austrian Railways to their mutual benefit. A threeday International Conference of Union of Railways was organised by Indian Railways in New Delhi in which hundreds of delegates from various industries and Railways around the world participated. (From the Web Site)
99.7 million pieces of garments valued at $380.1 million were exported by our country during April this year to the quota countries. SMARTHA BHARATA 137
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KONKAN RAILWAY- POSITIVE, CONSTRUCTIVE DARING
The Challenge
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he task was formidable. As Karlis Goppers pointed out in his Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) report in July 1997: With a total number of 2,000 bridges and 92 tunnels to be built through this mountainous terrain containing many rivers, the project is the biggest and perhaps most difficult railway undertaking during this century, at least in this part of the world. The various problems, had been carried out efficiently and in a very short time. The largest railway project in this part of the world in the last five decades threw up a whole range of difficulties technical, financial, emotional and psychological. The rocky Sahyadris had to be bored through, 1,500 rivers had to be forded, a railway line had to be built out of nowhere. And once in a while, a poisonous snake, or a tiger, decided to take a close look at goings-on! In the face of collapsing embankments and unrelenting mountains, the engineers had to be tough. But they also had to be deeply sensitive to the feelings of those who had given up their land. Family life took a backseat during those arduous years; when the engineers went to work, their wives did not know if their husbands would return home that night, and one engineer even delayed his marriage until the work was complete. Many engineers stayed away from their families during this period, not even returning home for festivals like Diwali. At the very least, working conditions were uncomfortable; in June 1994, Mahad had floods 10 to 12 feet above the road level, SMARTHA BHARATA
and when they receded, Konkan Railway jeeps had six-inch layers of silt on the seats. Four workers in the Byndoor tunnel in Karnataka faced their own battle with water they were thrown back 60 feet by a sudden gush. Water was not the only element that posed danger. Mr. A.F. Shevare, Chief Engineer of Ratnagiri (North and South) and Kudal, who succeeded Mr. B.R. Kulkarni, recalls how, during the monsoons in July 1997, an entire mountainside collapsed at Ukshi. Machines were buried under the debris, but 200 labourers had a miraculous escape. People like 30-year-old Ravi Kapoor, an Executive Engineer, had amazing luck as well. On October 10, 1997, three months before the Pernem Tunnel was completed, a major collapse took place, just above where he was standing. Mr. Kapoor found himself in chest-deep soil, his helmet crushed and a boulder on his foot. A colleague, Mr. V. Jayasankaran, stayed back to rescue him, and Mr. Kapoor escaped, but only just. Mr. Jayashankaran later received an award for bravery. Thanks to Mr. Jayasankaran’s alertness, several other workers’ lives had also been saved; earlier, on August 26, 1997, it was his timely warning that resulted in workers being evacuated when a serious collapse occurred at Pernem Tunnel. For those who kept going despite the toughest of challenges, the sense of achievement made it all worthwhile. Looking back, Mr. D.R.Shyama Sundar, now Regional Railway Manager in charge of the 363.88 km. Section between Roha and
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Sawantwadi says, beaming with pride: The task was so difficult that when I travel along the route, I find it hard to believe that we built it! It was the very challenging nature of the work, he adds, that led to the team spirit that was so crucial in the successful completion of the project. As one engineer pointed out at celebratory function
in Kudal on January 25, 1998, the day before the through commissioning of the Railway: If people had considered this merely as a job, it would have taken 25 years to complete. The Chief Engineer of Panaji, Mr. S. Balakrishna, put it simply: After seven years of hard struggle, he said, we have proved that the impossible is possible. (From the Web Site)
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STATE BANK OF INDIA
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he origin of the State Bank of India goes back to the first decade of the nineteenth century with the establishment of the Bank of Calcutta in Calcutta on 2 June 1806. Three years later the bank received its charter and was redesigned as the Bank of Bengal (2 January 1809). The right of note issue was very valuable not only for the Bank of Bengal but also its two siblings, the Banks of Bombay and Madras. Initially loans were restricted to Rs.one lakh and the period of accommodation confined to three months only. The security for such loans was public securities, commonly called Company’s Paper, bullion, treasure, plate, jewels, or goods ‘not of a perishable nature’ and no interest could be charged beyond a rate of twelve per cent. Loans against goods like opium, indigo, salt woollens, cotton, cotton piece goods, mule twist and silk goods were also granted but such finance by way of cash credits gained momentum only from the third decade of the nineteenth century. The presidency Banks of Bengal, Bombay and Madras with their 70 branches were merged in 1921 to form the Imperial Bank of India. The triad had been transformed into a monolith and a giant among Indian commercial banks had emerged. The new
bank took on the triple role of a commercial bank, a banker’s bank and a banker to the government.But this creation was preceded by years of deliberations on the need for a ‘State Bank of India’. What eventually emerged was a ‘half-way house’ combining the functions of a commercial bank and a quasi-central bank.When India attained freedom, the Imperial Bank had a capital base (including reserves) of Rs.11.85 crores, deposits and advances of Rs.275.14 crores and Rs.72.94 crores respectively and a network of 172 branches and more than 200 sub offices extending all over the country. All India Rural Credit Survey Committee recommended the creation of a statepartnered and statesponsored bank by taking over the Imperial Bank of India, and integrating with it, the former state-owned or state-associate banks. An act was accordingly passed in Parliament in May 1955 and the State Bank of India was constituted on 1 July 1955. More than a quarter of the resources of the Indian banking system thus passed under the direct control of the State. Later, the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act was passed in 1959, enabling the State Bank of India to take over eight former State-associated banks as its subsidiaries (later named Associates).
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The State Bank of India is the largest commercial bank in India in terms of profits, assets, deposits, branches and employees. The total number of branches of SBI and its associates till March 2003 were 13579.State Bank of India (SBI) was constituted through an Act of Parliament in May’55 to carry on the business of banking and other business, and for the purpose of taking over the undertaking of the Imperial Bank with effect from 1 Jul.’55. SBI plays a vital role in providing working capital and term finance to the Indian industry. Due to its large network of branches, SBI has been able to garner a large chunk of deposits from the rural sector. It is also a leader in the international banking business. About 46% of the Bank’s branches are located in rural areas, 27 % in semi-urban areas and 16% and 11% are located in urban and metropolitan areas respectively. SBI has eight business units namely,corporate banking, international banking and domestic banking forconcentrating on core areas, associate banks division for looking after theworking of these banks, credit division to monitor the overall credit, and three other business units-finance, corporate development and inspection for in-house work, to help keep the mammoth organisation in order.In October 1996 the Bank successfully floated the first GDR issue by any commercial bank in the country and raised US$ 369 million, including the greenshoe option. The “World Equity”
journal adjudged the SBI GDR issue as the “Asian Equity Issue of the Year” for its being a ‘well-planned, well-priced and well executed issue that continued to perform well for the investors’. Around 21,000 employees, including officers, were permitted to retire. The bank spent Rs 2271.24 crore as VRS compensation.The Bank has crossed another milestone by making a successful foray into insurance. SBI is the only Bank to have been permitted a 74% stake in the insurance business. The Bank’s insurance subsidiary, SBI Life Insurance Company, a joint venture with the Bank holding 74% and Cardif S.A., the Joint venture partner, the balance 26%, was incorporated to undertake life insurance and pension business. Cardif S.A. is a wholly-owned subsidiary of BNP-Paribas, which is the largest bank in France and one of the top ten banks in the world. Cardif S.A. is the largest bancassurance company in France. The bank’s efforts to establish a world -class credit information bureau in India culminated in the successful setting up of the Credit Information Bureau (India) Ltd., a joint venture of the Bank with HDFC Ltd., Dun and Bradstreet Information Services India Pvt. Ltd. and Trans Union International Inc. The bureau will handle both positive and negative credit information in commercial and consumer market segments and we expect that the joint venture will benefit from
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the synergy of alliance of market leaders in their respective fields. In order to reduce risk and develop a transparent and active debt market in general and Government securities market in particular, the Clearing Corporation of India Ltd. has been set up in Mumbai with the Bank as the chief promoter.The Bank has an equity holding of 26% along with all India financial institutions, other scheduled commercial banks and primary dealers. The Corporation will act as a clearing house for sale and purchase of Government securities and foreign exchange.The bank has formalized all arrangements for its new technology platform for branch operations, treasury business and risk management. Work is well underway in all related projects including connectivity between 49 cities, which will be achieved during the current year. The core banking software is under customization. The bank will soon launch its debit card viz. SBI Cash Plus. Customers can use it to draw cash and do other transactions at the ATMs and also use it at merchant establishments for paying their shopping bills. This facility will be available to all SBI customers.
the business of banking and other business, and for the purpose of taking over the undertaking of the Imperial Bank with effect from 1 Jul.’55. SBI plays a vital role in providing working capital and term finance to the Indian industry. Due to its large network of branches, SBI has been able to garner a large chunk of deposits from the rural sector. It is also a leader in the international banking business. About 46% of the Bank’s branches are located in rural areas, 27 % in semi-urban areas and 16% and 11% are located in urban and metropolitan areas respectively. SBI has eight business units namely,corporate banking, international banking and domestic banking forconcentrating on core areas, associate banks division for looking after theworking of these banks, credit division to monitor the overall credit, and three other business units-finance, corporate development and inspection for in-house work, to help keep the mammoth organisation in order.In October 1996 the Bank successfully floated the first GDR issue by any commercial bank in the country and raised US$ 369 million, including the greenshoe option. The “World Equity” journal adjudged the SBI GDR issue as the “Asian Equity Issue of the Year” for its being a ‘wellplanned, well-priced and well executed issue that continued to perform well for the investors’.
The State Bank of India is the largest commercial bank in India in terms of profits, assets, deposits, branches and employees. The total number of branches of SBI and its associates till March 2003 were 13579.State Bank of India (SBI) was constituted through Having nurtured the subsidiaries, especially an Act of Parliament in May’55 to carry on investment banking and asset management As many as 1.6 million mobile handsets were sold in India during March 2004. SMARTHA BHARATA 142
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in their formative years, the Bank would now like them to spread their wings and soar high. With freedom (a) to scout for strategic foreign partners to enhance their capabilities in cross-border deals, product innovation and delivery, (b) to induct professional management and (c) to formulate new strategies for business development, they should better consolidate their position and emerge as leaders in the changing competitive environment.In the HRD area, a major event during 2000-01 was the implementation of a voluntary retirement scheme, with the objective of improving the age and skill profile of the staff in keeping with the Bank’s business strategies. Around 21,000 employees, including officers, were permitted to retire. The bank spent Rs 2271.24 crore as VRS compensation.The Bank has crossed another milestone by making a successful foray into insurance. SBI is the only Bank to have been permitted a 74% stake in the insurance business. The Bank’s insurance subsidiary, SBI Life Insurance Company, a joint venture with the Bank holding 74% and Cardif S.A., the Joint venture partner, the balance 26%, was incorporated to undertake life insurance and pension business. Cardif S.A. is a whollyowned subsidiary of BNP-Paribas, which is the largest bank in France and one of the top ten banks in the world. Cardif S.A. is the largest bancassurance company in France. While the Bank will market the products through its branches and also through tied agents subsequently, Cardif S.A. will provide active support in product development, risk
management and IT areas. SBI Life launched its first product ‘Sanjeevan’ on the 15 June 2001. SBI Life has introduced several Group Insurance Schemes including coverage for housing loan borrowers and deposits account holders. With the required approvals falling in place enabling SBI branches to handle insurance business, SBI Life’s Bancassurance products are expected to get a big boost and also bring substantial noninterest income to the bank’s branchesThe bank’s efforts to establish a world -class credit information bureau in India culminated in the successful setting up of the Credit Information Bureau (India) Ltd., a joint venture of the Bank with HDFC Ltd., Dun
and Bradstreet Information Services India Pvt. Ltd. and Trans Union International Inc. The legislation for enabling legal framework to share information is expected shortly. The bureau will handle both positive and negative credit information in commercial and consumer market segments and we expect that the joint venture will benefit from the
2.8 million Personal computers were sold in the country during 2003-04. 9.2 million units of colour televisions are expected to be sold in India during this fiscal. SMARTHA BHARATA 143
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synergy of alliance of market leaders in their respective fields.In order to reduce risk and develop a transparent and active debt market in general and Government securities market in particular, the Clearing Corporation of India Ltd. has been set up in Mumbai with the Bank as the chief promoter.The Bank has an equity holding of 26% along with all India financial institutions, other scheduled commercial banks and primary dealers. The Corporation will act as a clearing house for sale and purchase of Government securities and foreign exchange. It is expected to commence operations shortly. As a part of restructuring the Banks representative office at Moscow is to be upgraded to a subsidiary and it is also going to a JV with Canara Bank and its Sydney Representative Office will be upgraded to a full-fledged Branch. As a part of resturcturing the bank has closed its Jakarta and Sao Paulo offices in 200203.The bank has formalized all arrangements for its new technology platform for branch operations, treasury business and risk management. Work is well underway in all related projects including connectivity between 49 cities, which will be achieved
during the current year. The core banking software is under customization. The bank will soon launch its debit card viz. SBI Cash Plus. Customers can use it to draw cash and do other transactions at the ATMs and also use it at merchant establishments for paying their shopping bills. This facility will be available to all SBI customers. (From the Web Site)
3.44 million pieces of garments valued at $16.6 million were exported by India to the US during April this year. Indian companies are able to compete with foreign companies in their our countries, because of their quality and competitive rates. In 1998 Sundaram Fasteners was awarded the Japanese Prize for, Total Quality Maintenance. That company also bagged the ‘Supplier of the year Award’ from the giant General motors. SMARTHA BHARATA 144
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CANARA BANK
1. Canara bank was founed by A.Subbarao Pai in Mangalore Karnataka on 1.7.1906. 2. Backed by a team of professionals, committed staff and extended clientele base, the bank has over the last 98 years, achieved many a milestone in the fields of commercial and social banking. 3. The bank began operations as the Canara Hindu Permanent Fund in 1910. 4. The bank took over a number of banks starting with the Bank of Kerala Ltd. In 1961, and ending with Pangal Nayak Bank Ltd. In 1968. 5. In 1969 the Canara Bank was nationalised. 6. In 1985 it took over Laxmi Commercial Bank Ltd. 7. In its nearly a century of operations, the bank has grown into 2409 branches with a total size of over Rs.97,000 crores and currently employs over 47500 people. 8. Steadily the bank has grown. In the period 1995-2000, the deposits have grown at a compounded growth rate of 13.9%. Its advances in the same period grew by 18.5% 9. Its operational efficiency has improved. Business size per branch shows a growth rate of 14.4% for the last 7 years. 10. The bank has international operations with, a whollyowned foreign subsidiary. 11. Canara bank’s foreign business is an i m p o r t a n t component. In FY 2002 it contributed 59,333 crores to the Bank’s turnover. 12. Information technology initiatives, computerisation of branches, tele-banking, Anywhere banking, Remote. Access Terminal Facilities etc. are Canara Bank’s special features. 13. Canara Bank is a world class, world-size bank, with Profitability, Efficiency and Productivity as its corporate Mission. 14. The key areas of the bank are retail-advances, housing loans, loans to retail traders and self-employed businessmen, SSI lending, and agricultural advances. (From the Web Site)
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THE INSTITUTE OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES
About IMSC he Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSC), founded by Alladi Ramakrishnan in 1962, is a national institution for fundamental research in frontier disciplines of the mathematical sciences. It is an autonomous institute funded by the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India and by the Government of Tamil Nadu.
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years, the Institute has hosted several Nobel Laureates and Fields Medalists, often over extended periods of time. Associateship Programme For an announcement of the Associateship Programme for the period click here. Collaborative Projects Institute members participate in several collaborative projects with other institutions. Academic Meetings Besides regular Seminar/Colloquium activities by Institute members and Visiting Scientists, Workshops, Symposia and Conferences in various fields are organized frequently by IMSC. Conference participants come from all over India and abroad, and are usually housed in the Institute Guest-House Complex. Such meetings are usually held in the Ramanujam Auditorium of IMSC.
At present, IMSC has about 45 faculty members working in the areas of Mathematics, Theoretical Computer Science and Theoretical Physics. The Institute trains graduate students through active research programmes which culminate in the award of the PhD degree. IMSC supports post-doctoral research through fellowships and has a vibrant Visiting Scientists Scheme. The Institute has an excellent library, a state-of-the-art computing facility with high speed internet connectivity and facilities of an international standard for hosting scientific meetings.
The Institute is presently in a phase of rapid growth and large scale expansion in all research Recent Conferences. areas, including emerging ones, is envisioned. The Institute participates in the Theoretical The Areas of Research at IMSC are: Physics Seminar Circuit (TPSC) programme, Mathematics, Theoretical Computer Science and through which physicists can visit leading research centers in India and lecture on their Theoretical Physics. work. IMSc organises and participates actively Academic Programmes in Advanced Schools such as those conducted Doctoral Programme by the Science and Engineering Research Council Graduate Visitor’s Programme (SERC) of the Department of Science and Post-doctoral Programme Technology (DST) and the National Board of Visiting Scientists Programme Higher Mathematics (NBHM). The Institute Front-ranking scientists from all over the world encourages its members to interact and visit the Institute frequently to interact with its collaborate with scientists elsewhere. members and to lecture on their work. Over the (From the Web Site)
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ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
1. The All India Institute of Medical the courses Sciences was established in 1956 by an Act commencing in January, 1998 of Parliament. and July, 1998) 2. The aims and objects of the Institute, were admitted to various postgraduate, postas specified in the Act, were to develop doctoral and superspeciality courses i.e. patterns of teaching in undergraduate and M.D.,M.S., M.D.S., M.H.A., Ph.D., M.Ch., postgraduate medical education in all its D.M., and M.Sc. in various specialities. Nine branches so as to demonstrate a high candidates belonging to the Scheduled standard of medical education to all medical Castes and five belonging to the Scheduled colleges and other allied institutions in India; Tribes got admission to the postgraduate to bring together at one plakhe educational courses. The Institute provides full time facilities of the highest order for the training postgraduate and post-doctoral courses in of personnel in all important branches of 40 disciplines. In the year under review health activity; and to attain self-sufficiency (2004), 50 postgraduate students qualified for various degrees. The guiding principle in postgraduate medical education. in postgraduate training is to train them as 3. For pursuing academic programmes, teachers, reserchers and above all as the Institute has been kept outside the competent doctors to manage and treat the purview of the Medical Council of India. The patients independently. Institute continues to be a leader in the field of medical education, research and patient- (i) 58 candidates from various organisations care in keeping with the mandate of the and State Governments received short-term training at the various departments of the Parliament. Institute during the year. 4. The Institute is fully funded by the Government of India. However, for research 6. Undergraduate Medical Education: activities, grants are also received from This year the Institute admitted 50 students various sources including national and to its MBBS course, 14 students to B. Sc. international agencies. While the major part Nursing (post-certificate) course, 50 of the services are highly subsidised for the students to B.Sc. (Hons.) in Nursing Course, patients coming to the AIIMS hospitals, 19 students to B. Sc. (Hons.) Human certain categories of patients are charged for Biology Course, IO students to B.Sc. (Hons.) in Ophthalmic techniques, 6 students treatment/services rendered to them. to B.Sc. (Hons.) in Medical Technology in 5. Postgraduate Medical Education: Radiography and 4 students to B.Sc. (Hons.) During 1998-99 session 94 students (i.e. for in Speech and Hearing. SMARTHA BHARATA 147
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(i) The MBBS course is spread over five and a half years, dividing the period to one year for preclinical, one and a half years for paraclinical and two years for clinical subjects, followed by one year rotating internship. Paramedical courses like B. Sc. (Hons.) in Nursing, Ophthalmic Techniques, Medical Technology in Radiography and Speech and Hearing continued to be popular and attracted students from other countries also. The curricula of these courses are under constant scrutiny by the faculty of the Institute for purposes of improvement.
10 foreign nationals as elective trainees) to fulfil its international obligations.
10. Research: The All India Institute of Medical Sciences is a leader in the field of medical research. Major research works are on in the areas of hepatitis, acute liver failure, sub-acute liver failure, diarrheal diseases in children, micro- nutrient deficiency, reproductive biology, oncogene, signal transduction, immunity of malaria parasite, mycobacteria study in TB and leprosy, developmental genetics, development of immunodiagnostics, bone marrow and 7. Continuing Medical education. The genetic factors in epilepsy. 340 research Institute organised a number of workshops, Projects are continuing during this period. symposia and conferences in collaboration with various national and international (i) Research grants totalling to Rs. agencies during the year. Professionals from 3,69,17,448/- was received from various various institutions all over the country international and national funding agencies participated in these seminars and workshops during 1998-99. and benefited with update knowledge. 11. Patient Care Services: During 1997-98, 8. Training for Scheduled Castes (SC) and the AlIMS hospital and speciality centres the Scheduled Tribes (ST) Candidates. - The attended to over 16,97,853 patients in SC and ST candidates are given due various out-patient departments (OPD’s). consideration and weight age in accordance The number of indoor patients during this with the Government of India guidelines in period was 87,472. A total number of all selections. 1,08,828 surgical procedures were conducted including the procedures like 9. International Role: The Institute brain tumour surgery, open heart surgery, continued to provide consultancy services to heart transplant, kidney transplant and several neighbouring countries under cancer surgery. During the period from April bilateral agreements or under the aegis of to September, 1998, the main hospital of the international agencies. The Institute is Institute attended to little over 5,57,000 actively involved in development of B.P. patients in the OPDs and admitted 19,168 Koirala Institute of Health Sciences in Nepal. patients. Over 28,384 surgical procedures During 1998-99 the Institute trained 17 were conducted. candidates (including 7 WHO trainees and (i) During the first six months of the current year, the Cardio-Thoracic Centre conducted
48.8 lakh units of two-wheelers were sold in the country between April 2003 and February 2004.
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over 1,178 heart operations while the Neurosciences Centre performed 1, 329 operations and 60 Gamma Knife procedures were also performed. The Cardio-Thoracic Centre attended to 44,333 patients while the Neurosciences Centre had 30,219 patients in their OPDs. (ii) The Institute-Rotary Cancer Hospital attended to 22,129 patients in the OPD and admitted 3,858 patients in the first half of the year. During this period, 1,262 cancerre- lated surgery were undertaken at I.R.C.H. (iii) Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences attended to 1,42,457 patients in the OPD during the first six months of the current year (1.4.98 to 30.9.98). The number of admitted patients was 6,099 and surgical procedures were conducted on 6,315 patients during this period. 12. Community Services: Community based programmes have been integral part of the Institute’s clinical and research activities. The Rural Health Centre at Ballabhgarh, being run under the supervision of the Centre for Community Medicine, is a unique experiment. Besides, departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Paediatrics, and Dr.Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences have been actively involved in community-based services. Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences organises regular camps in the rural community.
13. Breakthrough & Innovtions: The Cardio-thoracic Centre has been providing state-of-the-art cardiac care to the patients suffering from coronary heart disease, congenital heart disease and valvular defects. After its spectacular success in heart transplantation surgery during the previous years, the centre has started work on Organ Retrieval and Banking Organisation with the support of the Government of India. Our cardiologists are routinely performing up-todate procedures in the field of interventional cardiology like coronary stenting, atherectomy, balloon dialation for valves, radio-frequency ablation for arythmia etc. (i) The Neurosciences Centre has been managing all types of neurological problems including a large number of brain surgery. The Gamma-Knife procedure has been fully established in the centre. Till now 178 procedures have been performed with very encouraging results. (ii) Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences has started sutureless cataract surgery and laser surgery in a big way. The phacoemulcification procedure is being provided free of charge to all the patients. Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre has acquired and installed an excimer laser and would be providing service at subsidised charges. (iii) The Surgical Oncology Deparmanent in the Institute-Rotary Cancer Hospital has developed a breast cancer surgery based on ultrasonic application, which is virtually bloodless.
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(iv) The Department of Urology has successfully reconstructed bladders, using intestinal sack, in patients suffering from bladder cancer. This would help hundreds of patients to have normal bladder function even after removal of the cancer bladder.
(vi) The Department of Orthopedics has established itself as a leading centre in all types of joint replakhement surgery and spinal surgery.
14. Budget: For 1998-99 the Central Government has provided a budget of Rs. (v) The Department of 168.09 Crore (Rs.69.96 crore in Plan and Otorhinolaryngology has successfully Rs. 98.13 crore in Non-plan). This includes performed four Cochlear implantations, the Rs. 1 crore earmarked for developing the last one being the 24-channel model. Trauma Centre. (From the Web Site)
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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE, BANGALORE
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amsetji Nusserwanji Tata (1839-1904) was one of the extraordinary men who even towards the end of the nineteenth century was convinced that the future progress of the country depended crucially on research in Science and Engineering. He envisaged this Institute as destined to promote original investigations in all branches of learning and to utilise them for the benefit of India. After consulting several authorities in the country, he constituted a Provisional Committee to prepare the required scheme for the setting up of the Institute. On 31st December 1898, a draft prepared by the Committee was presented to Lord Curzon, the Viceroy-designate. Subsequently, upon the request of the Secretary of State for India, the Royal Society of London asked for the help of Sir William Ramsay, Nobel Laureate. Ramsay made a quick tour of the country and reported Bangalore to be the suitable place for such an Institution.
M y s o r e . (Subsequently, t h e Government of Karnataka had gifted lands during the Golden Jubilee and Platinum Jubilee of the Institute making the current land holding of the Institute up to 443 acres.) The constitution of the Institute was approved by the Viceroy Lord Minto, and the necessary Vesting Order was signed on 27th May 1909. Early in 1911, the Maharaja of Mysore laid the foundation stone of the Institute and on 24th July the first batch of students were admitted in the Departments of General and Applied Chemistry and Electrotechnology.
With the establishment of the University Grants Commission in 1956, the Institute came under its purview as a deemed university. The Institute has been able to make many On the Initiative of the Dewan, Sir K significant contributions primarily because of Sheshadri Iyer, the Government of Shri a certain uniqueness in its character. It is neither Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, the Maharaja of a National Laboratory which concentrates Mysore came forward with an offer of 372 solely on research and applied work, nor a acres of land, free of cost and promised other conventional University which concerns itself necessary facilities. Thus the original scheme mainly with teaching. But the Institute is of Jamsetji Tata became a tripartite venture concerned with research in frontier areas and with the association of the Government of education in current technologically important India and the Government of Maharaja of areas. This is also the first Institute in the country to introduce The prestigious Wired magazine has named Infosys among 40 companies worldwide that are reshaping the global economy. The others who are part of this exalted list are such big names as IBM, Sony, BP, Honda Motor, Wal-Mart, Microsoft Intel and Galxo Smith Kline. SMARTHA BHARATA 151
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innovative Integrated Ph D Programmes in Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences for science graduates. During the past eight decades many are the alumni and faculty who have gone out from this Institute to direct science and technology in the country, to create and nurture other laboratories and scientific institutions and to establish key industries. C V Raman, H J Bhabha, Vikram S Sarabhai, J C Ghosh, M S Thacker, S Bhagavantam, S Dhawan, C N R Rao and scores of others who have played a key role in the scientific and technological progress of our country have been closely associated with the Institute. The Council of the Institute confers Honorary Fellowship on eminent scholars and scientists and on those who have made noteworthy and lasting contributions to the cause of science and industry in India. Among the 24 recipients of this distinction are Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, M Vishveswaraya, C V Raman, J R D Tata, Vikram S Sarabhai and C N R Rao.
Besides formal education and research, the Institute has been playing an active part in offering short-term courses to scientists and technologists in service. The Continuing Education Programme covers a wide range of topics and over 1500 working scientists and engineers go through such courses every year. In keeping with its aims and objects, the Institute has organised a Centre for Scientific and Industrial Consultancy through which the knowhow generated in the Institute percolates to industries via industrysponsored projects. The Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research with organic links with the Institute has been functioning on Campus and also on Jakkur. In all these endeavours, the Institute strives to contribute to the scientific, academic and technological goals of our country, with a keen awareness of its noble tradition and the need for maintaining a high quality in all its activities. (Source I.I.S.C. Web Site)
Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) has emerged as the largest software exporter in India, clocking revenues of Rs.4,545 crore, followed by Infosys Technologies at Rs.3,545 crore and Wipro Technologies with Rs.2,787 crore, for the year 2002-03. The combined revenue of the top 20 software and service exporters in the area of IT services, products and technology was Rs.20,746 crore ($4.3 billion) in 2002-03 a growth of 18%
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SOLELY FOR SCIENCE
Neha Prasad
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n March 29, 1904, Sir J.C.Bose accomplished the enviable—a U.S. patent on the first semi-conductor the world saw. In his application of September 30, 1901, Bose explained “…With a glass lens, the instrument will detect and record lights not only some way beyond the violet, but also in the regions of infra-red in the invisible regions of electric radiation. We may thus style this apparatus a ‘tejometer’….or universal radiometer.” Symposium To celebrate the centenary of Sir J.C.Bose’s patent on the “Detector for Electrical Disturbance”—the discovery of lead sulphide (Galena) as the most efficient wideband semiconductor biode, the Bose institute conducted a symposium of eminent scientists. The Bose Institute was the first of its kind to be started by an Indian (Sir J.C.Bose) in 1917 to further scientific knowledge. With its competent and seasoned workforce and diverse departments like Microbiology, Bio-chemistry and Biophysics, the institute has carved out a niche of its own in the scientific community. It also encompasses research sections dealing exclusively with Plant Molecular and Cellular Genetics, Animal physiology, Immunotechnology and Environment Science. In 1988, the Bioinformatics Centre was formed to research genetic engineering and molecular remodelling. The library provides state-of-the-art infrastructure to aid everyday research and development. Sophisticated analytical
instrumentation facilities make available a range of unique apparatus to researchers. Additional service units such as the Central Instrumentation Facility, Distributed Information Centres and scientific workshops help knit together the Institute’s comprehensive web of facilities. The Institute plans to establish Centres of Excellence in Bioinformatics, Plant Molecular and Structural Biology, Myobacterium Research and Astro-particle Physics and Space Sciences along with a National Facility in Genomics and Proteomics hoping to extend the limits of scientific knowledge in keeping with the traditions of Sir J.C.Bose. Twin ideals He envisaged the Institution to be “not merely a laboratory but a temple.” Eighty-seven years ago, he set twin ideals for the institution to follow—advancement of knowledge and comprehensive diffusion of the fruits of its labour. “We are proud inheritors of his immeasurable scientific vision and foresight,” says Prof.M.Siddiqi, Director, Bose Institute. Bose is famous for revolutionising the world of wireless communication. Within six years, he had done away with the cumbersome, inaccurate laboratory equipment of the 1890s and ushered in the 20th Century with a range of delicate, reliable and easy working devices in miniature. Although his instruments were financial and technological marvels, Bose seems unable to exploit their commercial potential. A man of science, Bose was solely occupied with posing a unique catechism to Nature. (The Hindu)
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KALAM LAUDS WOCKHARDT’S BIOTECH RESEARCH
Ramnath Subbu
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he President, A.P.J.Abdul Kalam has inaugurated the Wockhardt Biotech Park in Aurangabad. This is the largest biopharmaceutical complex with six dedicated manufacturing plants. The Rs.200 crore complex is spread over three lakh sq. ft. and has capacities to cater to 10-15 per cent of the global demand for major biopharmaceuticals. At present, the complex makes Wosulin (recombinant insulin), Erythropoietin and Hepatitis B Vaccine. The biotech park has a strength of over 400 scientists; 80 of whom are working on breakthrough technologies in the area of biopharmaceuticals. The President was appreciative of the company’s research that has made key medicines more affordable to Indians. He also toured the complex and discussed with scientists the new research areas.
“We will initiate Phase III clinical trials with Glargine and expect to introduce it in India in the next 18 months,” he said. Wide range of products With the introduction of Glargine and convenient delivery devices such as pens, Wock-hardt will have a comprehensive range of products for diabetes management. Wosulin (recombinant insulin), launched last year, has captured a 20 per cent share of the new prescription market. Wockhardt’s entry into the market led to a 40 per cent drop in price, which has led to a 20 per cent increase in usage of insulin by diabetics.
While the company’s key focus areas remain pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and drug discovery, the company has also been focusing on other areas. “In the case of diseases such as cancer, the body’s immune system finds it extremely Chairman, Wockhardt, announced that the difficult to handle the cancer cells. company had made a technology breakthrough by developing Glargine, a new Biotechnology products such as Interferon, generation advance on insulin. help improve the immune defence system.” Tata Steel has purchased a steel mill in Ukraine. SMARTHA BHARATA 154
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The company is also working on an important compound—granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF)—for cancer and hopes to launch it in the Indian market in late 2005 or early 2006. It is also working on an anti-infectant drug, WCK-771, for which clinical trials will be completed in 6-8 months and would be launched in 2008. Compound for cancer The company is also working on the pen reusable insulin delivery system which will be introduced in the first quarter of next year. Its pen-disposable-insulin delivery system will be launched a year thereafter.
instead of our earlier estimated date of 2006.” The exports will come from Wockhardt’s three key biotechnology drugs—Wepox (Erythropoietin), Wosulin and Biovac B (Hepatitis B vaccine). The company has already received approvals from regulatory agencies of ten countries in Southeast Asia, Central Asia, South America and Africa and expects more in the next 1218 months.
“These markets are huge opportunities. The market for insulin alone is over $800 million. Several high value biotech medicines are due to come off patent in the next few years, offering opportunities to launch costeffective versions with the potential of Biotech exports reaching more needy patients across the The firm is targeting a 100-fold increase in world,” said the Wockhardt Chairman. biotech exports to Rs.100 crores by 2005 (The Hindu)
FORD INDIA SHIPS COMPONENTS TO CHINA
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ord India has started exporting to China, the company was at present exporting 170 different components for 25,000 units of cars made in China.
The company sources over 90 per cent of its product contents locally. It has also a strategic tie-up with Hindustan Motors to locally manufacture engines. On the export front, it shipped about 25,000 cars a year mainly to Latin American countries, South Africa and China. [The Hindu]
3.96 lakh MT of copper was produced by our country in 2003-04. SMARTHA BHARATA 155
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MARUTI UDYOG LTD
Profile:
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hen Maruti entered the Indian car market, it sought to fill what it perceived as two very glaring needs. One to provide fuel efficient, low-cost vehicles, which were reliable and of high quality. Two, to offer customers a friendly sales and after sales service. Total automobile value and customer satisfaction: these objectives shaped our policies and our approach to quality. Additionally, the absence of an efficient public transportation system was leading to a growing demand for passenger cars. A burgeoning work force and growing middle class population meant that personal transport had become a necessity. The first cars rolled out for sale on 14th December 1983, (the Company went into production in a record 13 months), marking the beginning of a revolution in the Indian automobile industry. Through the years Maruti has provided world-class contemporary Japanese technology, suitably adapted to Indian conditions and Indian car users. We have also provided users with a range of cars to suit different needs. Maruti’s market share figures show the response of customers: In 1997-98, our market share of vehicles was over 70%. In addition to leading in the economy car segment, Maruti is also the leader in the luxury car segment with a market share of 38%. The success of the joint venture led Suzuki to increase its equity from 26% to 40% in 1987, and further to 50% in
1992. As a result, Maruti changed from being a government company to a non-government company. Several measures of performance have made amply clear that Maruti has established a truly healthy work culture. We have met all project and performance targets since inception. Our productivity levels are constantly improving. The Company has had good labour relations with employees from the very beginning, and have been successful in the export market. Yet, the Maruti culture is one that does not believe in resting on its laurels. We adhere to the spirit of Kaizen which states that constant improvement is always possible. The most basic tenet of productivity that we hold dear is that “ Today should be better than Yesterday and Tomorrow should be better than Today”. (From the Web Site)
Garment exports by India to quota countries during 2003-04 amounted to 1,178.6 million pieces valued at $4,744.2 million SMARTHA BHARATA 156
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WOCKHARDT, DRL GOBBLE UP FOREIGN DRUG FIRMS
ndian pharmaceutical companies seem to be on a roll. Not satisfied with their prowess at home, drug firms are now increasingly looking at acquisitions abroad to enhance their product portfolio as well as shore up bottom lines.
Esparma recorded sales of $20 million (Rs.90 crore) in 2003, and has a sizeable portfolio of 135 marketing authorizations, of which 67 are in Germany. The company In May 2004, in identical deals of $11 million also has nine international patents and 94 (Rs.49 crore) apiece, pharma majors trademarks. Dr.Reddy’s Laboratories (DRL) and Wockhardt announced their intention to This is Wockhardt’s third international acquire drug firms in the US and Germany acquisition, after the earlier UK acquisitions respectively. While Wockhardt has set its of Wallis laboratory in 1998 and CP sights on Germany-based Esparma GmbH, Pharmaceuticals in 2003. a generic drug company, Dr.Reddy’s plan to take over dermatology firm Trigenesis DRL on its part says the acquisition of Trigenesis gave it access to certain products Therapeutics Inc. and proprietary drug to treat skin problems. Both the companies view the acquisitions as important in their scheme of things. “With Besides the total investment outlay of $11 the acquisition of Esparma, we will be able million, DRL said it will make additional to make an entry into the largest generic drug contractual payments during the course of market in European union viz. Germany,” development of the products and technology says Wockhardt chairman Habill platforms and royalties on sales to Skye Khorakiwala. The German generics market Pharma Plc and Silvafoam Llc pursuant to was estimated to be around $6.1 billion in existing Trigenesis agreements. 2003, with a generics penetration rate of “The deal provides us an exciting over 54%. opportunity to apply various proprietary “Esparma’s strong presence in urology, drug delivery technologies in creating a neurology and diabetology, is in line with pipeline of differentiated drugs that will Wockhardt’s therapeutic strength. This will broaden the range of available treatment boost Wockhardt’s further growth in the options and establish DRL, in the European Union and also take our global prescription dermatology segment,” said Dr.Reddy’s CEO G.V.Prasad. [TNIE]
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strategy to a newer level of products and customers.” Khorakiwala added.
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HERO HONDA - FILL IT. SHUT IT. FORGET IT
The Legend of Hero Honda What started out as a Joint Venture between Hero Group, the world’s largest bicycle manufacturers and the Honda Motor Company of Japan, has today become the World’s single largest two wheeler Company. Coming into 2001-02 2002-03 14,25,195 units 16,77,537 units
Customer satisfaction, a high quality product, the strength of Honda technology and the Hero group’s dynamism have helped HHML scale new frontiers and exceed limits. In the words of Mr. Brijmohan Lall Munjal, the Chairman and Managing Director, “We will continue to make every effort required for the development of the motorcycle industry, through new product development, technological innovation, investment in equipment and facilities and through and through efficient management.”
existence on January 19, 1984, Hero Honda Motors Limited gave India nothing less than a revolution on two-wheels, made even more famous by the ‘Fill it - Shut it - Forget it ‘ campaign. Driven by the trust of over 5 million customers, the Hero Honda product range today commands a market share of 48% making it a veritable giant in the industry. Add to that technological excellence, an expansive dealer network, and reliable after sales service, and you have one of the most customerfriendly companies. This is proved by the company’s sales over the years : 1985-86 43,000 units 1989-90 96,200 units 1998-99 5,30,600 units 1999-00 7,61,210 units 2000-01 10,29,555 units SMARTHA BHARATA
YEAR EVENT 2003 Winner of the Review 200 - Asia’s Leading Companies Award (3rd Rank amongst the top 10 Indian Companies) Most Respected Company in Automobile Sector by Business World Bike Maker of the Year by Overdrive Magazine 2002 Bike Maker of the Year by Overdrive Magazine Winner of the Review 200 - Asia’s Leading Companies Award (4th Rank amongst top 10 Indian Companies). 2001 Bike Maker of the Year by Overdrive Magazine Achieved OM - One million production in one single year Joy Model launched Entrepreneur of the Year Award conferred upon the Chairman, Mr Brijmohan Lall by Ernst & Young 50,00,000th Bike produced
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‘Three Leaves Award for Environment’ to Hero Honda by Centre for Social & Environment Green Rating Project. 2000 Sponsored ‘Hero Honda NKP Salve Challenger Trophy’ Sponsored ‘Stardust Hero Honda Millennium Honours Award’ Sponsored ‘Hero Honda Masters Golf Championship’ Appointed Sourav Ganguly & Hrithik Roshan as Brand Ambassadors Environment Performance Award to Hero Honda Dharuhera Plant by Haryana State Pollution Control Board Environment Management System of Gurgaon Plant certified ISO-14001 by DNV Holland 4,000,000th motorcycle produced
Splendor declared World No. 1 largest selling single two-wheeler model 1999 Best Productivity Award for the best performance in Automobile & Tractor Sector by National Productivity Council presented by Vice President of India 1998 20,00,000th motorcycle produced 1997 15,00,000th motorcycle produced 1985 First motorcycle (Model CD 100) produced 200 motorcycles per day production 1984 Company incorporated Technical collaboration signed Foundation stone laid 1983 Joint Collaboration Agreement with Honda Motor Co. Ltd. Japan, signedShareholders Agreements signed (From the Web Site)
1. Tata steels manufacture high-quality steel at the most economic prices. Nalco’s Aluminum, Hidalco’s Aluminum etc. are most economically priced, with high quality of production. They head the Price Leadership lists the economy of their scale helps them operate thus. 2. Of the 67 lakhs of automobiles manufactured in India is 2003-04, cars alone accounted for 6.98 lakhs with Maruti’s share at 4.72 lakhs. 3. Hero Honda’s Splendour is the largest selling motor-cycle model in the world. 4. The Jam Nagar (Gujarat) Refinery of the Reliance is the third largest in the world. Bharat Forge the second largest in its field. Trilogy E business software is a leading provider of industry-specific enterprise software for Global 100 companies. It is among the world’s largest privately held software companies. The World’s largest companies including Ford, Fujitsu, Land’s End, Nation Wide and SGI use Trilogy’s services. Trilogy solutions are well established in the automotive, communications, computer, and insurance industries enabling leading companies to develop market and sell products more quickly and profitably. SMARTHA BHARATA 159
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KHADI AND VILLAGE INDUSTRIES COMMISSION
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VIC works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Industry, Government Of India under the department of Small-Scale Industries and Agro and Rural Industreies. KVIC has a 10 member commission at the policy making level. The Commission consists of six zonal members (one of whom is Chairman), two expert members and two official members (the Chief Executive officer and the Financial Advisor to the Commisssion). The Chairman, CEO and FA are full time members. The head qarters of KVIC is in Bombay and it has its State and Regional Offices in all the States. It has training, production and Sales centres through out the country. KVIC is having 30 State khadi and village industries board, over 3500 institutions and over 29000 co-operative societies. There are around 14200 sales outlets in the country in KVI Sector. It is having 46% women participation in its activities. 30% beneficiaries belongs to SC/ST. KVI Boards assist over 5 lakh artisans. It has reached 2.35 lakhs villages. Popularising Khadi
Parliament namely, the Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act, 1956 (No. 61 of 1956). It is mainly a service organisation engaged in the promotion and development of Khadi and Village Industries (KVI) in rural areas. Employment Generation The development programmes of the KVIC are implemented through 30 State/UT KVI Boards which are statutory organisations established under State Laws, 5,149 institutions registered under Societies Registration Act, 1860 and 30,130 cooperative societies. The KVIC also assists 7.98 lakh individual artisans/entrepreneurs directly as well as through State KVIBs. The KVI programmes have now reached over 2.61 lakh villages in the country providing gainful employment opportunities to the rural poor, remote and hilly areas, border and tribal areas, Scheduled Castes and Schedule Tribes (SCs/STs) and women.
The Khadi and Village Industries The Government is paying utmost attention Commission (KVIC) is a statutory to the employment generation programmes organisation established by an Act of being implemented through the KVIC to Safflower production in India during the current season (2004) is estimated at 1.2 lakh tonnes SMARTHA BHARATA 160
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provide respectable employment to people and enable them to lead a life of dignity. Moreover, this is the only sector which creates employment in a cost- efficient manner. The KVIC is also making an all out effort to provide gainful employment to the rural masses and is also providing financial and other assistance for this purpose. Financial Assistance The financial assistance to KVIC’s implementing agencies is in the form of grants, rebates and subsidies. The major portion of the grants given to the Commission is for disbursement of rebates on retail sales of Khadi as well as subsidy on village industries. During the last three years, special efforts were made to release additional grants to clear all pending rebate claims. Banks were also motivated to give requisite credit to the Khadi and Village Industries. In the financial year 1999-2000, a sum of Rs. 320 crore has been provided . Moreover, in collaboration with the UNDP, a project for $2.5 million dollars (about Rs. 11 crore) has been launched for beekeeping, pottery, handmade paper and capacity building of the KVIC. The KVIC undertakes its programmes in the rural areas through the artisans working in cottage industries. Its activities are providing employment to large number of SCs/STs and
women. At present, 32 per cent and 46 per cent of total KVI employment is from the SCs/STs and women artisans respectively. In order to preserve the spirit of Swadeshi and the model of self-reliant growth of the KVI Sector, the Government is providing huge subsidies and grants to the Khadi Sector. During the years 1998-99 and 19992000, Rs. 149.09 crore and Rs. 140.69 crore respectively have been paid as Khadi rebate which was an all time record. During the current financial year also, adequate funds to the tune of Rs. 129 crores for Khadi rebate have been provided for payment of Khadi rebate claims. Moreover, the Government has a l r e a d y announced the rebate policy for the current year on June 01, 2000 itself, where as in earlier years the rebate policies were declared much later. Sometimes, there is wrong propaganda that the funds under Khadi grant are being reduced progressively. The fact is that with special efforts not only have all past arrears been liquidated, more than adequate funds have been provided for in the current year’s budget also. In addition of the financial assistance in the form of budgetary resources, the Government has also extended a guarantee to the RBI for extending a line of credit
India sold Rs.10,000 crores worth iron and steel to China in 2003. SMARTHA BHARATA 161
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Consortium of Bank Credit (CBC) of Rs. 1,000 crore to the KVIC for releasing term loans to Khadi and Village Industries Sectors. New Challenges The Government is giving huge financial assistance to the KVIC. But it was felt that the funds so released have not resulted in the desired benefits. In view of this as well as in view of the challenges of the new economic era, it was found necessary to strengthen the KVIC structurally to enable it to face the challenges of globalisation. Under these circumstances, it was thought fit to conduct a study to restructure the entire KVIC. The restructuring will definitely prepare it to face the challenges in future and make it vibrant and selfsustaining without compromising its cherished objectives.
the Government has recently taken many a new initiative for promotion of this sector and be able to exploit the full potential of Khadi as a product category in all its forms.
These initiatives include registration of “Khadi” as a brand name as well as domain name. The KVIC has been advised to register “khadi” as a geographical indication. New products, new designs are being developed with the help of National Institute of Design and National Institute of Fashion Technology . Packaging of Khadi products is being improved. A mechanism to ensure quality of Khadi products is being evolved. Offers have been invited to renovate the Khadi Bhawan in New Delhi to bring it at par with any modern international store. An advertising campaign, in India and abroad is also being planned to make people aware about the Khadi . Khadi shops are being planned at all international airports in India. And also possibilities of marketing of KVI Fresh Initiatives products through E-commerce is being The recent lack of growth of the Khadi explored. industry, however, is a matter of serious concern especially in the light of declining Hence, for increasing sales of Khadi and production, sales, rural employment providing greater and better rural opportunities and share of Khadi in the total employment opportunities in this sector, it business of the KVIC. This assumes special is necessary to provide and offer products significance as population and per capita in accordance with consumer preferences as consumption of clothes in our country has the KVI sector plays a very important role increased over these years. In view of this, in the Indian Economy. (From the Web Site)
Infosys has bagged the globe’s most Admired Knowledge Enterprises award for 2003, for developing knowledge workers through management leadership. SMARTHA BHARATA 162
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ONGC
Securing Sustained Growth modest entity in the serene Himalayan settings - Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) was set up as a Commission on August 14, 1956. The company became a corporate on June 23, 1993, which has now grown into a full-fledged horizontally integrated petroleum company. Today, ONGC is a flagship public sector enterprise and India’s highest profit making corporate, achieving the record of being the first Indian corporate to register a five digit profit figure of Rs. 10,529 Crore in the year 2002-03. ONGC has produced more than 600 million metric tonnes of crude oil and supplied more than 200 billion cubic metres of gas since its inception, thus fuelling the increasing energy requirements of the Indian economy. Today, ONGC is the most valuable company in India, contributing 77 percent of India’s crude oil production and 81 per cent of India’s natural gas production. To sustain this growth, ONGC has drawn up ambitious strategic objectives, which include doubling the oil and gas reserves. Having accreted six billion tonnes oil and oil equivalent reserves in its first 45 years of operation, ONGC now aims to double these reserves by 2020. The second strategic objective is to augment the global recovery factor from the existing 28 per cent to the global norm of 40 per cent in next 20 years. Out of the six billion tonnes of oil and gas reserve accretion, four billion tonnes is expected to come from Offshore and Deep Waters. To improve the recovery factor from the existing fields, ONGC is investing Rs. 2,000 crore in 15 re-development schemes.
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Corporate Ranking. * Ranked 326th in Financial Times Global 500 List by market cap; first among Indian Corporates. New Discoveries ONGC made six new discoveries, at Vasai West (oil and gas) in Western Offshore, GS-49 (gas) and GS-KW (oil and gas) in Krishna-Godavari Offshore, Chinnewala Tibba (gas) in Rajasthan, and Laipling-gaon (oil and gas) and Banamali (oil), both in Assam. ONGC Videsh Limited ONGC’s wholly owned subsidiary, ONGC Videsh Ltd, has made significant investments in many parts of the world.The gas property in Vietnam (OVL’s participating interest 45%) went into commercial production in December 2002, leading to OVL’s first revenue from hydrocarbons. In March 2003, OVL concluded the acquisition of 25% equity in the Greater Nile project in Sudan with an investment of Rs. 3,430 crore. This investment entitles OVL to 3.00 MMT of crude oil per year, which is valued at Rs. 2,500 crore at current prices. OVL opened its first overseas subsidiary, Sakhalin India Inc., in US for managing its operations in Sakhalin Oil field in Russia. Further, ONGC Nile-Ganga BV, a wholly owned subsidiary, was incorporated in The Netherlands to manage the Sudan property. OVL is also pursuing exploration of oil and gas in Russia, Iran, Iraq, Libya Myanmar and other countries. (From the Web Site)
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H.M.T.
Company Profile stablished in 1974, HMT (International) has grown both in size and stature. With a network extending over 38 countries, including representations in over 70 countries, HMT(I) has emerged as the international conduit for a wide array of Indian products. HMT(I) has always scored very high on dependability and quality in products and services as reflected by growing clientele all over world. HMT(I) offers easy and consistent access to reliable technology. Vast experience, assimilated over the years enables comprehensive project engineering packages to be offered. Key areas where HMT(I)’s services have been proven - Machine Tools and Allied Industries, Engineering Industries in capital goods and consumer durables covering Metal Working Sector , Tool Rooms, Foundry, Agriculture, Food Processing, Technical Training Centers, Vocation Development, Industrial Estates, Development of Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs), Entrepreneur & Technical Development Centre etc. HMT(I) has successfully completed projects in Algeria, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Maldives, Maldives, Mauritius, Tanzania, Nigeria, Senegal, UAE and other developing countries. HMT(I) is recognized by many leading international organizations such as UNIDO, UNDP, ADB, AFDP & World Bank, for its outstanding performance in international trading and export of products
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and services in the following diverse areas: Machine Tools Industrial machinery, Watches and watch components, Tractors and Automotive parts, Projects and services, Engineering Components and Products, Commodities, Software and IT Products & Services. HMT(I)’s extensive technological base and formidable resources have enabled HMT (International) to carve a name as a singlesource provider for project expertise in a range of engineering sectors. This knowledge is now deployed to train hundreds of youth involved in engineering activities. HMT (I) has set up Training Centers to generate competent manpower around the world. Specialization: Belief in the spirit to pioneer & aspire to be a leading player in vast changing business scenario. Product Brand Names: HMT Product Range: Machine Tools Industrial Machinery, Watches, Tractors, Engineering Components & Products. Technology Detail: The technological base & formidable resources have enabled us to carve a name as single-source provider. Competitive Edge: ISO 9000 certification for all products. Export Markets: Africa, Asia, Australia, East Europe, Middle East, North America. Import Markets: Asia , West Europe, North America. (From the Web Site)
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BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED
HEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy-related/infrastructure sector, today. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago, ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India - a dream that has been more than realized with a well-recognized track record of performance. The company has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77. BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups and caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation & Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, etc. The wide network of BHEL’s 14 manufacturing divisions, four Power Sector regional centres, over 100 project sites, eight service centres and 18 regional offices, enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products, systems and services — efficiently and at competitive prices. The high level of quality & reliability of its products is due to the emphasis on design, engineering and manufacturing to international standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from leading companies in the world, together with technologies developed in its own R&D centres.
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Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001) and Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001) and is also well on its journey towards Total Quality Management. BHEL has * Installed equipment for over 90,000 MW of power generation — for Utilities, Captive and Industrial users. * Supplied over 2,25,000 MVA transformer capacity and other equipment operating in Transmission & Distribution network up to 400 kV (AC & DC). * Supplied over 25,000 Motors with Drive Control System to Power projects, Petrochemicals, Refineries, Steel, Aluminum, Fertilizer, Cement plants, etc. * Supplied Traction electrics and AC/DC locos to power over 12,000 kms Railway network. * Supplied over one million Valves to Power Plants and other Industries.
BHEL’s operations are organised around three business sectors, namely Power, Industry - including Transmission, Transportation, Telecommunication & Renewable Energy - and Overseas Business. This enables BHEL to have a strong customer orientation, to be sensitive to his BHEL has acquired certifications to Quality needs and respond quickly to the changes in Management Systems (ISO 9001), the market. Bharti has launched India’s first dual band network in Delhi Airtel Delhi has thus become the largest network in terms of subscriber base (1.1 million) and spectrum (10 Mzh) SMARTHA BHARATA 165
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BHEL’s vision is to become a world-class engineering enterprise, committed to enhancing stakeholder value. The company is striving to give shape to its aspirations and fulfill the expectations of the country to become a global player. The greatest strength of BHEL is its highly skilled and committed 44,000 employees. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself and grow in his career. Continuous training and retraining, career planning, a positive work culture and participative style of management – all these have engendered development of a committed and motivated workforce setting new benchmarks in terms of productivity, quality and responsiveness. BHEL, Tiruchi has added to its High Pressure Boiler Plant (HPBP), a Seamless Steel Tube Plant (SSTP) at Tiruchirappalli (adjacent to the HPBP), a Boiler Auxiliaries Plant (BAP) at Ranipet (in the state of Tamil Nadu), a Piping Centre (PC) at Chennai in Tamil Nadu and an Industrial Valve Plant (IVP) at Goindwal (in the Northern state of Punjab). Technology Assimilation And Development With judicious mix of inhouse R&D and selective technology tie ups, BHEL Tiruchi has developed excellent Engineering and R&D capabilities. For various products, technologies from international leaders in the field have been
absorbed and adopted to suit local conditions and customers specific needs. These products can now be designed to various international Codes and Standards. The capabilities have been accorded recognition by reputed international agencies. World Class Facilities BHEL Tiruchirapalli has equipped all its units with sophisticated world class machinery, which form the heart of the manufacturing system. Quality Commitment All the plants are equipped with state-of-theart analytical, mechanical and nondestructive testing facilities. The Calibration Centre which is a National Accredited Laboratory, possesses the latest techniques and facilities in the field of calibration. The Seamless Steel Tube Plant has on-line ultrasonic, stray flux and eddy current test facilities to ensure highest quality production. The Boiler Auxiliaries Plant has a modern fan test station, flow model test facilities, test air heater, etc. Quality Recognition Adherence to quality has helped BHEL Tiruchi win quality recognition from National and International accreditation agencies. Customer Services At BHEL Tiruchi, every system is tuned towards serving the customer. Certification BHEL is the first state-owned company to acquire ISO 9000 certification during 1993
The Survey of India has probably become the first organisation in the Asia-Pacific region to use the “airborne laser terrain mapping” technology or part of a large-scale modernisation programme. SMARTHA BHARATA 166
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for all its operations. This is being successfully maintained through surveillance and recertification audits. Global Links The achievements have earned an international reputation for BHEL, Tiruchi. The plant has so far supplied boilers for around 1350 MW of power generation capacity to Malaysia, Libya, Iran, Egypt etc. BHEL’s valves have been exported to Malta, Cyprus, Malaysia and Indonesia while pressure part equipment and spares have been exported to the USA. Boiler components have been supplied to China and Seamless Steel Tubes have been exported to Malaysia. People Our Greatest Asset Behind each one of these activities lies the commitment and dedication of the employees, technical experts, process engineers and skilled workers, whose contribution has attributed to penning this success story. Surging Ahead........ BHEL Tiruchirapalli stands for all that is cherished by every member of BHEL, where Quality is company-wide commitment. Dedication to technical excellence, development of state-of-the-art technologysuitable to customers specific needs and strict adherence to quality standards form the guiding principles while it surges ahead confidently into the future. BHEL Bhopal Profile Established in the late 50’s, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited ( BHEL ) is, today, a name to reckon with in the industrial world.It is the largest engineering and manufacturing
enterprise of its kind in India, and one of the leading international companies in the power field. BHEL offers over 180 products and provides systems and services to meet the needs of core sectors like:Power,Transmission, Industry, Transportation,Non-Conventional Energy Sources,Oil & Gas Exploration & Telecommunication . With 14 Manufacturing Divisions,a wide spread Regional Services Network , and Project Sites all over India & abroad and with an export presence in more than 50 countries, BHEL is truly India’s Industrial ambassador to the world.All major Manufacturing,Erection and Service units of BHEL have been awarded ISO 9000 certification. BHEL’s Bhopal plant is the company’s oldest unit with updated & state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities. The product range at Bhopal includes Hydro, Steam, Marine & Nuclear Turbines, Hydro & Turbo Generators, Transformers, Switchgears, Controlgears, Transportation Equipments,Capacitors,Bushings, Electrical Motors, Rectifiers,Oil Drilling Rig Equipments, Battery Powered Vehicles and Diesel Generating sets. This unit have been recommended for ISO-14001 certificate for its Environment Management System. BHEL Bhopal’s strength is it’s employees.Company invests in Human Resources continuously and is alive to their needs. The plant’s well established Township is spread over an area of around 20 sq kms and provides good Health facilities, Sports & Recreational Parks (From the Web Site)
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INNOVATIVE HR PRACTICES HELP BIOCON RETAIN STAFF
Thanuja B.M ecent times have seen the word ‘attrition’ take so much of prominence in company profiles. Especially so in the IT industry with the average being over 20 percent. So it does come as a surprise that the general attrition rate at Biocon, the biotech company billed as the Infosys of BT sector is less than 3 percent. And the attrition rate among women is lower than men, even if it is very marginal. Interesting, right? Nirupa Bareja, group head (HR), Biocon says, “rate of attrition among women is marginally (o.1 percent) lower than men in the company. This is because of the stability factor, especially with married women who rarely leave us. Also our HR practices help us in retaining most of the employees.” Well, that is to be expected when you look at some of their innovative HR policies. For instance, new recruits across all levels wear a badge that says—Hi I M New— helping other employees recognise them and make them feel at home. Biocon also has an in-house healthcare centre, where the annual health check-up is done by doctors of Clinigene, a Biocon subsidiary, helping the company bring down spending to 1/10th of the cost. From welcoming a new recruit with
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a red rose and card to setting up a crèche for Biocon employee’s children, the company does it all and may be that’s why it has just won the Pune-based Indira Group of Institutes’ award for HR excellence. “A good people assets is a huge investment and it pays. We don’t usually try and replace them for whatever reasons,” says Bareja. Most of the people have been with the company for years, she says, adding, “the attrition is mainly seen in the less than 2 years category. This comprises a lot of entry level scientists.” When asked if monetary matters was the reason they quit, Bareja opines, “majority of our people who quit do so for higher studies but quite a few leave for monetary reasons. However, 90 percent of the people who leave want to come back. We welcome back the ones who go for studies but have a policy never to take back people overseas applying to Biocon, especially from the UK. “Last year, we had close to 30,000 voluntary applications, about 10 percent of them were from overseas,” she says, adding, in the last 4 months, Biocon has recruited more than 20 people from overseas. “We do find their curriculam more broadbased but I do think they are no par with the people we campus recruit from the IITs and other institutes in India.” The Rs.550-crore company has grown from 60 employees a decade ago to 1,400 employees now. (TNIE)
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BIRLAS TRIGGERED INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN INDIA
K.M.Devarajan
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he name of Birla had enjoyed a reputation in India for several decades. The four Birla brothers, viz, Jugal Kishore Birla, Rameshwar Das Birla, Ghanshyam Das Birla and Brij Mohan Birla had promoted innumerable industrial, trading and financial enterprises throughout the length and breadth of India decades before the country became independent in 1947. They also owned/ran charitable trusts; temples; hospitals, educational institutions; museums, observatories, newspapers and journals and several Birla Houses which very few in the world could have created and also seen their successes during their own life times. Of the four brothers Ghanshyam Das (GD Birla) became more famous. Born in a small village, Pilani, in Rajasthan in 1894 on a Rama Navami Day, G.D.Birla had selected a career in business as a trader and broker in gunny and Hessian in Calcutta at the age of 13, and had reached the pinnacle of success when he died in London in 1983. When Gwalior Rayons set up a factory near Kozhikode in Kerala in the late fifties, G.D.Birla visited the site once, and an airstrip was constructed specially for his plane to land at Karipur. Decades later this airstrip was expanded to become the Calicut international airport. There were hundreds
of Birla factories around the world that were seldom seen by a Birla and yet each one of them had shown profit. This was because G.D.Birla had perfected a system of management and account control which was much superior to what was prevalent in India, and was beyond the comprehension of Harvard and Wharton. The Birlas had incurred expenditure on numerous activities during the freedom movement, but without any returns, as directed by Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabh bhai Patel and a host of freedom fighters in the forefront. Industrialisation received a big boost in India during the second five year plan (1956-61) and G.D.Birla had the vision to extend his business operations to other countries of the world, in spite of innumerable restrictions at home. In 1960 he set up the first Indian business abroad in Ethiopia near Addis Ababa called the Indo-Ethiopian Textile Mills. Since charity went along with his business, he had also established the biggest Women and Children hospital in Addis Ababa. The twentieth century history of Ethiopia was dominated by its Emperor. Haile Selassie, and GD Birla was accorded the honour due to a head of State during his few visits to Ethiopia until the military coup in that country in 1974.
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G.D.Birla had founded the Federation of Indian Chambers of Comerce and Industry (Ficci) in 1927 and had left behind strict norms for electing its President. In addition to him, his younger brother B.M.Birla, his eldest son L.N.Birla, his second son K.K.Birla and his grandson S.K.Birla had
all become the presidents of Ficci in subsequent years. During the beginning decades the share of G.D.Birla in the Tatas was more than the Tatas themselves, but he had always adhered to his business ethics that “In the Tatas, the Tatas are supreme” (The New Indian Express)
GODREJ - PATRIOTS TO THE CORE
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and Naoroji,Sohrabji. To this day, products that compete with the best in the world continue to come from the gates of Pirojshanagar. Godrej touches the lives of millions of Indians everyday. To them, it is a symbol of enduring ideals in a changing world. Every product, every new concept gives shape to their visions of tomorrow. A vast swampy land, hilly and green.... what others discarded, late Pirojsha Godrej bought and created into a garden township. Late Pirojsha Godrej the entrepreneur, the visionary, who established the Godrej Company wanted education for his worker’s children. It was in the year 1955, that he was asked, “A school? Whatever for? We never went to school.” But Pirojsha Godrej did not like the children whiling away their time on the streets. He visualized education as being It was here that the Godrej vision took con- the stepping stone to enlightenment and so he crete shape. In later years, its extent and scope wanted them all to be educated, and good was expanded greatly by his sons - Burjorji education it had to be, education for Life! This was the unpretentious birth of schools. (From the Web Site) The capital share market value of Tata group is Rs.1,03,125 crores. ONGC a government undertaking has shares worth Rs.99,395 crores. The top fifty in value include, TCS, Tata Motors, Tata Steel, Tata power, ICPL, Hindalco and Grasim. young man gave up law and took up lockmaking. Events in the Godrej Story are only the small visible pieces of a larger continuously emerging picture - a picture alive and palpable in the mind of one man : the young lawyer-turned-lockmaker Ardeshir Godrej. He was the first Indian manufacturer to displace well entrenched foriegn brands from the market. The word Godrej, etched into the metal of his locks, became a symbol of self reliance for the generations that followed. With each new product Ardeshir changed perceptions about industry in India. He produced the finest security equipment, and then stunned the world by creating a soap from vegetable oils. What started as a dream had become a movement.But it was left to another man to carry it forward, Ardeshir’s brother, Pirojsha Godrej. Pirojsha Godrej laid the foundations for a throbbing enterprise at a sprawling industrial garden township outside Mumbai. SMARTHA BHARATA 170
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INDIAN BRAINS BEHIND DRUG DEVELOPMENT INFO-TOOL
Anand Parthasarathy
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ver 100 clinical trials of new drugs being conducted worldwide at any given time, by the world’s largest pharmaceutical company, Pfizer, use a purpose-built information and trials tool developed in India.
as well as the forecasting system and a complex labeling utility.
It helps pharma companies to ensure that all the stringent regulatory requirements of the US Government’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are met and the thousands of records The software suite—”Clinicopia”—is the of the trial are maintained. flagship product of Info Pro Solutions, a Westlake Village, California-based company Over the next 12 to 15 months [from Aug.’04], founded by medical systems analyst, Vikram the Bangalore team will develop additional Marla, in 1995. Core development of the modules for the suite which will address product was done by Info Pro’s team of process execution-monitoring the actual engineers at the company’s Bangalore-based ‘recipe’ of the evolving drug—as well as centre. providing some accountability muscle: that is, helping the distant trial sites to keep records It is claimed to be the world’s first suite of every drug dose administered. developed with multiple tools for the end-toend supply chain required to conduct clinical Info Pro’s India-based Country Manager, Shiva trials that follow drug discoveries. Such trials Kumar, added that the product would prove involving over 1,000 patients could last from particularly useful for Indian pharma 3 to 7 years and cost between $600 millions to companies aiming for a global presence with $1 billion, says Mr.Marla, Info Pro Solutions’ their newly-discovered drugs and need FDA president and CEO, now on a brief visit to approval before they could address the huge India. American market. Talking to the press, he said the Clinicopia suite at present encompasses tools for supply chain management—the manufacturing, packing, distribution and reconciliation of drug doses— The company has recently set in motion a Rs.3.5 crore investment at Bangalore to set up a permanent facility at Whitefield, on the outskirts of the city and effectively double its engineer strength by the year-end. [The Hindu].
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WORLD’S THIRD LARGEST ECONOMY
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oyota Kirloskar Auto Parts Private Limited have started a new gearbox manufacturing company at BidadiKarnataka. The plant will supply 1.6 lakh units to Toyota motor’s assembly plants in SE Asia, South America and South Africa.
The Bidadi plant would supply parts to world-wide assembly lines.
This reflects the high-level of productivity Indian auto-companies have achievedThis is the first time an Indian auto-componentIt will now make the complete manual manufacturer is going transmission for Toyota’s new multi-utility to be a global source for a Tier I (direct vehicle. supplies) component The finance minister of India, participating maker. in the inaugural function said “I anticipate continued growth of the Indian Economy, The strong local machining industry and the which is among the few that could absorb availability of a large number of skilled large amounts of capital. Broad segments of engineers helped cut costs at the plant. In the manufacturing sector are doing well with the coming years, process costs could come some out-performing the rest of the economy down further. in 2003.”
INDIAN COMPANIES GO MULTINATIONAL
1. Ranbaxy, Infoysis, Sundaram Fasteners and Bharat Forge have turned MNCS. 2. Manufacturing companies in the fields of software and pharmaceuticals have gone abroad setting up production facilities in foreign countries. 3. Sundaram Fasteners, Ajanta Clock and Videocon companies have manufacturing bases in China. 4. India has shifted from Agro-products such as tea to industrial products in export business. 5. Tata Motors have exported 1000’s of Indica Cars to Britain. 6. Maruti has exported 57,175 crores in 2003-04. 7. The Reliance group exported Rs.11,510 crores worth of material / industrial products. 8. The export of common drugs to US from India has increased from 0.5% in 1998 to 3.5% in 2003. This is the achievement of Dr.Reddy’s lab, and Ranbaxy. 9. More than 80% of the income from TCS and Ranboxy are in foreign exchange. 10. Mahendra and Mahendra tractors are sold in the US and its car Scorpio in Western Europe. 11. ITC’s foreign sales have touched 1000 crores per annum. L & T has Rs.1500 crores worth foreign job orders. 12. BHEL exported high duty electrical goods to the tune of Rs.2087 crores in 2003-04. (The New Indian Express)
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THE INDIAN INSTITUTES OF TECHNOLOY
The world famous Engineering, Technology, and Science Institutes better known as I.I.T.S. function at Kharagpur, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Kanpur . Recently one more institute at Guwahati has been added to this prestigious list. The University of Roorkee, the 150 year old university of excellence, has been declared as an I.I.T. The objectives of I.I.T.s include : The Chennai I.I.T. benefited from an Indo1. Offering instruction in engineering and German collaboration for technical education. applied sciences at a level comparable The Mumbai I.I.T. went for technical help from to the very best in the world. 2. Providing best facilities for post- the then U.S.S.R. and the Delhi I.I.T. from U.K. The I.I.T.S. have all been brought into graduate studies and research. 3. Providing leadership in curriculum existence by acts of parliament and they have planning and laboratory development been declared institutions of National both for its own staff and for teachers Importance. of other engineering institutions. 4. Developing programmes for faculty The quality of students, the quality of products development both for its own staff and that come out of the portals of I.I.T.s and the for teachers of other engineering way the alumni have achieved eminence in their work places, have given the I.I.T.s a rare institutions. 5. Developing close collaboration with prestige all over the world. The role of I.I.T.s industry through exchange of in National Development:personnel and undertaking consultancy 1. Providing manpower and know-how to projects. the country and in pursuit of research. 6. Developing strong collaboration links 2. Contributing to all sectors of with other academic and research technological development. institutions in the country and abroad. 3. Setting trends in education, research 7. Anticipating the technological needs of and teaching of engineering, India and to plan and prepare to cater technology and science. to them. 4. Equipping hundreds of laboratories. 5. Large and beautiful campuses: high All the seven I.I.T.s awards Bachelors’, teacher-student ratio. Masters’ and Doctoral degrees. The I.I.T.s Bharat Forge has purchased Germany’s CDP Gmbh recently. SMARTHA BHARATA 173 have been making special efforts to recruit talented faculty on a world-wide basis and to admit bright students from all over the country by a careful selection process (Joint Entrance Examinations). The Kanpur I.I.T. received technical assistance from a consortium of nine leading institutions of USA.
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6. Associating very eminent persons with the I.I.T.s as governors, directors, staff and as ex-students. 7. Innovative programmes such as Dual degree programmes in Engineering, M.B.A. Master of Science by Research (M.S.) Port-management, Telecommunication, Aerospace Engineering, Bio-technology, Cryogenic engineering, I.T. Medical
Science and Technology, Mining Engineering, Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture, Meteorology, Reliability Engineering, Rubber Technology, Rural Development, with great emphasis on social science. (With inputs from Websites)
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AHMADABAD
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n just four decades IIMA has evolved from being India’s premier management institute to a notable international school of management. It all started with Dr Vikram Sarabhai and a few other public spirited industrialists realizing that agriculture, education, health, transportation, population control, energy, and public administration were all vital elements in a growing society and that it was necessary to link these meaningfully with industry. The result was the creation of the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad in 1961 as an autonomous body with the active collaboration of the Government of India, Government of Gujarat, and industry. It was evident that to have a vision was not enough. Effective governance and quality education were seen as critical aspects. From the very start the founders introduced the concept of faculty governance: all members
of the faculty play an important role in administering the diverse academic and nonacademic activities of the Institute. The empowerment of the faculty has been the propelling force behind the high quality of learning experience at IIMA. The Institute had initial collaboration with Harvard Business School. This collaboration greatly influenced the Institute’s approach to education. Gradually it emerged as a confluence of the best of Eastern and Western values. Mission & Objectives Mission IIMA’s mission is to help India and other developing countries improve their managerial practices both in the private and in the public sectors, and adopt superior public policies. It seeks to do this through producing risk-taking leader-managers who will pioneer new managerial practices and
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set new standards; through producing teachers and researchers who will generate new ideas of International significance; and through purposeful consulting aimed at helping client organizations scale new heights. Objectives To provide learning facilities to men and women of exceptional calibre for pursuing careers in management or becoming teachers and researchers in different management fields.
2. Integration of key activities like teaching, research, and consultancy 3. Introduction of the 3-Tier Management Development Programme 1970s- The Decade of Growth Introduction of new Management Development Programmes 1980s - The Decade of Diversification Recognised as the premier management school throughout the country, the Institute expands it range and reach.
To promote knowledge through research, Formation of three new groups: The both applied and conceptual. Industrial Policy Management Group, The To participate in and contribute to the International Management Group, and The Entrepreneurship Group formulation of public policy. To enhance the decision-making skills and the administrativecompetence of practising managers and assist organizations to solve their managerial problems. To collaborate with other institutions in India and abroad with aview to further professionalising management education and assisting in institution building, in a meaningful manner. 1990s - The Decade of Consolidation Recognition as one of the top five business schools in Asia Pacific region 2000 - The Decade of Internationalisation Internationalisation and growth are the key words of the Institute during this decade.
Exchange of faculty with international business schools. Expansion of the campus to accommodate the Institute’s international executive Evolution development programmes. 1. Focus on the social purpose while (From the Web Site) pursuing excellence in management
TIFR
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he Tata Institute of fundamental Research (TIFR) created in 1946 set the tone Science Research in India. The TIFR initially sent scientists for training in the West, but with the aim that subsequently the institute would become self-sufficient in this respect. This was fulfilled, and eventually the TIFR provided the intellectual material for several areas including mathematics, theoretical physics and the country’s atomic energy programme. The CSIR also worked for self-reliance by creating advanced laboratories in different fields all over the country. Today we have a large network of advanced research institutes, created by the various scientific departments of the government of India, the DAE, DRDI, DST, DOS, DSIR Department of Electronics (DOE), Department of BioTechnology (DBT), etc.
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When the life-blood is strong and pure, no disease germ can live in that body. Our lifeblood is spirituality. If it flows clear, if it flows strong and pure and vigorous, everything is right; political, social, any other material defects, even the poverty of the land, will all be cured if that blood is pure. In India, social reform has to be preached by showing how much more spiritual a life the new system will bring; and politics has to be preached by showing how much it will improve the one thing that the nation wants –its spirituality. -Swami Vivekananda
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Thus spake Swami Vivekananda
Teach yourselves, teach everyone his/her real nature, call upon the sleeping soul and see how it awakes. Power will come, glory will come, goodness will come, purity will come, and everything that is excellent will come, when this sleeping soul is roused to self-conscious activity.
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INDIA AID
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ndian pharma companies can once more raise their heads in glory. As far as AIDS is concerned, they seem to be worldbeaters. A three-year study of AIDS drugs, involving 1,147 patients, has concluded that the three-in-one pill made by I n d i a n companies Ranbaxy and Cipla is better for new patients than any of those sold or planned by Western drug companies. The study results have been published in the current issue of the prestigious “New England Journal of Medicine” and was reported by the New York Times.The successful cocktail, known in pharma circles as “two nukes plus a non-nuke” is the same one that WHO has been recommending in poor countries since 2002. The drug contains a combination of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (two nukes), AZT
and lamivudine, plus efavirenz, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (non-nuke). In India, however, Nevirapine is used instead of Efavirenz. Though a wellestablished drug, Nevirapine causes a serious rash in some patients, so generics makers are moving towards making compounds with efavirenz as well. The cocktail works by blocking reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that allows the RNA in an AIDS virus to replicate itself inside the DNA of a healthy T cell, a trigger cell for the body’s immune system. Another tripledrug cocktail examined in the study, the only one made by any Western drug company, failed so badly that patients were taken off it. Now you know why Cipla and Ranbaxy stocks rule so high. (The Sunday Express)
India closed fiscal 2003-04 with over 33.2 million mobile phone subscribers, more than 150% growth, thanks mainly to increased competition and steep fall in tariffs.
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INDIAN-MADE SUCCESS
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hile Global pharmaceutical companies claim generic medicines are of unproven quality when they lobby against the use of these drugs in national public health programmes, research studies are increasingly undermining this argument. The latest example of scientific research validating the approach followed by the manufacturers of generics—mainly in India and Brazil—is a three-year-study conducted in the United States. It shows the effectiveness of using fixed-dose combination drugs in the treatment of patients with the human immunovirus (HIV). The study, reported in the well-known New England Journal of Medicine, concludes that triple combination therapy (another term for the medication) is best suited to patients who are put on a drug regimen for the first time. The results of this research come at a time when the U.S. Government has been calling for fresh clinical trials to establish the safety of combination therapy, which has had the effect of slowing down the implementation of the World Health
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Organisation’s ambitious global programme of treating three million HIV patients by 2005. The new research should, however, encourage the Government of India to push ahead and gradually expand the recently launched programme to provide free medication to HIV patients in selected States. Anti-retroviral therapy does not cure people afflicted with the A c q u i r e d I m m u n e Deficiency S y n d r o m e (AIDS), but by keeping the virus under check it offers them the possibility of leading a normal life. Conventional t r e a t m e n t involves a daily in take of three kinds of drugs twice a day. To ease the rigours of this drug regimen, Indian generic companies pioneered in 2001 the development of three-in-one drugs. The advantages of this fixed dose combination are, first, only two, not six, pills need to be consumed everyday, and, secondly, there is a tremendous saving in cost. The World Health Organisation estimates that combination therapy will cost less than half
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the conventional medication. WHO, for these very reasons, recommended in 2002 the use of the fixed-dose cocktail in public health programes in developing countries. Although the recommendation came after the international organization tested these combination drugs, this has not been enough for Washington. The argument is that adequate clinical trials have not been conducted to establish their safety. If the drugs fail the tests, so the argument goes, there is a s t r o n g likelihood of drug-resistant s t r a i n s emerging with the use of the medicines developed by I n d i a n companies. The heated argument relates to the use in international treatment programmes of patented drugs manufactured by the global pharmacy multinationals and Indian-made generics. Under the WTO laws, since the present generation of anti-retrovirals can be produced as generics, there is no legal argument that can be made against their use in the developing countries. Instead, the
majors first tried to block the implementation of a WTO declaration intended to make it easier to access the generic variants. After the possibilities in that avenue exhausted themselves, the companies turned to questioning the quality of the combination drugs. In both instances, the U.S. Government has spoken the language of the multinationals. The unfortunate aspect of the criticism of fixed-dose combination drugs is that the markets in the advanced economies are not in danger of b e i n g swamped by the generics. It is the W H O ’ s global AIDS treatment programme—targeted at the 30 million patients in Africa and the Caribbean—that is in danger of failing. WHO is short of resources and the U.S., which has committed itself to providing $15 billion for treatment programmes, will not release funds until the quality issue is settled. In short, the opposition to the use of cheaper drugs that are more easily taken is preventing the coverage of a larger population carrying HIV. (From An Editorial-The Hindu)
INDIAN SCIENTISTS EVOLVE DRAUGHT RESISTANT GREEN-GRAM usa 1053, a draught resistant green gram has been evolved by the scientists of the Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi. It requires much less water and can resist disease with less quantities of pesticides than the conventional varieties. It also controls diabetic tendencies and is good for fatty persons.
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CHEAP INDIAN AIDS PILL AS GOOD AS PRICEY BRANDS
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cheap three-in-one generic AIDS pill from India is just as good as more expensive branded medicines and should be widely used in developing countries, researchers said today (2/7/2004). Lack of scientific evidence about the clinical effectiveness of such generic fixed-dose combinations has until now caused some international AIDS donors to refuse to fund their use. But a team from the French National Agency for AIDS Research and Swiss Charity Medicines sans Frontieres said Cipla’s triomune performed as well as brand drugs in the first open clinical study in a developing country.
comprising brand name drugs,” said study coordinator Eric Delaporte. “It is now no longer possible to raise scientific uncertainty as an objection to the widespread utilization of FDCs in the developing countries.” In addition to being cheaper, drugs like triomune-which contains Glaxo-Smithkline’s lamivudine, Bristol-Myers Squibb’s stavudine and Boehringer Ingelheim’s nevirapine-are simpler to use since patients need to take only two pills a day. As such, they have a major role to play in meeting the World Health Organistion’s (WHO) goal of getting antiretrovirals to three million people in the developing world by the end of 2005, N.
Kumarasamy of the YRG centre for AIDS They found that 80 percent of HIV-infected research and education in Chennai wrote in patients given the tablet twice a day had a commentary accompanying the research. undetectable levels of virus in their blood after six months treatment. The WHO has judged triomune and another Indian combination called triviro, from Results of the study involving 60 patients in Ranbaxy laboratories, to be safe and Cameroon, 92 percent of whom had full- effective under a scheme that “prequalifies” blown AIDS, were published in the lancet them for use. But both products-which use medical journal. compounds still covered by patents-remain controversial. Washington has barred groups “This generic fixed-dose combination (FDC) receiving US governments funds from gives results comparable to those seen in the buying them, insisting only drugs approved developed world using triple-drug therapy by the food and drug administration be used (Reuters).
84.5 million tonne of milk is produced by our country every year making it the largest producer in the world.
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CIPLA PATENTS AIDS DRUG TRIOMUNE
Ramnath Subbu
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he Mumbai-based generic AIDS drugs manufacturer, Cipla, has successfully patented its three-in-one combination anti-retroviral (ARV) tablet, Triomune, in South Africa. This is a significant development given the demand for cheap generic AIDS drugs raised at the 15 th International AIDS conference being held in Bangkok.
Amar Lulla, Joint Managing Director, Cipla, said, “The process of getting Triomune patented in these countries is underway. Cipla’s Triomune contains a fixed dose of three generic AIDS drugs, Nevirapine, Stavudine and Lamivudine.
Till a few weeks ago, there were apprehensions about the clinical effectiveness of the generic fixed-dose The company is also seeking patents in 17 combinations. “The lancet’ medical journal other countries in Africa, which is the of the U.K. says that a study found Triomune epicenter of the AIDS pandemic. was equally effective in a study carried out over the six-month period on 60 AIDS patients. [The Hindu]
‘FINEST’ CARPET FRAGMENT TO BE SOLD
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he sad, frayed scrap of silk and wool is not big enough to make a mouse mat, never mind a carpet slipper. It is, however, a fabulous rarity, described by one expert as “a portion of the finest handknotted carpet in the history of the world.” The claim is made by Steven Cohen, an authority on Indian carpets, who has examined the fabric, which was shut up in a drawer for nearly a century and kept as a family curiosity.
“Nothing like it has been sold in the memory of our experts. On the one hand we have only such a tiny piece of it, on the other it is a worldclass object of museum quality. The family is happy with the estimate, and we shall see—it may be that specialist collectors will pay a lot more for it.”
The fragment survived as a souvenir of the owners’ great-grandfather, a London carpet dealer. It is a tiny part of a Mughal carpet made around 1630 in India, similar to a prayer mat but probably used for decoration, possibly hung It will be auctioned at Bonhams in London behind an emperor’s throne. (April 2004), estimated to fetch £6,0008,000. “It has been almost impossible to Other fragments of the same small carpet value,” said Mark Dance, oriental carpet survive in museums, the largest in the expert at Bonhams. Metropolitan Museum, New York and other scraps in Boston and Kuwait. (The Hindu)
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TURNING TO NATURE
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owadays, farmers consider biodegradable waste as marvelous manure. They also find development of herbal farms as a lucrative venture. A group of youths have ventured into the preparation of bio-manure by blending biodegradable waste with herbal ingredients. The bio-manure manufactured by them using solid waste from the Sirkazhi Municipal limits in Nagapattinam district and herbal extracts was the centre of attraction at the two-day national seminar-cum-exhibition on ‘Cultivation of medicinal plants and manufacture of herbal products’, sponsored by Sri Sankara College of Ayurveda, Tiruchi. A research scholar A.Sathyanarayanan, who
has taken up the venture, said excessive use of pesticides during the last three decades had spoiled the texture and fertility of the soil. Mr.Sathyanarayanan, who represented M/s.Kazhi Bio-Tech from Nagapattinam, said they manufactured cropspecific boosters such as ‘paddy booster’, ‘fruit trees booster’, ‘nursery booster’ and ‘plant booster’. A snake-like bark brought by K.Chakkaraiah, founder of the ‘Gandhi Rural Action Movement’ at Narthamalai in Pudukottai district was the cynosure of all eyes among the exhibits. From M.Balaganessan in Tiruchi (The Hindu)
COIR BOARD TO INVEST
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he Cori Board will invest Rs.3,000 crore over the next five years with focus on the medium-scale sector, said C.Chandran, chairman, Coir Board, addressing the press.
The integrated development strategy will lay emphasis on expanding and strengthening fibre extraction units, pith processing including pith blocks and composting units, yarn spinning, coir mattress, coir composite and flood blanket units. The document also The vision document also plans to diversify provides for doubling the employment and expand application areas of coir for growth in the sector from the present five building materials, geotextiles in addition to lakh to 10 lakh in the next five years (2005traditional applications. 09). Research and development is to focus on technological innovations in products and processes and husk collection banks headed by self-help groups like Stree-sakthi and Kutumba-shree will be set up for collection and supply of husk to the extraction units. The value of products in all coir producing states will be enhanced to over Rs.25,000 crore. The coir sector development is to be elevated as a ‘Coir Mission Development programme’ by the Planning Commission. (The New Indian Express)
India exports 992,000 tonne of shell eggs and 1,775 tonne of dried eggs every year.
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MYSORE SILK GETS PATENT
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he government has announced that “Though India is rich in its geographical Mysore silk has been resources, ironically, the country has patented and a silk saree weaved in received the tag for only eight products, any part of the world other than while Europe has more than Karnataka cannot be called Mysore 500 products with GI silk. protection. Compared to rest of the world, we are “Mysore silk has been patented and extremely backward when it its intellectual property has been comes to registration of protected with the accordance of GIs,” Maity said. the geographical indication (GI) tag,” Union Patents, Designs and Darjeeling tea, Pochampalli Trade-marks Controller-General S sarees, Salem fabric, Goa N Maity told reporters in fenny, Solapur fabric, Pavitra Bangalore. Modaram (ring) from Payyanur in Kerala, “The GI mark will serve as an Chanderi silks and Aranmulai identifier of the area or origin of Kannadi (mirror) in Kerala the product-in this case Mysoreare the eight products which and let customer know that its has earned the GI tag. He unique quality is attributable to a said applications received for particular region,” he said.Besides patent in the country were Mysore silk, Maity said, “The 13,000. (PTI) Centre is working on according the GI tag to Kolhapuri chappals and Kancheepuram silks in the next few weeks.”
India exported 81,500 tonnes of chillies (Rs.355.11 crores) 16,700 tonnes of pepper (valued at Rs.143.50 crores) 5000 tonnes of ginger (Rs.23.40 crores) 690 tonnes of cardamom (Rs.33.01 crores) spice oil and oleoresins (4,750 tonnes valued at Rs.372.06 crores) and turmeric (34,500 tonnes valued at Rs.127.52 crores). India is a traditional world leader in spices and its total spice export is 2,46,566 tonnes priced at Rs.1,905.08 crores (per year).
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BANKURA LANTERNS TO DISPEL DARKNESS IN AFRICA
Sakyasen Mitra Bankura, is all set to get international industrial recognition.
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he district will soon be lighting up nations in Africa through indigenous homemade lanterns. The lantern manufacturers of Bankura have received orders from countries like Nigeria, Mozambique, Senegal, Sudan, Ghana, etc. The entire lantern manufacturing industry in the district has received a lifeline because of these orders which run into quite a few crores of rupees. The lanterns of Bankura have a special characteristic. They consume less fuel while producing brighter light. As most of the African nations are quite poor, the governments there have decided to supply these lanterns to the villagers. The lanterns are being sent to these countries through an organization called Exodus. Says Tapan Kumar Hore, the director of Exodus: “Basically, we supply various kinds of products to government agencies in Africa. When the enquiry for lanterns came in, we sent them a few samples from Bankura. They liked the product and placed huge orders. Already 19,000 pieces have been sent to Mozambique and Senegal. Sudan his placed orders for
10,000 pieces while Ghana and Nigeria have asked whether we will be able to supply 50,000 pieces to both the nations”. It was sheer luck that launched the lanterns of Bankura in the international market. A group of French dignitaries had gone on a sightseeing tour to the district. Amongst them was an official of the French Consulate in Mozambique. He saw roadside vendors selling the lanterns and took a fancy to them. On his return to Mozambique, he urged the government to buy the lanterns. Once the first lot reached Mozambique, word about the utility of the product started spreading with the speed of light. And the other African countries started showing their interest to acquire these homemade lanterns. Families depending on the sale of the lanterns for their daily earning are also happy at the profit that they are making. Hore stated, “The lanterns fetch a maximum profit of Rs.2.5 in the local market. However, the manufactures have made a profit of Rs.10-15 on each unit that they have sold to the foreign buyers through us. The result has been that the entire industry is on the upswing.
INDIA TO BECOME MAJOR DRIVER OF GROWTH: FM sserting that the government will continue reforms with a human face with thrust on health, education and employment, the Finance Minister has said India is poised to become a major driver of global growth in the medium term along with China and emerging Asia.
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NEW DRUG
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he Madras university and Bharathidasan University, Tiruchi entered into an MoU with the Chennai based ABL Biotechnologies Limited, a pharmaceutical company, to market a potential drug preparation developed jointly by the varsities. Thyagarajan and G.Subramanian, former Director, National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria attached to the Bharathidasan varsity had demonstrated the anti-viral properties of the marine blue green alga
called Phormidium Species against HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus and Hepatitis B Virus. Bharathidasan varsity Vice-Chancellor C.Thangamuthu described the MoU as “historic” in the era of globalisation of services. ABL Biotechnologies managing director Isaac handed over a cheque for Rs five lakh to the varsities as a first instalment for transfer of technology.The firm will conduct animal and in vivo toxicology studies before marketing the drug.The commercialisation process could take three years.
‘INDIA SHOULD TAP DAIRY MARKETS IN PAKISTAN, SRI LANKA’
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ndia should capitalise on its strategic location to capture the dairy markets of neighbouring countries such as Pakistan and Sri Lanka, according to the Chairman of the Gujarat Cooperative Milk marketing Federation, Verghese Kurien. Moreover, India is occupying the top position in milk production at the international level with a good network of rural milk societies. This should help the country make a foray into the neighbouring countries. Already, the National Dairy Development Board had planned a Rs.10 crore plant in Sri Lanka, which was now importing 53,000 tonnes of milk powder annually. “It is our desire to build, operate and gift the plant to Sri Lanka,” said Dr.Kurien. Till the plant became operational, India would
supply milk to Sri Lanka, hopefully through the Tamil Nadu Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation, which is close to the island. Dr.Kurien regretted that it was unfortunate that the cooperative movement was not getting due respect in the country. The secret of Anand Milk Union Limited (AMUL) was its marketing strategy. Amul with an annual turnover of Rs.2,500 crores was spending Rs.25 crores annually for advertising its products. One should name its products and sell it under a brand name.That was one reason for the success of Amul, he said. (The Hindu)
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HLL TO TAKE AYUSH ACROSS THE SEAS
industan Lever Ltd is planning to take its Ayush therapy centres global sometime next year (2005). Vipul Chawla, business head, consumer healthcare, HLL said “we are looking at centres in Stockholm, Singapore, Dubai and Kuala Lumpur to begin with. These centres will spread the message of authentic ayurveda across the globe,” he added. On being asked about the time-frame for these centres to come up, Chawla said it would happen in 2005. “This year our focus would be to build the Ayush brand within the country. As part of this we will
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expand the basket of products under Ayush, set up more therapy centres and also use its over 2,50,000 strong HLL Network direct marketing setup to promote healthcare products under Ayush. We plan to roll out child and adult n u t r i t i o n a l supplements under Ayush,” he added. For the present the company is looking at spreading its wings to more Tier II cities. “We would like to have at least 100 Ayush therapy centres over the next two years. (TNIE)
INDIAN RESEARCHERS LEAD WORLD’S FIRST SEARCH TOOL FOR 3-D SHAPES
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ooking for the proverbial needle in a digital haystack just became easier: A project at Purdue University, Indiana (US) led by Indian mechanical and computer engineers, has created the world’s first shape based 3 dimensional parts search engine. A paper detailing the “3-D Engineering Shape Search System” (3D-ESSS) was presented in April 2004, at the 20 th International
Conference on Data Engineering at Boston, Massachusetts, jointly by project head Karthik Ramani, Professor in Mechanical Engineering and Director of the Purdue Research and Education Centre for Information Systems in Engineering (PRECISE), his doctoral student, Kuiyang Lou, and Sunil Prabhakar, who is Assistant Professor of Computer Science at the same university.
Many Indian Business houses are listed in the prestigious NYSE, NASHTAQ and are traded by top investors of the world.
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DAZZLING INDIA develop India as “the uch like a B.M.Thanuja precocious only one-stop-shop’ for child prodigy, gems and jewellery. the Indian jewellery export industry has While the world has covered all the been writing about the milestones from crawling phenomenal exports, to running in just over a decade. But now, there is yet another saga unfolding inside the its steady sprinting, changing to giant leaps jewellery industry. This is the exponentially has become the cynosure of all eyes in the expanding manufacturing base. world market. From being a mere supplier of negligible value and importance in early There are around 1,000 factories all over 1990’s to being a contender for World title India currently making all kinds of jewellery, in 2004, India has come a long way. says Sanjay Kothari, Chairman, GJEPC. And around 300 are in Mumbai. The Special World title and India, well take a look at the Economic Zone (SEEPZ) area in Mumbai statistics. Last year (2003), India’s gems and has 150 factories with more than 300 more jewellery exports grew by 31 percent in the pipeline over next two years. The sheer reaching the $12 billion mark from $8.6 volume of jewellery which the new facilities billion the previous will add are bound to year. And diamonds thrust India to emerge accounted for $8.62 as a mature player with billion (72 percent) of a redefined position in this figure, gold the world packing jewellery contribution order. Much of the 21 percent and earlier growth has been coloured gemstones in the SEEPZ area, but and others contributing 60 new factories are 2 and 5 percent coming up in the newly respectively. The expanded portion of industry is the second the zone this year highest foreign (2004). And the growth on the periphery of exchange earner accounting for 17 percent the zone has also been expanding. It’s not of total exports. The Gem & Jewellery just the sheer number of factories coming Export Promotion Council (GJEPC) has set up but the improved quality, methods and a target of reaching $16 billion by 2007 and manufacturing processes that they are using that is bringing about the changes. (TNIE)
Indian Car sales market is expected to touch the1 million mark per year 2007 188 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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INDIA’S LARGEST WIND TURBINE COMMISSIONED
eg Micon India has c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e c o u n t r y ’s largest, tallest and most powerful wind turbine at Kongalnagaram near Pollachi. The NM 82/1650 wind turbine is suitable for low and medium wind regimes and will work all through the year, according to company managing director Ramesh Kymal. Speaking to media persons, he added that the rotor diameter of the turbine was 82 m and hub height 78 m, making it the largest turbine installed in the country both in terms of capacity and height.
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reach a generation level that would outperform the existing turbines, he added. While the existing 750 kw wind turbine produced about 18 lakh units of power per year, the new turbine could produce 55 to 60 lakh units annually, he said. He said they had signed a contract with the TNEB for the purchase of all the power produced from the wind mill at a cost of Rs.2.70 per unit.
Kongalnagaram had outstanding potential for development of wind power projects and the company had commissioned the earlier version of wind turbines to produce 60 mw power in a record span of six The large rotor and a more powerful months, he added. generator would enable the turbine to
NEED FOR BASIC SCIENCES
esponding to Priyank Desai of Ahmedabad, Prof. Kalam chided parents for forcing even students with an aptitude for pure science into professional courses. “Parents have no business stopping their children from studying what they love…they should encourage their children and they will shine,” he said. “A physicist can do any job but not an engineer,” he added. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) team, which is staking out the origins of the mythical Saraswati river in the foothills of the Shivaliks, has struck gold with the unearthing of an exciting find at Adi Badri site, 40 kms north of the Yamunanagar district in Haryana. Extensive excavation has yielded a 300 A.D. Kushan site—and speculation that this may be the spot where the river that disappeared began flowing aeons ago. The finds include a monastery, a Buddha statue, pottery, pieces of carved slabs, a meditation hall, verandah and several artefacts.
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TALLEST WIND TURBINE GENERATOR INSTALLED NEAR KOODANKULAM
he biggest and tallest ever wind turbine generator (WTG) in Asia, capable of producing 2,000 KW (2 MW) power, has been installed at Chettikulam near Koodankulam in Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu and it will be commissioned in the near future.
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While the common WTGs installed at Muppandal and its surroundings here are 2575 meters in height to produce power ranging from 225 to 1,250 KW, this one in 80 metres high and the long rotors have a diameter of 88 metres. When the rotors were taken to the site by road recently, some curves on the route were altered to ensure hassle-free and safe movement. The Rs.10-11 crore WTG has been designed and developed by the Pune-based Suzlon Energy Limited, which has manufacturing units in Pondicherry, Diu and Daman. This company has exported 24 wind turbine generators to the United States for being installed in California. A top TNEB official said the official machinery could not match the rapid “We’ll start the trial run in the near future. installation of WTGs here. A proposal to add If all our targets are achieved during the test 200 sub-stations in this region was sent to period of one year, we’ll go for the the Government and the official nod was installation of more 2 MW WTGs in some expected anytime. of the new places in (near by) Radhapuram [The Hindu] Indian companies have bagged around 200 clean development mechanism projects worth $235 million under the Kyoto Protocol. 190 SAMARTHA BHARATA
taluk. Since wind velocity in this area is optimum—12 to 14 metres per second – for power generation, we are hopeful that we can erect more mega WTGs here to take the wind power generation of Tamil Nadu to greater heights,” S.Jayakumaran, assistant general manager (Projects), Suzlon Developers Limited, told the press. At Muppandal and surroundings, about 2,430 WTGs are functioning to generate 897.95 MW, while 1,479 WGs in Coimbatore contribute 467.77 MW to the State grid. Though the new places around M u p p a n d a l , Radhapuram and Valliyoor are being identified, the wind farm companies are afraid that a slowdown in augmenting the number of sub-stations in this area to evacuate wind power to other places may hamper the installation of new WTGs after March 2005.
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WINDS OF CHANGE
Madhavi Ravikumar
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well-paid job in Kongalnagaram, his native village, was not something 21-year-old Jeyachandran thought would ever happen. The scepticism of the diploma holder in engineering was not without reasons. Vast stretches of barren land, where farmers never tire looking upto the sky for rains, his was a village that displayed little signs of development a year ago. A long-distance phone call was a luxury, while buses took their sweet time to manoeuvre the dusty tracks before reaching Kongalnagaram, about 100 kms from the textile city of Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu.
electricity. The country, as per estimates, will require 2,40,000 mega watt (MW) of power everyday by 2012, warranting installation of new power projects with a capacity of 10,000 MW each year. “Although power generation is a thrust area, the installed capacity of 1,07,972 MW (as on March, 2003), it still is not sufficient to cope with the demand. Wind power projects with relatively low gestation periods, reduced transmission and distribution cost could fill this gap,” says Renganarayanan. “We are faced with potentially the most catastrophic ecological disaster,” says Ramesh Kymal, Managing Director of NEG Micon India, a leader in wind energy equipment. The company, which began its operation in India with installation of 225— 250 KW turbines, now has capacity to manufacture turbines from 750 KW to 1,650 KW in India. Its parent company based in Denmark has turbines upto 4,2000 KW.
Today, it’s a driver of India’s image as ‘wind superpower ’ and in the process has generated decent jobs for hundreds. Take Jeyachandran for instance, the son of a roadside hotel owner, is now a maintenance engineer in his hometown. There is much more to wind energy than the turbines that serve as a popular backdrop for romantic film songs. “If we don’t take urgent action to curb the rising greenhouse gas emissions, Says Dr.S.Renganarayanan, Director, Centre considerable economic, ecological, social for New and Renewable Sources of Energy, and agriculture instability will result,” Anna University, “Wind energy is eco- according to Kymal. friendly, economical and renewable. It has potential to become a mainstay of the “With declining cost and increase in the scale economic development of any country.” of wind-turbine manufacturing, wind energy promises to become a major power source Wind power is particularly significant to globally in the first few decades of this India with its never-ending demand for millennium,” adds Kymal.
TIT BITS Film producer/director Rakesh Roshan, whose box office hit Kaho Na Pyar Hai lectched him 92 awards, has approached the Guinness Book of Workd Records for honours.
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Harnessing Prosperity The advantages of wind power are many. The most prominent is the employment and income generation potential of the projects. Communities near wind farms are finding out that wind can be a good neighbour. Wind farms, most of which are situated in remote rural locations, have been able to bring about a sea change in the socio-economic conditions of those areas.
“I never thought my students could enjoy this facility ever.” The Green Zone Subhash Tiwari, an environmental scientist, says, “There is growing awareness of the hazards of local, regional and global carbondi-oxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels based power generations.” Wind-turbines are extremely effective at reducing are extremely effective at reducing CO2 emissions. A single 750 kilowatt- windturbine produces roughly two million hours (KWh) of electricity annually.
Tapping wind power means construction and maintenance job, it means leasing rights and extra money for farmers struggling to make it on agriculture alone. “In most cases, the farmers can grow crops right up to the base of a windmill. The land foot-print has a small Driving the popularity of wind power are impact on total farm acreage,” says Kymal. emerging concepts such as Clean Development Mechanism and Carbon A survey by the GRD College of Science in Credits. The two refer to projects and Coimbatore reveals that the 812 MW processes that help reduce emissions and are installed wind power capacity in Tamil Nadu hence rewarded for the same. When energy provided direct employment to around 4000 is generated from non-polluting sources it to 5000 persons as ‘wind electric generator becomes eligible for Carbon Emission operators’ and 3000 to 4000 persons as Ratings. Such credits referred to as Carbon security guards. Many in the neighbourhood Credits are tradable in the international also get temporary employment during market. installation of the wind-turbine. The need of the hour, according to experts, should be on high capacity machines and low The benefits come in different forms. “We wind regime turbines. By improving the made school furniture using, packaging infrastructure and establishing a long-term wood that come with the imported policy the government can accelerate the equipment and supplied them to schools in growth of this Industry. The Centre should Kongalnagaram,” says Kymal. For this, come out with a price support mechnism and G.Kannan, the school headmaster is grateful. create a stable regulatory environment.(TNIE)
• India ranks fifth amongst the wind-energy-producing countries of the world after Germany, Spain, USA and Denmark. • Estimated potential is around 45,000 MW. • Wind farms have been installed in more than 9 states. • A National Renewable Energy Policy, now under consideration, envisages 10 percent of total installed capacity through Renewables. • By 2012, projected wind power installation is likely to be around 5000 MW.
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SOFTWARE EXPORTS GROW 30 PERCENT IN FY-04
Kiran Karnik
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oftware and service exports from India grew 30.5 percent year-on-year in 2003-04 to $12.5 billion and are expected to retain the same growth rates in this fiscal, according to industry body Nasscom.
The overall software and services market in India grew by 28.2 percent at $15.9 billion against $12.4 billion in 2002-03.
According to Nasscom, the overall software and services market in India will breach the $20 billion mark in 2004-05 with exports The growth in software and service exports growing 30-32 percent to $16.3 billion. The in 2003-04 was higher IT services and products than Nasscom estimates, exports are expected to which had predicted 26touch $11.2 billion while 28 percent growth for exports in ITES-BPO the last fiscal.Of the total segment will be $5.1 software and service billion. exports, it services America continued to be products and technology primary market for services grew by 25 Indian software exports, percent at $8.9 billion accounting for 70 against the earlier percent of the revenues, Nasscom projections of followed by the UK with 17 percent growth. However, the growth in the ITES-BPO 15 percent. segment in 2003-04 by 46 percent at $3.6 Nasscom said Indian software and service billion just managed to meet the target. companies are exporting to 112 countries “This (2003-04) has been the best year after around the world and are exploring new the it slowdown…Spending in the US is back markets. “The year 2004-05 is expected to on its feet. Every segment, including the witness an increase in the number of million small and medium companies and start-ups dollar customers and mid-to-large range witnessed strong growth. Apart from deals flowing into the country. At the same traditional markets of US and UK, strong time, the industry players are also building traction was witnessed in Japan, Germany global delivery capabilities, recruitment in and France,” Nasscom president Kiran international markets and engaging in merger and acquisition activities,” Karnik said. Karnik said. (The Hindu) Medical tourism market in India is expected to touch Rs.10,000 crore by
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FASTEST ACADEMIC COMPUTER TO VIE FOR TOP SPOT
Anand Parthasarathy
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The cluster supercomputer—so called because it is really a cluster of hundreds of identical computers, rather than a single behemoth—was commissioned last week, with just two days to spare for the deadline to be considered for the Top 500 rating that will be announced at the International Supercomputer Conference, in Heidelberg, The configuration was put together by a Germany, on June 22. team of students and teachers of the institute led by N.D.Hari Dass, Its creators have named as well as engineers their supercomputer, from two Indian Kabru, after one of the c o m p u t e r tall peaks as yet companies—Netweb unclimbed, in the Technologies from Himalayas, but not the Delhi and the tallest. Speaking to the Mumbai-based press, Prof.Hari Dass S u m m a t i o n explained that the Enterprises and the machine would be used two hardware for the project: “Indian suppliers, Super Lattice Gauge Theory micro and Dolphinics. Initiative” of the institute to simulate the properties of protons, Stringing together 144 separate computers, neutrons and other fundamental particles. based on dual Intel-Xeon processor chips and running the Open Source Red hat 8.0 He added: “One of the great challenges in version of Linux, the researchers managed Theoretical Physics today is to understand to clock up a peak computing speed of 1,382 what constitutes particles. It is believed that teraflops (that is 1,382 billion calculations protons and neutrons are made up of what per second). The sustained performance, are called “Quarks”. This is an exceptionally which is the basis of ranking, was 951.7 hard theory to do calculations in and Lattice gigaflops or 951 billion floating point Gauge Theory is a way of simulating this operations, using the internationally problem on computers. Most problems need accepted benchmarking programme called months to years, even on teraflop-level Linpack. supercomputers.” ndia’s fastest academic computer—a ‘teraflop’ Linux cluster—has been commissioned at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc), in Chennai—and come June, will vie for a ranking in the global “Top 500” list of the world’s fastest supercomputers. 4,80,000 tonne of cauliflower was produced by our country in 2002-03 as against world production of 12,725,000 tonne.
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The institute, an autonomous one doing fundamental research in frontier areas of mathematical sciences, is largely funded by the Department of Atomic energy (DAE). It cooperates with the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai and the Kolkata based Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP) on the Lattice Gauge work. The DAE had made a grant of Rs.3.5 crores to the institute out of which the Linux cluster was realized at a cost of about Rs.2.5 crores—a fraction of what supercomputers of this pedigree would cost if one were to import it. If it makes the climb to the Top 500, it will be the third India-based supercomputer in the list (www.top500.org/list/2003/11): The
Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)-developed ‘Param padma’ entered the list a year ago at number 258 with a sustained 594.2 gigaflops (1132.8 giga flops peak) while the chipmaker, Intel’s Bangalore-based development centre reached the 105th rank with an IBM cluster based on its own Xeon processors clocking a sustained 1105.96 gigaflops (peak:2755.2 g.flops). The world’s fastest supercomputer since 2002 has been the Japanese NEC Earth Simulator at 35860 gigaflops (40960 g.flops peak).
INDIA-INSPIRED LOW-COST PC MAY BE A GLOBAL FIRST
Anand Parthasarathy
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joint initiative of the International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) based at Hyderabad and the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), in the U.S., with the support of the Andhra Pradesh Government, may see the emergence of a radically new type of Personal Computer, optimized to serve millions of rural people on the wrong side of the so-called “digital divide.”
t h e internationally-known Robotics Institute at CMU, the low-cost PC is driven by a television-type remote, doubles as a television set, and can be used to view movies on a DVD player, make cheap telephones calls riding the Internet—and even serve as a video conferencing tool.
All this in addition to normal PC functions many of which can be accessed by voice Conceived by Raj Reddy, Professor of commands in a local language. Computer Science and founder-director of (The Hindu) Tata Steel has won the honour of “Giant organization with Social commitment” recently. It is the first organizations to be given the “Social Accountability Standard SA 8000” 195 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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INDIAN STUDENTS TO VIE FOR GLOBAL SOFTWARE PRIZE
Anand Parthasarathy Other modules developed in Microsoft’s Net quartet of engineering students from (“Dot Net”) environment—a requisite of the Mumbai has emerged national contest—featured advanced information champions in a software design search programmes that provided results competition sponsored by Microsoft, which based on an idea rather than a string of index clears the way for a bash at the global-level words. The system used the burgeoning award worth $25,000. technology of peer-topeer “grid computing” – linking hundreds of Their product called ordinary PCs to create a “Gurukul: The Virtual powerful common University” came out tops resource. in the national zonal finals held in Chennai, beating In an interesting entries from Bangalore reflection of what and Greater Noida near concerns today’s young Delhi. Before a cheering “techies” bring to the crowd of 2,000 local classroom, the two students of Information runner-up entries from Technology, in the packed indoor stadium, Bangalore’s Viswesvaraya Institute of the students from the Vivekananda Technology and Noida’s IEC College of Education Society’s Institute of Education Engineering, also featured educational grid (VESIT)—Tejas Shah, Abhijit Akhawe, systems. Jyotsana Rathore and Sailesh Ganesh— Dilip Mistry, Microsoft’s Director (Net and demonstrated their package which allows Developer Evangelism), told the Hindu that collegians to “attend” lectures without the winning team would go to Sao Paulo, having to be physically present in the Brazil, to compete for the “Imagine Cup” in classroom, an idea that obviously appealed July this year [2004]. to the like-minded audience. They demonstrated how this could be done using In last year ’s maiden competition at video streaming from the class—and Barcelona, another Mumbai-based team additional feeds from other colleges, which took the second place with a healthcare allowed students to listen to the best teachers application, while the third spot from in town, not just in their institution. Singapore featured an e-shopping tool, also from a team of Indian-origin students. [The Hindu]
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Sunflower production of our country during the current season is likely to be 10.6 lakh tonne.
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THEY’RE TURNING ON THOSE TAGS!
Anand Parthasarathy
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uietly, with hardly a technical hiccup or two, the world moved today into a new era of electronic tagging. Major international supermarket chains are expected to lead the trend, whereby large packing cases—and ultimately individual consumer goods—will be affixed with tiny chips with built-in radio antennas that can be tracked in their thousands from afar. For starters, it will render shoplifting virtually impossible: Slip an item into your pocket; leave a shop without paying for it—and it will begin beeping an alarm somewhere. The technology is called Radio Frequency identification (RFID)—and the global kickstart into a new tagged age has come from Wal-Mart, the big U.S. supermarket chain which has implemented selective radio tagging today and has asked its top 100 suppliers to tag their consignments—if they want to do business with it. Joining Wal-Mart in the radio tagging race are a number of fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs) players who all have major India-based sales operations: Johnson & Johnson, Gillette, Nestle, Procter & Gamble and Unilever. While most of these companies will initially tag cases and pallets—not individual items— a few have decided to go the next step and affix radio tags on every retail unit: Gillette has already experimented by putting tags on its higher-priced shaving products, like the
Mach 3 r a z o r pack—though it claims its focus is on preventing theft within its own warehouses. The New York Times says, that printer giant Hewlett Packard has decided to tag individual printers and scanners and has already made a start with a few models. Metro, the German hyper market chain, which opened its India operation in Bangalore in recent months is another early RFID player and is already testing the technology at home. So are the U.K. based stores, Sainsburys, Woolworths, Marks & Spencers and Tesco. Major knitted garment makers in Tirupur near Coimbatore are known to be gearing up to radio-tag their shipments in case this is mandated by their customers. India’s Information Technology players having not been sitting around idly, while radio tagging morphs from tentative technology to industry standard: Enquiries in recent weeks here in India’s Silicon City reveal that a number of players are at the cutting edge of RFID technology and are well poised to ride the wave once its use snowballs: Infosys announced in January that it had put together a special group to develop RFID applications for its clients.
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Net Kraft, another Bangalore based technology company, has created an RFIDbased application for one of the world’s biggest luxury travel goods retailers to help them to improve their loyalty programme. The chip, embedded in the loyalty card of major customers, will alert the shop assistant It may be some time before Indian customers as soon as they enter the store and enable come face to face with RFID technology in the shops. This is because the cost of personalized service. individual tags, even in millions is still 10 SAP India is creating RFID-based supply US cents or Rs.4.50. The value of the item chain management tools for a number of its sold, must justify the additional cost of the tag. corporate customers here. Big sellers may move cautiously when it comes to tagging individual products, because privacy advocates are already raising alarm about potential abuse. What if the tag is not removed when you leave the store (do we remove barcoded labels?), they ask. What if the tag continues to beep its information from your home? Today’s RFID tags can The U.S. based Sapient and the German store and transmit about 300 words of Infineon are two companies whose Indian information and ranges are currently in (The Hindu) engineers at their R & D centres in this hundreds of metres. The Hyderabad-based Bartronics, well known as a supplier of bar-code technology, has tied up with a U.S. partner, RFID Inc., to bring radio tagging solutions to customers here. The police in the Twin Cities are known to be using this technology in a pilot scheme to keep tabs on the patrols of beat constables.
country are actively putting together RFID tools and applications. In March, Tata Consultancy Services announced a joint initiative with Oracle, to provide RFID-based offerings.
INDIAN RESEARCHER UNVEILS WORLD’S FASTEST SRAM
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ajiv Joshi, a product of IIT, Mumbai, unveiled a chip at the VLSI Circuits symposium in Honolulu, Hawaii, which is considered the fastest Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) chip currently in the world.
The speed and efficiency of the SRAM is due to the chip design that uses IBM’s CMOS technology with copper interconnects. The new design speeds access to machine instructions in the level one (L1) cache to more than 2 GHz. Currently reported cache SRAMs function below 1.2 GHz with an access time of 600 picoseconds (billionth of a second) and more. The embedded cache SRAM holds data that is frequently accessed by the CPU so that it is immediately available to the processor.
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GOLDMAN SACHS ON A SECRET IT MISSION IN INDIA
Man Ranjith U
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nthused by the long-term prospects of the Indian tech sector, global investment funds and fund managers are slowly making a beeline to India. And not to be left behind are the Big Daddies of Wall Street. Goldman Sachs, the leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm is the latest to have been captivated by the great Indian IT story. So much so that a 12-member delegation of international fund managers led by Goldman Sachs managing director Gregory Gould are currently on a secret India tour to identify and possibly firm up investment opportunities in the IT sector.
Apart from these firms, Goldman Sachs is set to meet Infosys, Wipro,. Satyam, Convergys, Mphasis, BFL, ACS India, iGate, iflex, Cap Gemini, Atos Origin, Exult Client Services & TCS. According to analysts the investment firm’s plan to look around for opportunities in midsized IT firms also augurs well for the sector. “So far the interest has always been in topend firms like Infosys, TCS, Wipro and Satyam, etc. The fact that Cognizant, Hexaware and Polaris figure in the interested list speaks volumes on the long-term growth potential of the industry,” said an analyst with a leading fund house.
The team was brought to the country by the It may be recalled that Goldman Sachs had broking division of Goldman Sachs along in its April 2004 outlook maintained that with Kotak Broking. India has the potential to raise growth rates over the next five years from an average of The delegation which was in Chennai for a 6.1 to 8.1 percent and the ability to match day is believed to have met the head honchos China in quality of infrastructure and of companies such as Polaris Software, education. The firm described India as a Cognizant Technology Solutions, EDS and potentially “bigger growth story than China Hexaware in the city. over the long run”. (TNIE)
PSU banks posted needy 50 per cent higher profits, of Rs.12,294 crore, in 2002-03. There has also been a sharp fall in non-performing assets to 4.48 per cent. The gross profit of 27 banks rose by 37 per cent to Rs.29,715 crore, by March 31, 2003 from Rs.21,671 crore in 2001-02.
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BSF DEVELOPS LOW-COST IED JAMMERS
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n a significant innovation, BSF has developed an effective low-cost jammer against remote-controlled improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to blunt terrorist attacks and reduce casualties. The light-weight equipment can provide effective jamming upto 100 metres, preventing detonation of all electronic gadgets in this range, BSF sources said here today. The jammer, developed by the Research and Development Wing of BSF, is suitable for both static and mobile vehicular role, has lower power consumption and is easy to install and operate, they said. The force has also prepared remote-controlled IED preinitiator equipment capable of predetonating remote-operated explosive devices with an effective blasting range of up to three kilometers, the sources said.
These devices, besides saving money spent on purchase of expensive imported gadgets, will help save lives of the security personnel many of whom get injured or killed almost every day in IED explosions in J and K and North Eastern states. “The equipment helps a trainer to visualize the error on the target by locating whether a bullet has hit the place it was aimed at,” they said.
The BSF, also engaged in counter terrorism campaign, is also working towards sophistication in terms of communication as part of a five-year modernization plan at a cost of Rs.435 crore since 2001-02. In this direction, police network (Polnet) project is expected to be commissioned this year, the sources said. All frontier headquarters, sector headquarters and a large number of units located in far-flung areas will get connectivity under this project for clearance Initially, these gadgets would be mounted on of voice as well as data traffic not only within 200 vehicles deployed in counter-terrorism the force but also other Central para-military operations and VVIP security duties in organizations and state police forces. PTI Jammu and Kashmir and Tripura, they said.
India was the world’s largest producer of bananas in 2002-03 with production of around 10,200,000 tonnes.Demand for eggs in the country is expected to touch 47.2 billion by 2005 and 61 billion in 2010.
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OXYGEN MASK PROTOTYPE FOR LCA PILOTS DEVELOPED
A.A.Harichandan cientists at the Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory (DEBEL), a defence research laboratory, have developed a prototype of a pressurized oxygen mask, which will be part of the life support system for pilots flying the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA). The DEBEL director, G.P.Agrawal, told the press, that these masks were aircraftspecific. “We had developed similar masks for other fighter aircraft, and this one is being tested for use in the LCA. The technical trials should be over in two to three months,” he said.The mask provides pilots pressurized oxygen at the right concentration. “Beyond 30,000 ft, the mask will provide 100 percent oxygen,” Mr.Krishnapur said.
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Fighter aircraft such as MiGs and Sukhois could fly at altitudes of 50,000 ft and the Mirage could go up to 60,000 ft. The maximum altitude possible for the LCA is 50,000 ft. he said. The mask is part of an integrated system with an automatic ‘oxygen diluter demand regulator’ that ensures that the correct concentration of oxygen is supplied based on the pressure in the aircraft and the altitude. “The mask is built in such a way that when it is fitted to the pilot’s helmet an air seal is achieved,” Mr.Krishnapur said.
• Triggered by growth of computer hardware, India’s electronic hardware exports jumped up by 45% in 2003-04, to $1.67 bn, against $1.16 bn in the previous year. In rupee terms, the growth was 37.5% at Rs.7,700 crore, against Rs.5,600 crore in 2002-03. • Amid stiff competition from private and foreign players, 27 public sector banks logged 35% growth in profit at Rs.16,546 crore, while their bad assets fell below 3% during 2003-04. State Bank of India led the chart with Rs.3,681 crore net profits, followed by Canara bank (Rs.1,338 crore). • Indian remittance income from the US increased to $4.5 billion in 2003, according to a CII study. This figure roughly corresponds to 21% of India’s total goods exports earning in 2003. • India has emerged as Intel’s largest design centre outside the US. India centre is now working on designing a microprocessors completely in India. The high-end microprocessor, its first to be designed in India, is expected to hit the global markets in three to four years. • Bangalore has pipped Hyderabad, Mumbai and Delhi to get the country’s first special NRI city status.
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A SATELLITE TO SERVE STUDENTS
N.Gopal Raj
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early three decades after it carried National Aeronautics and Space out the world’s first effort to reach Administration (NASA) of the United States. instructional programmes to farflung villages using direct TV Subsequently, after ISRO had its broadcasting over satellite, the own INSAT satellites in place, a Indian Space Research variety of educational programmes Organisation (ISRO) has sent were telecast. ISRO also initiated aloft EDUSAT. The satellite is projects for distance education and expected to relay high-quality training. Several State programmes that will augment the Governments are using the teaching at all levels of education, Training and Development from primary school to Communication Channel (TDCC), professional courses. which was started in February 1995, to train their district and “EDUSAT is one of its kind where village staff. The channel is also the satellite is totally dedicated for being used by various providing educational services,” organisations for professional observed the ISRO chairmen, training. The Andhra Pradesh G.Madhavan Nair. Government has established its own channel for training staff and The founding father of India’s to maintain easy communication space programme, Vikram with them. The Madhya Pradesh Sarabhai, recognised from the Government is continuing the outset that, in such a vast country, Jhabua Development satellites provided a cost-effective Communications Project, started way of reaching information to in November 1996 to provide villages. During 1975 and 1976, interactive training programmes to ISRO carried out the Satellite villages in Jhabua and other Instructional Television backward districts of that State. Experiment (SITE) transmitting TV The INSAT satellites are also being used to programmes on health, hygiene and family transmit educational TV programmes for planning to some 2,400 villages, each of school and college students. These training which was equipped with a direct-reception and educational channels are to be community TV set. The programmes were transferred to EDUSAT after it becomes broadcast using a satellite loaned by the operational. The Department of Posts has now come out with Bill Post Mail Service. The Service officers handling of financial statements, bills, monthly accounts or other such items of similar nature, posted by a service provider or a corporate agency to a customer at least once in 90 days.
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Once EDUSAT is launched and commissioned, the project will enter the semi-operational phase. According to ISRO, the aim is to connect atleast 100 to 200 classrooms with each of the satellite’s five spot beams, providing educational According to an ISRO press brief, programmes to an estimated 50,000 students. Several States and “EDUSAT is primarily meant educational bodies, for providing connectivity to including universities, have school, college, and higher shown interest in using levels of education, and also EDUSAT to provide to support non-formal educational programmes, education including according to Bhaskar d e v e l o p m e n t a l Narayan, director for communication.” As Satellite Communications at preparation for the EDUSAT, ISRO Headquarters. ISRO for the past year ISRO has has held regional workshops been using the INSAT-3B for to publicise how educational running pilot projects with the institutions could use Universities. Each university EDUSAT’s capabilities. A has been provided a studio conference of all university from where the “class” will be vice-chancellors was held in taken. The lecturer can use July this year (2004). Power Point Presentations in addition to the blackboard for their talk. The talk is filmed live and uplinked to the EDUSAT will benefit school education too. satellite, which then broadcasts it to the Close to 900 primary schools in Chamarajnagar district of Karnataka were ground terminals. being equipped with reception terminals. “EDUSAT will be very beneficial considering the shortage of teachers especially in frontier The benefits of EDUSAT could even reach beyond India’s borders. As EDUSAT covers areas of technologies. other South Asian countries partially or fully, With reception terminals in 100 colleges, a it should be possible to extend support to single lecturer is able to reach 10,000 those countries too, according to (The Hindu) students across the State at the same time. Mr.Madhavan Nair. EDUSAT, designed to serve for at least seven years, will transmit five spot beams covering the northern, north-eastern, eastern, southern and western regions of the country.
The launch of EDUSAT could lead to a revolution in the education sector. Students in rural areas stand to benefit the most. 203 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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SPACE RESEARCH
India’s first Met satellite launched
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ndia’s first full-fledged meteorological satellite, METSAT, was successfully launched on September 12, 2002, from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre Sriharikota. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle-C4, carrying the 1,060 kg satellite, soared into a cloudless sky at 3.57 p.m. and injected the METSAT into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit, 21 minutes after lift-off.
geosynchronous orbit, unlike in the past when all its satellites had been placed only in the polar orbit. The new satellite, which will position itself between 250 km and 36,000 km above the earth, would keep a continuous watch on the weather systems through its Very High Resolution Radiometer. This will be relayed to ISRO’s ground stations and also directly to select Met station.
It was another milestone for the PSLV, In the past, India’s weather monitoring payloads had been combined with the INSAT India’s workhorse space launcher. communication satellites. This is the first For the first time, the space vehicle carried time India will have its own dedicated a 1,000 kg plus payload into a weather satellite.
1. Britain has started planning medical consultation work in India. To start with, blood and urine sample will be analysed in India and the results e-mailed to UK. The National Health Services of UK is finalizing the plans to save one-third of the expenditure. S.R.S.Ranbaxy is the Indian Organisation to do this work. Ranbaxy is at present carrying out more than 600 types of diagnostic analysis in India. 2. The Chairman of the Unilever company has remarked “Now that India started believing in herself, no one can stop progress.” 3. Indian’s ONGC is planning to enter the electronics and petrochemical fields, investing Rs.30,000 crores. 4. The Indian Oil Corporation has prospected for Rs.600 crores of tonnes of crude petroleum in the last 50 years. 5. In the year 2003-04 alone India’s computer sales have gone up by 32%.
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SARAS
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he SARAS programme, to design, develop and certify a light multi-role transport aircraft has now been sanctioned by the Government of India. India’s Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has been asked to assume the leadership of the SARAS programme. Two flying prototypes are to be built now; the decision to produce the aircraft will be taken later by the Government of India. SARAS will be used mainly for commuter and executive roles and in societal roles like air ambulance. The funding for SARAS comes from the Technology Development Board of the Department of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Civil Aviation and CSIR itself. CSIR and many public and private sector industries are participating in the programme. The Centre for Civil Aircraft Design and Development (C-CADD), Bangalore, has been specially created by CSIR as the nodal agency to monitor and manage this national programme. C-CADD, CSIR, has its own separate administrative and management infrastructure for SARAS. It is also the overall design and integration agency for the aircraft. This national R&D programme is purely civilian in character and is expected to become a catalyst in establishing a viable civil aircraft industry in India.
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• High cruise speed • Ruggedness and reliability • Ease of maintenance • High specific range • Low operating cost These goals are achieved by using appropriate levels of technology in various areas: • Superior aerodynamics • Efficient,reliable power plant • Efficient,high lift system • Selective use of composite material for low structural weight • Integrated digital avionics to reduce pilot workload • Use of well proven systems for high reliability Design and Technology SARAS is a twin turbo-prop multi-role light transport aircraft suitable for short hops in the commuter role as well as long range, high speed cruise in the executive transport version. The aircraft has the following features: • All weather, day/night flying capability • Operability from semi-prepared runways • Operability from high altitude airfields on hot days
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with little or no compromise on take-off Performance weight • Take-off distance (ISA,SL): 570 m • Pressurised cabin • Landing distance (ISA,SL): 605 m • Cabin comfort level matching that of • Max rate of climb (ISA,SL): 12m/s regional aircraft • Max speed: 620 km/h • Fully duplicated flight deck. • Max range (14 pax): 400 km • SARAS has the following specific • Max range (8 pax): 1400 km design goals: • Ferry range: 1924 km • Multi-role capability • Max specific range: 2.5 km/kg • Short take off and landing Operational Capability characteristics Saras has been designed right from the beginning as a multi-role aircraft. The large cabin column (16m(3)) lends itself easily to configuring the aircraft in a variety of roles.
NANO TECHNOLOGY WILL BE THE FUTURE
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t the launch of the ISRO-supported portal for the National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS), Prof.Kalam spoke about the dominant technology of the near future. “We have had information technology, biotechnology and lately bioinformatics…nano-technology will be the future with nano science developing nano materials and devices. This will lead to further convergence of technology with wise applications. Nanotechnology now provides material worth $300 billion and this could be come $750 billion in 2007,” he said.
supersonic fighter aircraft, which could avoid radars. There would be “hyper-planes” with a high take-off payload, made possible by mass addition technology; the first supersonic cruise missiles would be made. Lastly, convergence of technology would lead to revolutionary changes in aerospace technology.
The NNRMS portal using remote sensing would be used to store and share data related to its national mapping mission. The data would include inventory of forests, wasteland, land use, water bodies, wetlands, coastal-land use and groundwater resources. Large-area data-bases covering many States Plane technology were being prepared and the President was Prof. Kalam saw five important “technology shown the data related to Chhattisgarh and revolutions” taking place. Merger of Bijapur district of Karnataka, on the portal. (The Hindu) technologies would result in unmanned Once the quota system is removed India’s present export of ready-made garments (Rs.27000 crores per year) is expected to go up by 15%
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BPO PLAYERS NOW EYE THE ‘INTELLIGENCE OUTSOURCING’ PIE
Pragya Singh
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emi-skilled graduates made a killing Macmillan in its account was bought over off their call centre jobs. It’s now time by SPI Technologies, one of Asia’s largest for the highly educated and well BPO outfits. trained to bite a slice off the off shoring pie. Apart from utilizing content development ‘Intelligent Outsourcing’ is the latest and editorial qualifications of the highly business opportunity that BPO players are educated, book BPOs hope to talk the betting on, based on a target market size educated elite into tech-sector service jobs, expected to reach US $4.5 bn by 2007. the an area that has remained largely unexciting segment is also expected to employ several for the well-qualified English speakers. thousands skilled, educated personnel as the market grows. “The opportunity to be involved in the production of scholarly works is attractive In India, ‘intelligent outsourcing’ is to the people we have hired. In addition the estimated to be a Rs.1,000 crore revenue ability to use their educational background industry, though only a few players cater to in this career setting is also appealing,” says global publishing clients using armies of Singh. In this segment, too, India is poised professional writers and educational or to be cost effective and quality destination technical specialists apart from ‘plain’ for firms abroad. “Outsourcing editorial jobs graduates. to India offers a clear advantage over producing these projects in the US or UK “Although highly skilled employees are a where this level of support would be difficult relatively small percentage of our total to find in publishing service firms,” he adds. employees, their background makes them best suited to provide development and According to industry, India already editorial support to publishing clients,” says outpaces the Philippines, China, Mexico and Ranjit Singh, CEO, Tech Books, a dedicated CIS in vendor sophistication, number and publishing outsourcing setup. quantity of vendors in the publishing outsourcing sector. While industry association NASSCOM is assessing the potential of publishing off “India’s resource of highly educated, highly shoring, several local firms are making a skilled English speaking professionals mark internationally. E-book publishing provide the US and UK based publishing major Kolam, for instance, with prestigious community with the best value for producing clients like Oxford University press and their products globally,” said NASSCOM president Kiran Karnik. There are over 10,79,091 self-help groups in India.
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School and college educational products, scientific technical, medical professional and reference materials, professional societies, government agencies and major corporations are likely to be big users of publishing outsourcing. [TNIE]
FDI OR FOREIGN DEPENDENT MINDSET? (Part-I)
S.Gurumurthy very Finance Minister of India has spoken in one voice about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Originally, for some Politicians, not that foreign direct investment was needed, but without it we would perish. This turned FDI into a national economic status symbol, even a benchmark to assess India. Repeatedly, economic commentators used to compare the FDI received by China and the FDI received by India to denigrate India as an inferior economy, that is, an inferior country. Psychologically, this eroded the nation’s confidence. A top bureaucrat, who occupies a high position again, even used to advise Indian businessmen to sell their manufacturing companies to foreigners, implying only foreigners—not we—were competent for that. Foreign consultants advised Tatas to divest Tisco and Tata Motors, that is, sell them to foreigners, and concentrate on Tata Consultancy Services. Thus, as if by design, national confidence was eroded and in effect this created a foreign dependent mindset. This was how the quest for FDI, far from being an economic tool, became an instrument to destroy national confidence.
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This national defeatism was reversed by one event, a non-economic, even anti-economic event—the Pokharan atomic explosion. Even the author of Pokharan, The Prime Minister might not have foreseen its effect. The sound of the bomb revived the Indian civilisation, which was in an intensive care unit for centuries. This stunned the West and the US in particular. The West respects not the good, but the strong. That is why they respect a blood-stained China. In India, the Pokharan bomb exploded physically in North Block, on the Finance Ministry, whose officials panicked. But soon the nation began finding its feet. India Development Bonds issued to bolster the forex position were oversubscribed by NRIs. Pokharan made them shed their shame in associating with India, which was to them a failed civilisation till then. Not an economist but an advertising specialist could experience the impact of Pokharan and say that after the Pokharan blast, NRIs, who used to abuse India, began admiring India. From then on gradually national selfconfidence grew, Jaswant Singh got the respect he deserved from US Deputy Secretary of State.
Our country produces 300 tonne of pure ghee every day.
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The rise in national spirit reflected in science and business too. Much against global advice, Tatas made the first Indian cars— Indica first, the Indigo next. The Mahindras made the first Indian SUVs, Bolero first, Scorpio next. TVS made the first Indian motorcycle, Victor, and threw out their JV partner. Tisco emerged as the lowest cost steel producer in the world! A hundred similar things began happening. India’s Commerce Minister could compel the WTO to listen to India. Within the nation, small local brands began challenging MNC global brands and emerged successful. A different India, emerged. Surprisingly without much of FDI, even less of it!
This completely confounded the Finance Ministers and economists, in India and outside. In fact western economists began finding virtue in India attracting less of FDI as compared to China. They said India does not need, but China needs, FDI! Why? India has entrepreneurs, they said. China, having finished them off earlier, does not have them. So it has to import them by importing FDI. So, far from more of FDI, less of it too became a virtue. The foreign dependent mindset assiduously cultivated by apologists We should know FDI will deprive local for India became a matter of the past. capital of investment opportunities and keep the forex reserves idle. Also, how such a However, the irrational quest for FDI, which policy supplies money at cheap rates to the began when we had three weeks supply of US government than to Indian business. forex reserves, still persists even after we (The New Indian Express)
have an ever-increasing stock of forex reserves now at $120 billion, sometimes wondering what to do with it. Even today, in this budget too (2004), there is apologetic emphasis on FDI. The Finance Minister says FDI is needed for infrastructure. So in three sectors FDI limits have been sought to be increased—in telecom to 74 percent, and insurance and civil aviation to 49 percent. In all these sectors the government is the major player: BSNL and MTNL in telecom, LIC and GIC group in insurance, and Air India and Indian Airlines in civil aviation. Not a single share in these PSUs will be sold to foreigners, given the position that there would be no divestment of PSUs by this government. So it is only private players who will sell their shares. So it is a policy made for private players. Many of them have been working for it furiously. The whole of Delhi knows them. But they convinced the media that they were not the lobbyists, but those who are trying to prevent them were the ones lobbying! And the media swallowed it. Now the Finance Minister has given in to these lobbies, but under the cover of elegant language and a higher philosophy that the nation needs FDI in the infrastructure sector.
Jammu & Kashmir exported cricket bats worth Rs.24 crore in 2003.
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INVEST OUR OWN MONEY, THEN SEEK FDI (Part II)
S.Gurumurthy
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he case for FDI assumes that the country does not have funds for investment. Not many perhaps know it is the other way round. Far from not having funds, the country idles its own funds, not knowing what to do with it, where to invest it. Idling money is an overhead on the national economy. Look at commercial banks. The CMIE Monthly Review for June 2004 shows that banks are struggling with surplus funds. So for lack of investment opportunities, they sink their money in Government securities.
of just Rs.11,340 crores. Since we do not know how to invest this amount in India, we keep it in the US and subsidise the US economy at 2 per cent interest! Not knowing what to do with idle bank funds of over $ 60 billion and surplus forex of at least $ 60 (out of $ 120) billion helplessly lent at throwaway rates abroad that we are seeking FDI. Yes, we lacked funds till the mid-1990s. Can anyone say now that for lack of funds we need FDI? The numbers are clear. We have huge surplus funds, local as well as foreign. We have to make them investment-friendly. The challenge is how to make surplus bank funds and surplus forex funds—aggregating to $ 120 billion—investment-friendly. The policy makers, blinded by market fundamentalism, have failed to see the Indian reality. Free market ideologues told Indian business that it was for them to get long-term funds from the market, local or foreign, and it was not for the government to create long-term capital. The assumption was that the market would produce long-term equity. But the Indian capital market did not. And will not. Why?
The CMIE review says that commercial banks had sunk Rs.42,055 crores in Government securities in just six weeks from April 14 to May 2004. In the 12 months ending March 2004, banks invested an alltime high figure of Rs.1,27,776 crores in government securities. According to the RBI, government securities account for 41.5 per cent of the net funds of banks. As against the statutory limit of 25 per cent, the additional amount banks have kept invested in government securities for want of other avenues, is a whopping Rs.2,69,777 crores or $ 60 billion! This is idle money for which banks are starved of investment opportunities. A family based economy in which families provide social security will not go for risky, Look at forex reserves. It is $ 120 billion, stock market investment. It will seek safe and increasing at over $ 2 billion a month. investment. So even at atrociously low According to the latest RBI report, the interest, Indian families go to only banks. return on forex reserves invested abroad has Result, banks accumulate funds as shortcome down from 4.1 per cent last year to term funds, not available for long-term 2.1 per cent in 2003-2004. So on a national investment. With market fundamentalism as asset of Rs.5,40,000 crores we get a return the rule, IDBI and IFCI models became an 210 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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anachronism, a liability. Lucky ICICI escaped to become a bank and began lending money for houses, cars, motorcycles and refrigerators. IDBI and IFCI, which lent more on political advice, turned sick.
for solutions to our problems. Not realising over half the house-holds in the US punt in stock markets, while just about two per cent of Indian family savings find their way into stocks. If the Government converts shortterm bank funds into long-term funds, we What then is the remedy? With such huge can generate investment up to $ 60 billion. stock of short-term surplus lying idle, it is ridiculous to seek FDI saying we are short Forex funds too can be turned into of funds. The truth is we do not know how investment friendly funds in India, to invest our own money. The answer lies in particularly for exporters. Even small appropriate government intervention. It will Tirupur garment exporters, who pay doublehave to give guarantees to banks and make digit interest, can operate an escrow account them invest their short-term funds in IDBI and on the basis of their export potential, and IFCI equity and long-term bonds. This they can be given forex loan at say 4 per will convert short-term funds of banks into cent or 5 per cent for modernisation. This long-term investment friendly funds. That will mean nil risk as borrowers earn forex. means in a country like India where there is So the reserves are safe. The government no publicly provided social security, equity will get more than 2 percent return and market cannot do the trick. The government exporters will get loans at 4 to 5 percent and will have to intervene to facilitate creation be more competitive—a win-win situation of long-term capital. This is the clue to for both. So the issue is not where from to solving the investment shortage, that is, invest, so FDI, but where to invest. Lesson: convert short-term bank funds into long- first invest our own idle money and then go term funds through proper government for FDI. We will need FDI when we are intervention. In some form or the other the capital starved. We are not now. developing world does this, but we do not. (The New Indian Express) Why? We look to the free market US only
India’s Telecom network will become the world’s second largest after China rising from $9 billion in 2002 to $25 billion by 2007.
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GLOBAL HEADHUNTERS SCOUT OUT HOT INDIAN JOB MARKET
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lobal head-hunters are seeking partners and acquisitions in India, where a sizzling job market is creating tens of thousands of jobs a year.
Services Inc, which finds Indian scientists for jobs abroad, wants to build on a tiny buyout it made four years ago. “We have plans to expand. If a good acquisition comes, we’ll look at it,” said Dhirendra Shantilal, The boom in outsourcing of back-office and Kelly’s Singapore-based managing director customer service work to India, along with for Asia. growth in the retail and consumer goods sectors, has generated a need for huge By moving into India, international numbers of trained workers, often at short recruitment firms are following their global notice. clients outsourcing to the country. The debate over whether outsourcing is at the Spending on job ads by companies is expense of jobs in other countries has only estimated at $120 million per year, while raised awareness about India as a global spending on recruitment firms is twice that talent pool—and a job seeker’s dream. and growing 20 to 28 percent annually, said Arun Tadanki, president of the Indian unit India’s telecom sector is adding 1.6 million of online recruitment company Monster subscribers a month, requiring more sales Worldwide Inc. and support staff, while the retail sector is witnessing an explosion in rural demand for “For every percentage point pick-up in the consumer goods. economy, there is 10 percent (growth) in the recruitment market,” he said. At the same time, there is increasing demand for Indians among employers overseas. In 2004, Switzerland’s Adecco, the world’s Indian workers are becoming known for their biggest staffing firm, entered India by management and scientific research skills, in acquiring a local recruiter. It paid an addition to their strengths in software. With undisclosed sum for 67 percent of People that in mind, India’s Cyber Media group One Consulting, which boasts a 20 percent announced two weeks ago a recruitment market share. joint venture with US technology jobs portal firm Dice Inc. This followed Monstercom’s $9.6 million buy of Jobsahead.com in May and a purchase “It is a good time (for temp agencies) of 76 percent of Chennai-based Ma Foi because the segment is seeing exponential Management Consultants by Dutch firm growth,: he said. Vedior in April. US staffing firm Kelly Indian Tyres were exported to 64 countries in the financial year 2003-04. It reached Rs.1300 crores in that year. China is India’s main competitor.
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service to match employers with temps. Ma Foi, the company bought by Vedior, has 8,000 temporary staff deployed in 440 locations for clients such as Unilever and Bharti Televentures. “The entire thought of geographic reach has become critical (for consumer goods makers),” Chief executive Team Lease Services, a 9,500-strong K.Pandia Rajan said. Ma Foi expects 2004 company, this week launched on online revenues to rise by half to Rs.1.26 billion. (Reuters) Industry officials say the market for temporary workers will grow 10-fold in three years from the current 40,000-50,000. “The entire temp staffing industry is only two to three years old, but is catching on,” Tadanki said.
‘INDIA IS AMONG TOP FOUR FDI DESTINATIONS’
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NDIA IS AMONG THE TOP FOUR Asian destinations for foreign direct invements, but is well below the top ranked China, according to an UNCTAD (United National Conference on Trade and Development) report. At the same time, the World Investment Report 2004 released at New Delhi, on 22/9/2003 by UNCTAD says India is likely to attract more foreign investment flows as the global economy rebounds this year. It has recorded a 24 per cent rise over the previous year’s FDI inflow of $3.4 billion which is attributed to its strong growth and continued liberalisation.
Research and Information system(RIS) Director General, Nagesh Kumar, said these figures are underestimated as India was not following the international definition of FDI. As per these norms, he said the FDI inflow could be as much as $7 billion. On global FDI flows, the report says these fell in the U.S. Central and Western Europe while developing countries as a whole showed an increasing trend. Among the developing nations group, Africa, Asia and Pacific showed an increase in FDI flows while Latin America and Caribbean experienced a declining trend. (The Hindu)
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REVERSE COLONIALISM? FRANCE WOOING CORPORATE INDIA
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rance, which dished out incentives to attract foreign investors in the recent past, is now aggressively wooing India to make investments even as until now the U.S. remains the main source of foreign investments. In fact it is talking to the Indian corporates including the bigwigs such as Tatas, Reliance, Godrej, and Mahindra and Mahindra. “I am here to enhance the international visibility of France and will hold talks with these companies on a one-to-one basis,” the visiting Special Representative of France for International Investment and President of Invest in France Agency (IFA). Clara Gaymard, said addressing media persons and members of the business community at the French Embassy in Delhi on September 222004. “India is emerging fast and it needs three feet—one in India, one in the U.S. and the third in Europe. We are here to offer France for its Europe base,” she said promising all
help to the future investors and listing advantages her country offered to them. France has exempted tax on personal income and is considering reforms in business tax system and research and development funding. Since the reforms are being considered, the government has decided to exempt the business tax till 2006, she said. Mrs.Gaymard said the country had also made reduction in tax and social securities levies for young innovative companies. On the potential investors in India, she said since India and China were witnessing a large number of foreign investors in their countries, they were seriously working on the global presence of their firms too. There were only 25 Indian companies in France right now but we were sure more companies would soon join us, she said. France had also made concessions for the executives and their families living there to make the environment more investment friendly, she said. (The Hindu)
Export of Handicrafts items which was valued at Rs.8343 crors in 2002-03 rose by 25% in one year and touched Rs.10,365 crores in 2003-04. By 2009-10, it will touch an all time peak of Rs.32,700 crores. 214 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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TALENT HUNT: RIN INTERVENTION BRINGS INNOVATION
Rajesh Jose
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ecessity is the mother of invention, goes the adage. And it is also the link between the banana stem injector, a mechanical device developed by Manoharan of Batlagundu in Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu, and the Varsha Rain Gun, a mega sprinkler patented by Anna Saheb, a betel leaf farmer of Belgaum, Karnataka. The two innovations have changed the lives of agriculturists for the better in both the States. Manoharan, co-owner of Raj Engineering Works in Batlagundu, developed the banana stem injector after a local farmer sought his help to combat the pest menace affecting his banana plantation. The farmer wanted a small, compact and cost-effective injector unlike the ones already in the market and Manoharan proved himself worthy of the task in 1997. But there were hardly any takers for his invention at that time. Besides, not many were aware of his injector.
It was then that Rural Innovations Network (RIN), a Chennai-based NGO, stepped into the picture. RIN helped Saheb to market the product through an entrepreneur in Chennai. Saheb’s sprinkler has reportedly become a much sought-after commodity by farmers across the country. RIN has also been instrumental in getting recognition for Manoharan’s ‘Siphon’ banana stem injector. After its design was modified with expert help from IIT engineers, the innovation has been doing good business. RIN’s Manager-Communications, says “These are just two of the 11 innovations that we have brought to light.” The others include, J.S.Milker a mechanical equipment invented by Joy John of Kerala for milking cows and the Varun Tiller, a machine developed by Chandrasekhar of Comibatore that can till and weed closely-spaced crops.
The Varun tiller, a coconut husker and palm leaf shredder were among the inventions that Anna Saheb had developed a low-cost drip were on display at an expo. irrigation system to tackle the drought in his district. The sprinkler, ‘Chandraprabhu Rain RIN is all about identifying incubating, Gun’ that was later renamed ‘Varsha Rain improving and exposing ideas to the world. gun’, won him a Grassroot Innovation Award, instituted by the National Innovation As of now, the non-profit organisation is Foundation, in 2000. But the invention failed promoting such innovations that can do wonders for the rural population. to get a foothold in the market. 67.89 lakh tonne of wheat was exported by our country between April 2003 and February 2004. Germany imported $265 million of Indian leather products in 2003, emerging as the largest buyer, accounting for almost 15% of India’s leather exports.
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“We adopt the innovation and nurture it. We For a nominal charge, innovators get access ensure protection of intellectual property to all these activities that ensure the rights”. commercial success of their creations. RIN is currently being supported by two funding RIN is also into prototyping, market research agencies, including one in Netherlands. RIN and development, business planning, fund is now scouting for talent innovators who raising, technology transfer and can bring about radical changes in the networking,” according to a brochure agrarian sector with low cost ideas. brought out by RIN. (The New Indian Express)
INDIA TO LEND ITS POLL EXPERTISE
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ailed by the Election Commission as a move to uphold the cause of democracy, India will help young democracies around the world by providing personnel and other expertise for conduct of elections.
He said under the MoU the commission would provide personnel and other assistance to various member countries as the world body has recognized the conduct of elections in India. “I see it as a beginning of a very important relationship. In the years to come it will be necessary to conduct A memorandum of understanding (MoU) in elections in a number of countries as many this regard was inked by the Election of them are young democracies,” E.C. said. Commission and the United Nations officer at New Delhi which Chief Election The MoU was signed by Deputy Election Commissioner (CEC) described as “historic Commissioner and the director, electoral and unique moment.” assistance division in the UN Carina Perelli. (P.T.I.)
The Oil & Natural Gas Corp Ltd. (ONGC) has added 50 Million Metric Tons (MMT) of oil and equivalent gas to its reserves in 2003-04.
Engineering exports crossed $10 billion in 2003-04, with growth rate of 28.33% against the country’s over-all export growth of 16.37%.
A number of foreign companies including Cummins, Meson etc. have started their research wings in India.
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THE SOUTHERN STARS
A CII study
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outh India has played a major role towards making our country a global player. According to Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) study on ‘Key Factors Making India A Major Global Player: ‘The Southern Stake’, cities like Bangalore, Hyderabad and Chennai have emerged as growth poles, creating centres of excellence in IT, Biotech and Pharmaceuticals. The study says that South India forms the backbone of India’s comparative advantage in the services sector. The study points out that southern states have also leveraged their traditional strengths in textiles, marine products, gems and jewellery and engineering. The states have led the way in producing ‘knowledge wokers’ by creating centres of academic excellence, according to the CII study. “Majority of India’s HIB visas are issued to South Indians and Chennai has the longest waiting list for F1 visas”, said Jayanta Roy, senior advisor, international trade, CII, who prepared the study. He further said that the southern states are performing well above the national average in terms of GDP growth. The study points out that to be a major economic power and substantially reduce poverty by 2010, the roadmap ahead should be to rein in fiscal deficit, though macro indicators are mostly under control. Steps to reduce the huge transaction costs incurred for doing business in India need to be
initiated soon. “Nurture IT, Biotech, Pharmaceuticals as growth drivers for the economy and expand niche in the services sector and knowledge economy,” states the CII study. The study also says that it was important to leverage sunrise sectors in manufacturing like auto parts and components and other supply chain engineering products, to propel India as a global economic force. The CII study also advocates ‘work on creating growth clusters and investment in brand equity to recreate the success of Bangalore in other cities”. The study urges heavy investment on infrastructure and removal of red tape, such measures being in line with the focus on reducing transaction costs on a national level. The study points out that the urban agglomeration of Bangalore alone contributes to around 40 percent of India’s services exports ($8 billion per annum) and around 12 percent of goods exports ($6 billion per annum). Dynamic clusters with sector specialisation like Tirupur exported $800 million worth of goods. The study mentions that export oriented growth strategy in China also centred around growth clusters. The CII study vouches for establishment of free ports with world-class logistics. “Make administrative procedures hassle free,” asserts the study. The study also calls for more investment in agriculture to create
In the World Competitiveness Year book (WCY) for 2004, India has jumped a massive 16 ranks. It now stands of 34th, up from the 50th position it held in 2003.
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effective supply chains and expand valueadded food processing industries. As a way forward, the study also points out that India will have to effectively strategise between multilateralism and bilateralism. Trade liberalisation is inevitable and Indian industry will have to be prepared to grab the opportunities and minimize risks from globalization, adds the study. The CII study sets a target of increasing India’s export to 2 percent of global exports (i.e.$178 billion) by 2010 in order for India to claim its rightful spot as a global player.
A GDP growth at minimum of 10 percent for the next decade is imperative if India is to emerge as an economic superpower and effectively address the issues of unemployment and poverty. It suggests tariff rationalization as per East Asian standards and liberalisation of consumer goods imports. The study also calls for establishment of dedicated trade policy division in all states to coordinate policy with Union Ministry of Commerce; such a move will be in keeping with the diversity of needs and priorities in a continental polity like India. (The New Indian Express)
TO BRAND OR NOT TO BRAND
Sangeetha Chengappa ou cannot create a great brand without advertising.’ This topic was debated by Gurcharan Das, former CEO, “Procter & Gamble India Ltd and Nandan Nilekani, CEO, president and managing director, Infosys Technologies Ltd, at the fourth edition of ‘Business Today Crossfire’ in the city. While Gurcharan Das very articulately pointed out that it was next to impossible to create a great brand without advertising, Nandan Nilekani shot it down with a powerful presentation on four brands which enjoy a global presence today without any focused advertising spend. According to him, one of the brands is Bangalore, which has well and truly arrived.
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He said that any visiting foreign dignitary to India makes if a point to stop over at Bangalore first. He also referred to jokes on the Internet, e.g. a tired school kid telling his Mom to outsource his homework to Bangalore. Most interestingly, Bangalore is now being used as a verb-being ‘Bangalored’ means being out of a job, because of outsourcing. “It is only a matter of time before the Oxford English Dictionary incorporates the verb ‘Bangalored’ in its next edition” said Nilekani. The other three brands which enjoy the same status are India. IIT and Infosys, he added. Their global brand presence was established without advertising them, he concluded.
The Gallup Organisation, the world’s top name in polling, has launched its first electionrelated survey in India, in association with Indiatimes. The Gallup-Indiatimes initiative, called Young India Votes, addresses the Indian youth between 18 to 35 years across 12 cities about their political preferences and disposition.
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WE HAVE A HEADSTART, LET US NOT PUT UP OUR FEET- (Part-I)
Arun Shourie ust 6,00,000 persons working in our • We export IT and IT-enabled services information technology sector to-day to over 133 countries. Our firms are training (2004) create $ 16 billion worth of people in IT in 55 countries. A single Indian wealth every year. IT exports are liable to firm-NIIT-today runs 100 training centres in, touch $ 13 billion this year-that is, in spite all places China. The government itself is of recessionary conditions in their principal setting up training centres for people in other markets, our IT professionals and firms will countries. earn about Rs.60,000 crore for the country in foreign exchange. Those earnings will The other day, the Prime Minister account for over one-fifth of our total inaugurated the Kofi Annan Centre for exports. Excellence in Accra, Ghana, for the people
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Such figures represent phenomenal, spectacular growth: 15 years ago the activity was hardly known; just five/six years ago the figure was not $16 billion, it was $ 5 billion. Similarly, but for the successes of this small number of firms and personnel, our export performance would have looked very different from what it does today. And with that the level of foreign exchange reserves too would have been substantially lower. More significant for the future, • India and Indians have contributed significantly to the growth of this field- onethird of the start-ups in Silicon Valley were by Indians. • We are today one of the principal knowledge-generators in this field-over 100 of the Fortune 500 companies have set up R&D centres in India. Among these are some of the world’s cutting-edge IT firms—Intel, IBM, Microsoft, Motorola, Hewlett Packard, SAP, Sony, Samsung, Texas Instruments. Each of them relies on and seeks to avail of India’s strengths in IT.
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of West Africa; in March 2004 he will be inaugurating a Cyber City in Mauritius for the people of east Africa-a project that accounts for about half of a $ 100 million credit line to the country, the rest to be used to provide other IT-related services, like education. • Out IT firms have become standards of excellence: today three-fourths of the world’s CMM Quality level 5 companies are in India. • They are providing software services, of course; they are also contributing to the creation of software products. When I ask my colleagues in the Ministry of Information Technology for some recent examples, they list scores in no time. The Pramati studio/ server has been rated among the top 10 in middleware; an I-Flex Banking product has been among the top three for three years in a row – from 2000 to 2002—and is today the world’s number one. We often regret that while we have made impressive strides in software, we have lost out to China, Taiwan etc. in hardware. There is much weight in the lament – and addressing it has to be a
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priority for the government. But we should not lose sight of the other side-that a number of high technology hardware products are being designed in India for the global market. • The Phillips DVD video codec; the Apple iPod audio codec; the Texas Instruments’ OMAP: Microsoft’s Jsharp: the Adobe reader for Palm and iPaq; Intel’s “start up” utility; Cisco’s IOS core components; Hewlett Packard’s ux; the Open View kernel; components of Oracle’s Pro-c; MBIL is the third global optical disk manufacturer; VXL Instruments is the third global terminal manufacturer; HiCal supplies magnetics for the world’s foremost mobile handset manufacturer, Implusesoft; the manmar imaging software for ultrasound scanners; Purple Vision’s signal processorthese and many more hi-tech products have all been substantially designed in India. • Another factor that augurs well for the future is that we are rapidly expanding the infrastructure required for the future growth of this sector-we have already laid out 500,000km of fibre optic network; the other day I had the privilege of inaugurating Param Padma – the fourth generation of Indian supercomputers, entirely conceived and put together in India; we have taken the first giant step in grid-computing: the link between Bangalore and Pune is already operational-soon, the grid will link major research institutions in nine cities. But we cannot afford to rest for a momentespecially because this is a sector in which technologies change like lightning, and because the very success that our firms and professionals have secured has made them the target of many a protectionist manoeuvre.
What are the trends that our IT industry has to face? What steps should we be taking in the face of those trends? Telling the trends The first, of course, is the fact that our rivals are also adding strength to their operations just as we are. Ireland, Israel etc, were traditional centres for the kinds of services we are providing today. Countries such as China and Vietnam are acquiring the competence rapidly. Moreover, there are a slew of countries that will be joining the European Union from may 2004-from Cyprus to several in eastern Europe. Firms operating in these countries will naturally acquire preferred liaisons with European firms that seek reliable, cheap IT services – the firms will be part of the same economic bloc; there is in a sense the advantage of cultural affinity; there is that much lesser prospect of a back-lash about loss of jobs in the countries that will outsource to them. And we should not forget that several of these countries have special strengths-not many of us know, for instance, of the great competence countries like Hungary and tiny Bulgaria have in mathematics; few of us know countries such as these had been assigned specific areas during the Soviet period in which they then specialised, and that these specialisations-encryption and surveillance technologies, to take just two instances-today constitute excellent springboards for providing many IT-related services.
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vicissitudes of our markets. And that for several reasons. Eighty to 85 per cent of China’s software industry is directed at meeting the demand for IT services within China. In our case, almost the same magnitude is directed at meeting demand outside India.
American Act” at the federal level. Unions in the UK, in Australia have begun agitations against outsourcing functions to India. Moves of this kind are liable to be stoked even more in the coming months. In our principal market – the US – 2004 is an election year: the president and vicepresident are up for re-election, so are oneAlso, our IT exports are heavily third of the senators and the entire House of concentrated on a few countries-the US Representatives. accounts for almost 60 per cent. Recessions, turbulence, backlash in these few countries Of course, there has already been a major can thus have disproportionate effects on our shift of jobs to China in manufacturing, but firms here. that does not make this new shift of services any easier. On the contrary, the sentiment is And how a particular development will the opposite – “We lost millions of jobs to eventually affect us is not always evident. China, are we now going to lose more The recent recession in western economies, millions to India?” The media both reflects for instance, created contrary pressures; on and feeds this sentiment: when a firm in the the one hand, it intensified the pressures on US expands its operations and decides to their firms to cut spending on IT solutions locate an R & D centre in India, the headline and to confine these to activities in which reads, “Oracle moving 2,000 jobs to India”. the applications of IT resulted in demonstrable gains in competitiveness; on Moreover, the ones who are getting affected the other, the recessionary conditions also by outsourcing are the more vocal lot – the intensified the pressure on such firms to white collar workers. Many of them are improve their competitiveness by availing of college or high school dropouts; they have the unique combination that India offers-that little prospect of finding jobs outside of high talent, low costs and ever-improving operations like call centres. And the location infrastructure. of functions in India this time has occurred during recessionary conditions – quite the For the same reasons, what effects will the opposite set of conditions during which recent revival of economic activity have? American manufacturing firms set up their Will it entail higher outlays on IT by western establishments in China. firms, and thereby make them source more from India? Or will it loosen the pressure on For the past year there have been signs of a them to avail of that unique combination? recovery – but till the past month the data that was coming out was being used by Third, of course, is the problem that has critics of outsourcing to point out that what arisen precisely because of success: backlash. was taking place was a “jobless recovery”. It is real: protectionist legislation has already The result is portrayed in a Forrester study: been introduced in eight states of the US; of every 100 IT workers who have been there is also a move to introduce a “Buy displaced only 65 have been able to get 221 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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reemployed; that 50 per cent of those who got re-employed had to accept jobs at lower earnings. So there is a ready, disgruntled constituency for the politician to exploit, and this is an election year.
Economic trends apart, there is a structural feature of the IT industry that makes for possible difficulties. While IT registered the most conspicuous growth in the US, UK, etc. trade unions were not able to establish themselves in the industry. These organisations feel that outsourcing is the The figures at the other end of the scale were issue on which they can get IT/ITES the direct opposite: 73 per cent reported they professionals to sign up. were outsourcing less than five per cent to India; that figure was down to two per cent And the advantages when the CIOs were asked about what they planned to be doing in the near future. There are just as many trends on which we can build. First, as we noticed, India’s Because of my current position, every week telecom infrastructure has improved representatives of some IT giant or the other dramatically over the past five years. It is come to call on me. One of them after set for even greater improvements in the another reports how his firm is doubling and coming years. With the laying of fibre optic quadrupling staff in its Indian offices: Intel, networks all over the country, a firm in San Microsoft, SAP, Oracle….Indeed, we hear Jose, California would find it as easy to less than what is in fact happening – these access services from a firm in any one of 300 days firms that are expanding operations in cities in India as from its neighbour across India forgo the customary launch festivities the street. lest these become occasions for unions back home to ignite scares. This expansion is being and will be assisted even more by the recent feature of our Third, apart from the advantage that flows economic landscape-namely, intense from India IT professionals having proven competition among progressive states, each the capabilities already, the unique advantage eager to prove itself to be the better that they have had vis a vis their competitors investment destination. Bangalore and in China and east Europe is certain to weigh Hyderabad are not the only cities that are in their favour for quite some time. Firms in competing today. Gurgaon, Noida, Kolkata, China, Vietnam, east Europe can write Pune, Mumbai, Kochi are each trying to woo software, no doubt. The professionals will IT firms. Mangalore, Mysore, and half a soon learn to do so in English, no doubt. dozen others have begun taking the first steps too, and have already begun registering But Indian firms are able to provide not just successes. software for transforming an operation. They 222 SAMARTHA BHARATA
Second, firms abroad have become accustomed to outsourcing – doing so has become part of the business model of more and more companies. Mckinsey interviewed 50 Fortune CIOs a few months ago. None of them reported outsourcing more than 15 per cent of the firm’s IT budget to India. But when asked what their plans were for the coming years, 70 per cent reported they would be outsourcing more than 15 per cent to India.
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far: scale. Why is it that a firm like Nokia produces handsets in China but not in India? There are several reasons, of course, but among these is the question of scale: the demand for new handsets has been so much greater in China-at that scale, the firm reaps Fourth, a series of new disciplines is about many economies. to break out in India for which IT will be what arithmetic is to calculation. Now that two million new telecom Biotechnology, nanotechnology, subscribers are being added every month, telemedicine, telesurgery, distance learning, India too becomes a place that is attractive products with embedded software, enough for a potential manufacturer to locate automated production processes, product his facilities here. The same will soon be true design-and many more. Each of these will for products that are used for IT and ITsee a leap in the coming years in India, and enabled services. in each of them IT will be a basic ingredient. What should we be doing to build on these Finally, we are at the threshold of breaking advantages? (TNIE) out of a handicap that has hobbled us thus are able to provide complete business solutions – something firms in countries such as China, unfamiliar as they are with reigning financial systems and business practices, will take some years to master.
India has emerged as the R & D hub for the world and this is reflected by the 1,000 plus patents filed by MNCs based here.
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INDIAN INFOTECH NEEDS TO PARTNER EAST EUROPE, TARGET CHINA- PART II
Arun Shourie
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irst and foremost we have to remember that in today’s world no one can afford to rest even for a moment. Especially not in a sector in which technological and other forms of change are as swift as they are in information technology. Recall what happened in Silicon Valley – in a moment so many stars shot off the sky. Recall that the other day Ireland was one of our main competitors in software; it still is today, but it is also a country firms like Wipro now view as a potential market. Next, the one way to counter the backlash that is welling up is to provide services of such quality, at such cost that the firms in US, Europe etc. that use them become lobbyists for us. They should be telling their contacts in those governments and legislatures that they will be rendered uncompetitive if they are prevented from accessing India. That is what happened in manufacturing vis a vis China: American firms that were importing from and exporting to China are the ones that worked overtime to ensure sanctions were not imposed on that country in the wake of Tiananmen, with the severity many were urging.
US accounts for some similar proportion of the use of IT as a whole. But it should caution us. Germany and Japan are the obvious markets we should target: Germany’s IT market is worth $ 66 to 70 billion; our IT exports to Germany are only $ 250 million—that is, if you accept our figures; they are just $50-55 million if you go by German figures. And as countries like Cyprus, Bulgaria and others join the European Union, forming strategic alliances with their companies, even setting up subsidiaries there can help us vault over such tariff or non-tariff barriers that may be set up in the coming years. They have strengths—for instance, in mathematics. We have strengths from which they can gain— for instance, entrepreneurial skills as well as good knowledge of the markets that have to be targeted. “And frankly,” says an Indian IT executive who has long worked in Europe and knows it well, “there is racialism. Mounting a campaign, ‘Our jobs are being taken away by Indians’ is easy. Mounting a campaign, ‘East Europeans are stealing our jobs’ will be difficult. Others within Europe will muffle those voices.” So, alliances with those who will be joining the EU. And there is no time to lose—some of them join from the coming May.
Third, we must go on diversifying our markets. The figure we encountered earlier—that the US accounts for 60 per cent of our IT exports—is not something that One other potential market is the host of should by itself discourage us; perhaps the western firms that have set up operations in
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China. Many of our major software generators supply various kinds of software services and products to their principals outside China: given the fact that they already know the acumen of our firms and professionals, their subsidiaries in China will feel quite comfortable in assigning work to our firms. Fourth, we can be certain other countries will learn to provide several of the types of services that we have been supplying. And each of them will have advantages of its own. For instance, that we know English has been one of our advantages. Little Mauritius, as its professionals pick up IT, will have an advantage in accessing the French market: Mauritians speak French as their mother tongue.
supercomputers together on their own; we are among the few that have developed nuclear weapons; our scientists have done excellent work in imaging from space. Each of these tasks has required software of high complexity. Far from sharing the requisite technologies, software etc. other countries have done everything they could to deny them to us. All of the required software and hardware have devised by our own professionals. So, our scientists and IT companies can. Indeed, apart from moving to more complex IT products, we should move to integrating the software services we provide with proving complete business solutions. Recall what Indian professionals were able to do to turn the Shinsei Bank around in Japan. There is much that our IT firms can learn from the sort of mutation a firm like IBM is going through. We think of IBM as a company manufacturing computers. The fact is its computers are not “manufactured” at any one site now. What it does by way of hardware is better described as “assembly” – of components produced in many countries.
The Chinese will soon over-come English: and they will do so with the focused pursuit that has become their hallmark—a report said the other day that they had imported 20,000 teachers of English, and that many of them had been deployed in the IT industry: another report said they had decreed that every taxi driver—that should actually read “even every taxi driver” – in Beijing would have to be fluent in English by the time the city hosts the Olympics four years from now. Even more significant, providing hardware is itself becoming an activity that describes The lesson is obvious: formidable as our the past of IBM. The Economist reports, achievements are, as others will start doing “Big Blue (IBM) expects profits to migrate what we have been doing, we must to software and services, and is managing continually aim to provide ever more its product portfolio accordingly. For complex IT services and products. example, it has sold its hardware drive business and acquired the consulting arm of And we can do so. After all, we are among Pricewaterhouse Coopers, an accountancy the half a dozen countries that put satellites firm. Slowly but surely, IBM is morphing into space: we are among the few that have from a technology vendor with a strong ITmanufactured guided missiles; we are among services arm into a business consulting firm the three or four that have put 225 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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that also sells software and hardware.” (The to be reversed. Many proposals for doing so Economist, May 10,2003 page 18). have been advanced. Among them is the elementary one – of multiplying the sheer We have much to gain by vastly extending number of persons in such disciplines that the range of non-IT services that are we turn out: Kohli and his associates provided via IT. Lawyers and chartered conducted a most imaginative analysis of the accountants are ever so expensive in the US gap that exists between one of the best and Europe. You just have to get our young institutions in Mumbai and the regional graduates of the National Law School to engineering colleges in Maharashtra. And he bone upon American or German law, or our has devised a concrete—and inexpensive – accounts to learn the particulars of plan to upgrade the latter so that the number accounting practices in those countries, and of engineering graduates can be multipilied they will provide the high-flying legal and ten-fold. accounting firms there the kind of research and back-up assistance they can’t dream of. Similarly, the smallest changes in government regulations will cause a flood And thanks to the advances in IT and of private investment to come into institutes telecom infrastructure, that assistance can of higher learning. Why should we have just be provided in real-time, on line. The same five IITs? Why should we have only half a goes for medical diagnosis and counselling. dozen IIMs? Why not 50 of each—and each And for a host of other specialisations. But of the standard of the present ones? Reforms there is a prerequisite. A country cannot go in this sphere will repay the government’s on doing increasingly complex things in thin efforts a hundred-fold in no time. And unless air. Unless institutions of higher learning they are brought about swiftly, India will not maintain standards of excellence, and unless attain the leadership we talk about in fields they produce persons of requisite quality in like biotechnology, indeed it will lose the lead large numbers; the country will not be able it has established in IT also. to maintain such lead as it has acquired. Several kinds of steps are being taken to F C Kohli, one of the pioneers of the IT counter the backlash: industry in India, began a presentation the other day with a telling figure. “A few • NASSCOM as well as our embassies institutes like IIT’s together produce about are working with companies that are 2500-3000 top class first degree engineers. locating operations in India, and with About 2,000 migrate abroad, another 500 their associations. Together they are opt for business management.” You can infer documenting – to senators, to how many will be left at the end of the stream governors, to their staff – the for scholarly work in their disciplines. advantages that have accrued to the US economy for instance, as a result of the services that Indian IT The numbers signing up for basic sciences – companies have provided. mathematics, physics, chemistry – has been falling at an alarming rate. Such trends have 226 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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A recent study by the Mckinsey Global Institute estimates that every dollar’s worth of labour cost outsourced by US firms creates $1.45 to $ 1.47 worth of wealth worldwide. A full $ 1.12 to $ 1.14 – that is, 75 to 80 per cent – of this comes back to the US: not just in reduced costs – Mckinsey estimates that costs get reduced by 45-55 per cent of initial costs of the operation, by 65-70 per cent once the business processes too are reengineered; not only in increased revenue – because of the huge reduction in costs, American firms can now go after unpaid amounts that were earlier too small to pursue; on top of all this, the off-shoring provides orders for US firms – a call centre is set up in India, telecom equipment for it comes from… •
countries that we will not open our markets for goods if protectionist walls are put up to block services. There are other things to which we must pay special attention lest we give a handle to those who are campaigning against outsourcing. An American expert well versed in IT trends in the US, and one sympathetic to India, illustrated this by what he told me the other day. “You are just one privacy incident away from disaster,” he said, pointing to the urgent need for our firms to ensure that the data they receive, the processed data they send back is completely secure. He pointed to a chilling instance: a firm used to get medical data transcripted by qualified persons in prisons: one of the persons handling the data threatened to use it in an unauthorised way, and that was the end of the arrangement.
WE have to redouble coordination with countries that have as a much interest in accessing western markets as us – including many that are competing with us for this space: China, Mexico, Brazil, South Africa. What should governments be doing to help As happened at Cancun, together we the IT Industry grow even faster? have to convince the developed (TNIE)
SCIENTISTS DISCOVER MEMORY SWITCH
team of scientists has claimed to have identified a “memory switch” that activates the memory storage process in the brain. The findings may provide new clues in comprehending the memory storage process which is not wellunderstood so far. Though the “memory-switch” does not immediately offer promise of a memory-boosting pill, it will suggest ways in which memory could be more reliably stored. The theoretical study was conducted by Bhalla and Iyengar of the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS) in Bangalore.
A
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IT’S WRITTEN, NOW JUST DOT THE ‘I’ S, CROSS THE ‘T’ S (Part III)
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Arun Shourie he phenomenal success in IT is the in which the governmental structure can be result primarily of the enterprise and more forthcoming. innovativeness of our entrepreneurs It professionals do not make much and young professionals, and of private firms • that have spread computer literacy to distinction between night and day: in part millions. Government initiatives and because they are young, in part because they incentives have also played a major role. By get seized by the problem on which they are count there are almost three dozen fiscal working, in part because when at night they incentives the government has given to the are home it is day for their client in, say, the software industry-the very ones the industry US. itself has urged would help it the most. Each time I go to Bangalore, they tell me Similarly, the government has set up 39 that to attend to a conference call from their software parks. In these, IT firms get all the client at night they have to go back to their infrastructure and services they require at office. The telecom people say they do not one go. About 3,500 firms operating from connect company-leased lines to the telecom these parks export Rs.37,000 crore worth network, as this becomes the channel for of IT products and services –that is, about illegal, grey traffic. But can we not work out some arrangement for these world-class 80 percent of IT exports. firms? I ask. Negotiations are still on! In a word, the sector is a model of Clients from Europe are loath to government-private partnership. Some of the • things the government has to do in the spend extra hours, sometimes a day changing coming months are implicit in the foregoing flights in Mumbai, to get to Bangalore; they – for instance, our embassies and chanceries require daily direct flights to Bangalore. Firms that operate from multiple in the US and Europe must continue to work • together with NASSCOM and other locations have complained of problems with local customs officials about soft-bonding of organisations to staunch the backlash. components. For persons in this industry, as for The government has to continue to, and is • many others, a laptop is as much of an continuing to, improve the infrastructure the industry requires. Work along other accessory as a pen, as a mobile phone. But coordinates is also proceeding apace. our regulations require that, each time we Attitudes too have changed: government go abroad, we have particulars of our laptop personnel do realise their task is to enable stamped on our travel documents. entrepreneurs and technicians to do even better. But every other week I come across A while ago, one of the icons of the industry some facet that reminds me this is one area was held up as he did not have the requisite
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forms. Passengers in the queue behind him The other day newspapers reported a had to intervene. proposal to extend provisions of the Contract Labour Act to the IT industry. The Such examples can be multiplied. Many of consequences will be apparent from an them are minor. Governments must attend analogous case. to them nevertheless – in part because they are irritants; even more so, to convince those In the film industry producers do not keep who are doing so much for the country that stars and technicians on their payrolls as the governmental structure is sensitive to permanent staff. A film is conceived. A writer their needs—I would hope, to an extent even writes up the script. Some songster has some to their whims. songs he has already composed, or conjures up some new ones. Actors, actresses, film Self-denial as government policy crew, sound personnel, film editors come together – each on a contract. That we are assisting someone to do his job often leads to the presumption we are also The moment the task is finished, they best equipped to tell him what he should be disperse-only to re-form in some other doing and how! Governments are prone to constellation for some other film. that temptation even more than we are in our personal lives. Much of the IT industry is of the same nature-as and when tasks are secured, One of the reasons the IT and cable industry professionals are brought together, and they have grown so rapidly in India is that disperse when the job is done. governments were, in a sense, not looking – or that the growth and mutation were so The industry is also very prone to cycles. rapid that governmental structures were not This is all the more so in the case of small able to decide what to regulate and restrict. firms. Even a modest-sized job for them requires a major enlargement of their But now that these sectors are so personnel. Asking the firms to keep this staff conspicuous, many see features in them that on after the job has been done will be the should be regulated! Many miasmas occur surest way to kill them. to us – “What if…? Should we not tighten pass law ‘X’ to prevent possible misuse? Are And such laws never work. Look at the result the employers all they are made out to be? of the Working Journalists Act and the Are you sure some of them are not exploiting successive ‘Wage Boards” that have been set the youngsters employed in this up in the newspaper industry. It is well sector?…You just don’t see-so many of them known that the overwhelming majority of have become so arrogant. They just have to newspapers just do not implement the be brought down a peg or two…” Awards of the Boards. I have been accosted with each of these Not just that. As governments, not wanting questions. An example in the public domain to fall afoul of journalists, started making will illustrate the apprehension. noises about prosecuting papers that were 229 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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not implementing the awards, the papers induced, some would say compelled, the journalists to opt for signing fixed termcontracts- a practice that put the journalists beyond the purview of those Wage Boards on the one hand, and made them even more nervous of the employer on the other. Should we subject the IT industry and the professionals in it to sequences such as this? Does the basic rationale of laws such as the Contract Labour Act hold at all for industries like IT? The rationale has always been that workers engaged on contracts-like construction workers-are lowly paid, and therefore there is a need to protect them through legislation. But professionals in the IT industry are among the highest paid in the country.
unsustainable units come to be established; they get to be established at unviable locations; in the end governments are neither able to sustain the “incentives”-tax breaks, price and purchase preferences, reservation of products-nor to terminate them. Nor am I much awed by that 60-percent figure. In several other industries the figure will be similar. As has been well said, you don’t want to penalise the village cobbler for being the only cobbler in a radius of five miles: the larger firms are big by our standards, but they are small when compared to the ones they have to compete againstthe turnover of our entire IT industry is $16 billion; that of a single firm like Microsoftwith just 55,000 employees-is $32 billion that of IBM is $81 billion.
So, the first rule for governmental So I am not for artificial props. But Vedanta intervention should be self-denial. But there draws attention to the sheer size of the target also are things governments should be doing. at which we have to aim. We are told our IT exports have to reach around $50 billion by Sustaining innovation 2008. If the large Indian firms keep growing My young friend Vedanta Jhaver, who runs even by 20 percent a year, he says, such an up-and-coming IT firm, Prod-apt, out of targets will not be realised unless the small Chennai and San Francisco, reminds me of and medium firms in this sector grow by 40two areas in which governments need to do 50 percent a year. At present they are more. He points out that the largest 20 growing at just 10-15 percent. companies-they constitute 0.6 percent of the number of companies in the industry-account My apprehension centres on another point. for almost 60 percent of the industry’s Innovation often comes from inconspicuous, revenues. The percent contribution of small small units, often from isolated, eccentric and medium-sized companies has been individuals. Our structures-for instance, our falling in the past five six years. banks and financial institutions-are not attuned to nurturing and supporting such I am not one for reserving things for some firms and individuals. segment of industry, nor for propping it up with artificial planks. Cases such as that of The collapse of so many tiny IT units three/ small-scale units, of locating units in four years ago has made bankers all the more backward districts, remind us that such wary of extending help to such firms and assistance almost always backfires: individuals. But the consequence is even the 230 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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more robust units are now fighting for the leaders flag, as wave merges into and survival. takes over from wave. Vedanta Jhaver points out that, “Very few SME software services companies receive bank limits, and if they are lucky to have one, the interest rates are almost always about 16 percent. The (IT) services sector is viewed by the banking industry as ‘high risk’ and the latter requires collaterals of 100 per cent for even small bank limits.” The government is encouraging financial institutions to support such a high-risk industry as films-and for good reason: in part to cut the hold of the under-world. The small and medium IT units deserve similar attention-for at least two reasons. First, as mentioned above, this is the lot that is liable to contribute many innovations. The other reason is one all who remember their Ibn Khaldun would recognise! In the Muqadimah, that perceptive seer taught dynasties lose their vigour by the third generation. Firms-even very powerful onesgo up and down at a much faster pace. As this is a young industry, the great pioneers who have set up the principal firms in India are still directing them. A few years from now they will be handing over to others. Will the firms sustain their dynamism and resilience when that happens? In any event, it is always dangerous to rely on only a few-all sorts of meteors can strike even the best. That is all the more so in spheres where change is at lightning speed. Sheer prudence, therefore, dictates that the country nurture hosts of innovative firmsso that they can take over should some of
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A host of small things can be done to help them along. For instance, certifications by recognised authorities are vital: potential customers require assurance of excellence, and most often do not not have the time to evaluate on their own the worth of a group of professionals. Governmental help takes the form of assisting SMEs to ramp up their facilities and standards to, say, CMM Quality level V. The government could set up a body for these firms to parallel R.A.Mashelkar’s National Innovation Foundation. It could set up an incubation-cum-innovation fund. It could prod banks and financial institutions to be more forthcoming in assisting SMEs in this sector. It could initiate some pooling of risks by them as insurance firms do in regard to extraordinary events. Could it spur a special effort by the major purchasers – IOC, ONGC, BSNL, MTNL, to reach beyond the half a dozen established vendors? Are the latter really better at designing billing systems, say, or are they better at persuading these major clients that they are better? At least in telecom and Posts, I have seen software and hardware supplied by the best known vendors even for standard tasks— BSNL’s billing in north India, MTNL’s Dolphin and Garuda services, elementary operations of the Postal Department-to go woefully wrong so often that I am convinced the mere fact the task has been handed over to some big name is little guarantee it will get done.
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Thus: severe penalties in contracts on the those of their front organisations had to be one hand and looking beyond the established tracked down one of the problems was the names on the other. systems of different agencies of the government-FBI, Internal Revenue, Immigration and Naturalisation ServiceThe Inter-operability imperative There is another area that deserves attention could not ‘talk’ to each other. The systems of our governments. Indeed, it concerns being installed in our department are also what governments are themselves doing in stand alone systems. To take a simple this sector. Several departments of Central instance, system housing data relating to and state governments are installing software passports, visas, immigration and applications for them cannot at present for a variety of operations. communicate with each other. And there have been notable improvements as a result: 80 percent of the forms of the In the United States, in the United Kingdom, Directorate General of Foreign Trade, in Germany governments are having to spend accounting for 90 percent of total value, for billions to make their systems interoperable. instance, are now filed online; as a result, the processing time of these, which used to In a sense, we have the advantage-such systems are just being installed. be 45 days, has come down to six hours. Now software is obtained by departments and governments from varied sources-often the choice is determined by no more than the fact that some provider is the lowest bidder in a tender! But the systems must be inter-operable. Ensuring inter-operability at this stage will be much less expensive than vaulting over the silos will be five to 10 years from now.
Therefore, ensuring inter-operability-at least of the critical systems-should be one of the priorities in the coming year. (T.N.I.E) In the US when, in the wake of 9/11, terrorists and their financial transactions and
“Made in India” is increasingly finding global respect with more global retail chains sourcing from India.
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IT NEEDS DEMAND, INDIA DEMANDS IT (Part IV)
Arun Shourie
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e have done exceedingly well in software. Incentives given by the government have helped. The 39 Software Technology Parks that it created, and in which information technology firms could get world-class facilities under one roof, have been decisive: 80 per cent of IT exports originate from units operating out of these 39 parks. The task is to now replicate this kind of success in the hardware sector. For that we have to go many miles farther than we would have had to a decade agowhen some of the companies came to set up their production facilities here, and we turned our noses up. For by now they have already established their factories in China, Malaysia etc. Why should they not expand those operations, why should they not set up their next factory in those countries rather than pick up their bags and come to India? They will do so only if what we have to offer them is decidedly better than what they actually have in their present locations.
Should the unionists succeed, all that will happen is that firms in Europe and the US that are outsourcing to India, firms that are setting up R & D centres here, will conclude that locations in India cannot be relied upon for uninterrupted work. Take the simplest example. Women are not to work at night, many activists insist. But a call centre for the US must function when that country is awake-that is during the Indian night. A union demanding that such operations be outlawed will only be, to use the phrase much-favoured by Lenin, “objectively” serving the interests of those in the US, UK etc. who are out to block outsourcing to India.
Nor it is just a question of enforcing one demand. Even more important is the general atmosphere of the sector, penumbra around an investment destination. And a reputation once acquired lasts long after the reality has changed. West Bengal today is a fairly peaceful place in which to operate a factory. But the reputation that is acquired because That is a lesson we still have not learnt. The of militant trade unionism in the 1960s and other day the lead story running across the 1970s keeps investors away till this day. front page of Business Line was “trade unions setting their sights on IT sector”. The Ironically, the way out has been shown by familiar litany: “anarchy”, “the conditions are none other than the government of West worse than the exploitation seen in villages”; Bengal. While CPM representatives in Delhi labour laws are being violated; “feelings of have been shouting about the right to stike insecurity, humiliation”…. being a fundamental right, of it being the bulwark of democracy itself, the CPM Government in West Bengal has notified India is to export 40 lakh tonnes of Soya Beans in the financial year 2004-05.
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information technology to be a “public inducting information technology. I am not utility” –thus putting it beyond the mischief much for such earmarking-comparable of strikes and bandhs. figures can be cited for other sectors. “In developed countries x per cent is spent of R The general reputation is thus all-important. & D, in India it is only x minus y per cent…. But it is not enough. The individuals, who In developed countries x per cent is spent are going to make the crucial decisions, have on health…on education, in India it is only to be convinced- “one by one, little by little, x minus y percent…” again and again”. So we have to orchestrate board-room presentations to this handful. But one should avoid putting a sector on artificial respirators. One should especially And this is best done by entrepreneurs and avoid habituating a sector that has shown not by ministers and civil servants. The latter such inventiveness and resilience as our IT cannot carry the conviction that the industry to respirators. The way to develop entrepreneur, who is actually operating a a large domestic IT market is for the industry successful manufacturing facility in India, to come up with solutions and products that can. This is exactly the sort of team we are meet real needs. organising in the Ministry of Information Technology. Many of the problems that some of our manufacturing firms have faced have arisen Creating Domestic Demand For It: because they proceeded the easy way: a Eighty-five per cent of India’s IT industry, product has made good in some developed as we saw, is for exports. Observers often country: get the firm abroad to sign a contrast this with China: there the position collaboration agreement to produce that item is the exact opposite-85 per cent of its with the technology that the firm has used turnover is for the domestic market. This is abroad. doubly undesirable, they say – on the one hand, we are not availing of advantages that The danger is particularly acute in spheres would accrue were we to introduce IT in our such as IT in which technologies change in lives and operations in a big way; and, on a blink, in which what technology will make the other, our IT industry remains at the possible tomorrow is far beyond what we mercy of fluctuations in economies abroad. can imagine today. I am with them up to this point, but not with the inference they draw from these figures, namely that, “The main demand has to come from government. Government should take the lead and redouble its plans to introduce e-governance.” In such spheres there is often the temptation of plenty. Everything seems worth doing. Someone in government or in a firm hears of something that has been done somewhere—sometimes he even thinks up some bright application! As he is in high office or has resources, work on that idea There already is an instruction to ministries commences. Substantial sums are spent that they must earmark three per cent of their developing and then installing that budget for modernising their operations by application. 234 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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But when after a few years it is seen that such pursuits did not yield any concrete benefit to people, the applications discredit the new technologies, they compound cynicism. Therefore, “Fewer but better’—another phrase much favoured by Lenin! That is the strategy the government has adopted for the coming year after a presentation to the Prime Minister. For the same reason, outside government also, we should address specific, and urgent needs of our people. • One can think up many fancy applications for e-governance, for instance. A few hundred applications have been developed and adopted in different parts of the country. Some of them are scarcely used after being developed and installed. Others have already made a perceptible difference. • The Bhoomi project in Karnataka, under which all land records have been digitised is an example-the farmer can secure the title documents etc. he needs for selling or buying property, for raising a loan without having to wait upon the patwari. • We cannot hope to provide in the foreseeable future continuous Internet connectivity to persons in remote settlements. Our ministry has, therefore, provided a grant to IIT Delhi to develop technology for an innovative solution: a kiosk in that remote village can be set up to provide a series of services-birth and death certificates, title documents etc; e-mail messages too can be keyed in from the kiosk; an antenna is affixed to a bus and a processing unit is installed in it; when the
bus passes near that area, it electronically delivers the documents that have been sought, the e-mails that have arrived and it collects the e-mails and requests that have been fed in at the kiosk. • Similarly, by installing tele-medicine infrastructure and software, the Apollo Hospital chain has enabled patients in distant, isolated communities-in Nagaland-to receive the best medical diagnosis and advice from any of its 27 hospitals. At those hospitals, the best specialists take turns to be available for providing advice. • Eighteen languages are recognised as official languages under the Constitution. To enable people to access these new technologies, software has been developed by C-DAC that transforms text-and will soon convert speech-automatically from one language to another. This software is now being developed for mobile phones-so that you can send your e-mail in English; your friend, who would rather receive it in Hindi, will receive it in that language. • The script of Indian languages is phonetic. That of English is not. Therefore, software-Shakti-has been developed by an IIT Chennai-based group by which, while I type on a standard English keyboard, the computer transcribes and prints the text in the script of the Indian language. • Incidentally, Shakti illustrates the potential in other ways too. Its office suite does all the things that the office suite of the dominant company does. It does more-by a mere click you can have the toolbars etc. turn from English to Indian languages. The suite of that foreign major costs Rs.25,000 apiece. Shakti provides the equivalent for Rs.1,800! • Many of us cannot read print-either because we are visually impaired or because
India’s Food Processing Industry is valued at 1.50 lakh crores of rupees.
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we are illiterate. WEBEL in Kolkata has developed software that scans a page, transorms it into electronic text, and prints it out in Braille.
the average, daily newspaper, almost 40,000 persons, who were illiterate, have, in Kohli’s experiment, been brought to a level that they can now read newspapers on their own. This has been done through instruction of just an C-DAC in Pune has gone one step further. hour to an hour and a half a day for just 10 It has developed software that transforms weeks. text into speech. This has already been done for anything available in electronic form-for The advantages of the approach are obvious. instance, a person, who is blind, can by just The shortage of teachers has been overcome. a click or two get to his favourite newspapers The person is able to choose the time at on the Internet, or someone can reach that which she can come to the place for learning. for him, and the computer reads out the “Literacy” in this experiment means not our paper to him. conventional definition-someone who can • Similarly, one of the doyens of the sign his name; but one who can read a IT industry in India, F.C.Kohli, has newspaper unaided. developed methods for making people literate using IT. The methods are bound to Kohli estimates that 300 to 400 people can spell a revolution. Even the illiterate adult be made literate with one computer in a year. knows language; he has picked it up as he If only we are allowed to import a million has grown. What many of them do not know second-hand computers, he says, we can is how to recognise in print the word they wipe out illiteracy from the country in little know. time. And he is the sort of person who can actually get the IBMs and others to donate The conventional method of instruction has those million computers free! been to teach such a person to read by first getting him to learn the alphabet. But the Such examples can be multiplied. The point method that has been used extensively for is that even as, and specially because, the handicapped children is different; it exposes new technologies make so many things seem her or him to the word as a whole, almost as attractive, we should sharpen our focus, and an icon; simultaneously, the person hears the concentrate efforts on those projects that will sound and sees a depiction of what the word spell immediate benefits to vast numbers, and connotes. which will lift them into a more enabled world. Demand for IT will follow as a matter Instead of learning “umbrella” by learning of course. “u”, then “m” etc. the person is shown the entire word. Simultaneously, the computer And there are avenues upon avenues in pronounces the word. And shows him a which applications of IT will pay rich picture of what an umbrella does. dividends for the country: Through this “total immersion”, and • Embedded software, specially in capitalising on the fact that a vocabulary of defence; just 500 to 700 words is sufficient for reading 236 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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• Major outlays on weapons are inevitable; • These weapons will be increasingly sophisticated-guidance systems, sensors, timers, robots, imaging from space: the list is endless, and each item in it requires IT inputs; • No one is going to give us the relevant technologies-hence this huge market is a virtual preserve for Indian researchers and industry. • National security: several countries, in particular China, are working on ways by which progressively integrated economies and systems can be disabled using IT. To forestall such attacks we have to develop firewalls, sophisticated encryption methods, the ability to track down attacks. • Product design-for example, twothirds of the components used by Daimler Chrysler are being designed in India. This is a field in which the combination of expertise, cost and infrastructure that India can deploy gives it a unique advantage. • IT in combination with other disciplines-biotechnology, drug discovery, robotics, optics. • IT used to deliver other services-in addition to software and call centres, we should use it to deliver research and advice in law, accountancy, medical diagnosis and prescription, architecture, risk analysis for banks, analysing claims for insurance companies.
Final Point: One final point. In many of our research organisations research is going on – and on. We should take up a few projects in what the president calls “mission mode” and bring them to a swift conclusion. The four that occur to me are: • Use ICT to abolish illiteracy; • Develop the Universal Networking Language-so that a person can put his data or message on to the Net in any of our 18 languages, the machine should translate it into the Universal Networking Language, and his friend in another state should be able to receive it in his own language; • Bring text-to-voice and voice-to-text software to perfection so that worlds from which they are today shut out are opened to the print disabled; • Today one of the severest impediments to enabling people to avail the benefits of the new technologies is the expense of laying the infrastructure to the door-step; we should complete research that would enable wireless signals to go to a multiple of the 50/60 kms they traverse at present. Each of these will spell untold benefit to millions. Together, they are worthy of India, they will make India beacon for the world-in this field, of course, but also in compassion for the handicapped and the distant. (The New Indian Express)
Garment exports from India during the first four months of 2004 stood at 498.8 million pieces valued at $1,970.1 million. Indians in America have a median income of US d 60,000 a year way above the National average of US d 39,000 and at the very top among all communities.
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NATIVE EFFICIENCY
Karma Yogi
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t is an acknowledged fact that in matters of efficiency the USA and India are poles apart. It is an unseen truth that the native Indian efficiency is far superior to any other. It is a truism of life that, if such a fact is true, somewhere, in some measure, a little of it can be seen. If Indians look for such expressions, they will certainly find something somewhere. Of course, there are many silver linings. The actual truth is we look up to American for everything. An eminent speaker at a convocation said, “We all want to go to the USA. Very soon a day will come when Americans will wish to come to India. Not that we have no talents, but we are unaware of them.”
the American expert heard of it, he said, “It would take a few months in my country to accomplish this feat. I never realized Indians had this efficiency.” He does not know what happened. Nor do we.
I guess in times of emergency, organizations like banks give a long rope to their employees. This means they are not bound by the very strict procedures of the organization during that period. Once that is granted defacto or dejure, the employees come to the surface. Basically they act within the rules of their organisation but on the spot they exercise their discretion. It means to me there arises an unconscious occasion for the Indian to be in his elements, unfettered Some months ago, a bank held a three-day by the dead rigidity of the alien bureaucratic Expo to grant housing loans. Next to that organization. building a newspaper under the immediate guidance of an American expert held another I see this as one of the silver linings of our Expo for another purpose. It was a success. Future. These are occasional sparks. What A few days later, two people, one from the will happen when India is determined 1) not bank and the other from the newspaper met to imitate other nations thoughtlessly. 2) to and discussed their respective successes. In discover her original spiritual strength and those three days that bank had granted loans 3) to fashion a national ORGANISTION that to the tune of 144 crores on the spot. When expresses our genius through modern technology? (The New Indian Express)
33,23,025 tonnes of oil meal was exported by our country between April 2003 and March 2004.
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ARRE YAAR, NOW IT IS IN THE OXFORD!
[The world learns Hindi so that it can communicate with India] ‘The Hindi words likely to find a place in the English dictionary are; accha, aloo, arre, chuddi, desi , filmi, very filmi, gora, jungle and yaar
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nglish is being spiced up with-sprinkling And those who complain about the loss of of some more words from Hindi. the purity of the language are simply misguided, according to experts. In the latest edition of the Oxford English dictionary, there is already a host of Hindi “English is a mongrel language, and always words, including’ ‘Angrez’ (English person) has been,” said Butterfield.Many Asian and ‘Badmash’ (naughty) while many more are words have already been naturalized into being entered into the Collins Bank of English, English, bungalow, cheetahs, ganja have all which screens words for entry. been shipped over from the sub-continent. It is within ‘culinary speak’ that the largest changes are expected. “The British food habit has been transformed by the arrival of Asian people in the community,” said Mahendra Verma, director of Hindi programme at York University. “The words are entering local vocabularies. Masala is replacing spice, mooli means white radish, and the word balti is actually Hindi for the According to a report in ‘The Observer’, type of pan that the dish is cooked.” Arfaan Khan, a linguist based at Reading University, told a major conference at the Accepting the words into the dictionary will University of Newcastle this month to expect also help British viewers to understand what a “whole new dialect” to emerge.“This will is being said when actors in Anglo-Indian be an increasing trend,” said Jeremy comedies use Hindi and Urdu phrases, the Butterfield, Editor-in-Chief of the Collins report said. Spoof television programmes Dictionaries. such as the “Kumars at No.42 and Goodness”. “Gracious Me” have had a “If new words are used enough, they will massive influence on English, with dictionary end up in the dictionary, and once they are compilers keeping an eye on the lingo. there they become English words, too. With our increasingly multi-cultural society, in 50 A study in Birmingham, looking at mixed years English will have adopted a mass of groups of Punjabi Sikhs and whites in youth words from all the different cultures living clubs, found that white teenagers quickly on this island.” absorbed derogatory Punjabi words to use as insults. (The Hindu)
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The Hindi words likely to find a place in the English dictionary are: achha (ok, or is that so?), aloo (Indian potato), arre (used to express surprise), chuddi (underwear), desi (local indigenous), filmi (related to Bollywood), very filmi (drama queen or king), gora (white person), jungli (uncultured) and yaar (friendly from of address).
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PRESENT HIGHLIGHTS
Jayant V.Narlikar
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et us briefly look at the present state Venture funding: The CSIR has introduced of science in India. On the positive this concept to encourge now inventors with bright ideas. It is bound to yield positive side we may cite the following: results in at least a few cases. The CSIR has Progress in agriculture, including the also encouraged closer contact between green revolution: This slowly but surely laboratories and industrial plants by requiring transformed the nation from having to move its laboratories to raise a considerable round with a begging bowl to worrying about fraction of their funds through interactions how to store the reserve food grains. This is with industry. no mean achievement considering the rising population, which has nearly tripled since Biotechnology: India has responded quickly to this growing field. It set up a separate Independence. government department of biotechnology in Ayurveda: Thanks to the awareness of the late 1980s and has also created intellectual property rights, we are now laboratories and a project mechanism to waking up to our as yet sporadically promote research in this field. explored native medicine. For instance, in 1995 the US patent Office granted a patent Space programme: India’s achievements in to two non-resident Indians at the University space with recent successes in satellite of Mississippi Medical Center in the US for launching technology have created selfthe use of turmeric for healing purposes. This confidence that will prove valuable to greater was challenged by the CSIR, New Delhi, on challenges that lie ahead. Even lunar missions the grounds that turmeric had been used in are now being talked about, with the that capacity in India for thousands of years inevitable discussion as to whether a poor and as such the patent lacked novelty. This country like India can afford such ‘luxuries’ case was accepted, and the patent was of research. Not only can we afford these revoked in 1997. The example of the leaps of basic science, but we also stand to turmeric patent brought home to us the need gain from them. Indian Space Research to protect the ownership of our ancient Organization’s record in this respect has been knowledge, as also doing more work to excellent, its work in remote sensing and extract any hidden gems beneath a whole lot communications technology standing as just two such examples. of ritualistic methods. (Extracted from “The Scientific Edge” Penguin, New Delhi 2003)
Computer software and services exports from North India last year (2003) were to the tune of Rs.4,500 crore while hardware exports were worth Rs.301 crore.
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TOP TEN ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE CENTURY
Jayant V.Narlikar n a roughly chronological order, here are 8. Development of space programme and what I see as highlights of Indian science satellite fabrication/launching capability (from the late 1970s). in the twentieth century: 9. Work in the various labs on high1. Srinivasa Ramanujan, discovered by the temperature superconductivity (since the late Cambridge mathematician G.H. Hardy, 1980s). whose great mathematical findings were 10. Progress towards transforming the beginning to be appreciated from 1915 to Council for Scientific and Industrial 1919. His achievements were to be fully Research (CSIR) labs’ orientation from understood much later, well after his workbench research to industry and the untimely death in 1920. For example, his marketplace (since the late 1990s).
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work on highly composite numbers (numbers with a large number of factors) started a whole new line of investigations in the theory of such numbers. 2. Meghnad Saha’s ionisation equation (c.1920), which opened the door to stellar astrophysics. 3. S.N.Bose’s work on particle statistics (c.1922), which clarified the behaviour of photons (the particles of light in an enclosure) and opened the door to new ideas on statistics of Microsystems that obey the rules of quantum theory. 4. C.V.Raman’s discovery that molecules scatter light (c.1928), which became known as the Raman Effect. It is used to study the internal structure of molecules. 5. G.N.Ramachandran’s work in biology(c mid-1950s), for which he is considered one of the founders of the rapidly developing field of molecular biophysics. 6. The Atomic Energy Commission’s development of atomic energy power and nuclear capability through a dedicated programme (founded in the 1950s). 7. The green revolution in agriculture (the 1960s and 1980s).
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From this list we can see a shift since Independence from the individual scientist to organized science. Leaving aside the hype of ‘third largest scientific manpower’, Indian scientists have individually done well-even excelled-in their chosen fields at the international level. However, the individual achievements represented by the first four in my above list, which could be considered in the Nobel Prize class (although only one could get it), have been rare and hard to match’. It is generally argued that Indians have done better when abroad in a developed country, and the cases of Subrahmanyam Chandrasekhar and Hargobind Khurana are cited by way of examples. However, leaving aside Nobel laureates as somewhat exceptional cases, if we look at the next range of scientists, we find that native Indians are not far behind their non-resident counterparts. One way to judge this is to look at memberships of foreign academies and honorary memberships of professional societies. We find that native Indians have
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been so honoured and awarded in fair number. Another criterion of recognition is through the official positions at the apex bodies of the International Council of Scientific Unions with its respective member union organizations. These memberships including leadership positions are tokens of the scientific reputation of the persons concerned, and here too natives have done as well as (perhaps even better then) the nonresidents.
In this day and age of recognition, citations of work in scientific publications are given importance, and here Indians have not fared well. The citation rate overall is low and also falling year by year. However, one should remember that even Europeans complain about being ignored by the Americans in citing their work. Given the economic disadvantage one starts with in the present era of high-budget science, one should view the performance figures of Indian scientists more sympathetically than is usually done. (Extracted from “The Scientific Edge” Penguin, New Delhi 2003)
SECOND BIG RAJASTHAN OIL FIND
ritish oil and gas firm Cairn Energy million barrels. This discovery will add has revealed a second big onshore further material value to their portfolio,” find this year in India. Mangala field alone could produce 50,000 Mangala, discovered through a well called barrels a day. Other potential fields in the N-B-1, is 60 kilometre north-north-west new northern basin it is now drilling could from Saraswati in Rajasthan. It has estimated provide up to 100,000 barrels, significant for oil in place of 450 million to 1,100 million booming and energy-hungry India which barrels and carries a preliminary reserves buys in 60 to 70 percent of its needs. estimate of 50 to 200 million barrels. The union petroleum minister said, “I am The find on the N-A-1 well, eight kilometer really very happy because this comes as the away from N-B-1, looks smaller, but still seventh discovery in the same block. And significant for Cairn, with estimated oil in now taken together with Mangala discovery place of 130-470 million barrels and (N-B-I find), this is the biggest discovery”. preliminary recoverable reserves of 20-80 (Reuters)
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8,000 tonnes of paper has been saved by using electronic voting machines for the general elections in India.
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TELECOM REVOLUTION IN INDIA
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uring the ongoing era of economic reforms, Telecom sector reforms have been a success story, under a scenario of competitive growth shared by the public and private sectors, on the one hand, and the regulated environment, on the other. The planners had realised early that without a globally competent and efficient telecommunication system, the process of globalisation of the economy would be incomplete. Hence, this was perhaps the first sector that got adequate attention during results. From an outdated and inefficient system, the telecom sector has emerged as the state-of-the-art system of international standard within a decade. But the revolution has just begun. Need for Reforms
But in terms of growth of direct telephone lines, during the years 1979 to 1989, the growth rate was 8.4 per cent, which was much higher than the growth rate of 3.5 per cent in the USA, 5.7 per cent in Europe and 5 per cent in the entire world. The reason was obvious. In real terms, before midseventies, tele-density in India was virtually negligible and it was at around that time that the country began to experience real growth in this sector. It is because of huge population, poverty and large geographical size of the country that the growth of telecommunications has remained low in the past. But traffic density in the telecom sector in India today is among the highest in the world. This has made telecommunication an attractive proposition for the private sector as well as the foreign investors in India.
TELECOMMUNICATION is among the Till the beginning of the Eighth Plan in 1992, prime support services needed for rapid the investment in the telecommunication growth and the modernisation of various sector in India was quite low, at around two sectors of the economy, apart from per cent of the GDP. Hence, when the improving the quality of life. It was during government decided to reform this vital the Eighth Five-Year Plan (1992-97) that the sector in India, it allowed liberal inflows of exercise to modernise this crucial sector the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in this began. Till then the achievements in this sector. New technologies employed during sector were just modest. Prior to that, till the Eighth Plan including digital switching the year 1988, India was among the large systems, co-axial and optical fibre systems number of Asian and African countries that in long distance transmission and digital had a tele-density (number of telephones for microwave. There were a few reforms in the every 100 persons) of less than one, at 0.52. services, availability of exchanges and This density in the developed countries of availability of lines also. Availability of North America and Western Europe was telephone on demand appeared to be a about 50. At that time countries like distant possibility at that stage. Pakistan, China, Malaysia and Brazil had tele-density of 0.7, 0.78, 7.37 and 5.5 Eighth Plan objectives included provision of respectively. telephones in all the Panchayat areas of 243 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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India-one telephone in all the villages by the year 1997, one PCO for every 100 households in India, laying of 2,000 km of lines, introduction of mobile cellular services, providing e-mail services, radio paging, video conferencing, etc. With a view to achieve these targets, which appeared to be quite ambitious at that stage, a new Telecom Policy was announced during the eighth Five-Year Plan in May 1994, which envisaged addition of 100 lakh direct exchange lines so that by the year 1997, telephone on demand could be provided to the prospective subscribers. Private sector was also assigned an important role in achieving the Eighth Plan targets of the Telecom sector. During the mid-term review of the Eighth Plan, encouraged by the achievements, the government jacked up several targets. The target for creation of new trunk capacity was enhanced from 2.72 lakh lines to 7 lakh lines and the same for optical fibre system was increased from 2,000 route km to 4,000 route km. Even these targets were exceeded substantially at the end of the Plan. Present Status
decline. This is despite the fact that adequate user charges are levied. The present communication system in India, particularly in the urban areas, can compare to the best in the world. As compared to about one lakh telephones in the country in the year 1947, the number has now grown to well above 400 lakhs, with the tele-density growing to about 4 per one-hundred of population. Growth rate in this sector, particularly the cellular segment, has been outstanding. As per the economic survey for the year 2002-03, during April-December 2002, 19 lakh new landline phones were added. This figure was 26 lakh during the same period in the year 2001-02. But this decline of 7 lakh over the previous year’s has been more than compensated by the cellular segment in which 33 lakh new cellular phones were added during the same period, when compared 19 lakh addition in this segment during the same period in the previous year. This represents a whopping 73.7 per cent growth in this segment. If the addition of 7 lakh new WLL (Wireless Local Loop) connections are also added, total growth in the mobile segment comes to around 110 per cent!
Achievements in the Telecom sector during the Eighth and the Ninth Plan have been With about 25,000 exchanges functioning in substantial and qualify to be termed as a the country, in most of the urban areas the revolution. The growth has been rapid in telephone is available on demand. Waiting terms of quantity, as well as quality, with time in rest of the areas has gone down public and the private sectors growing considerably, mainly due to the mobile simultaneously. Significant progress has been revolution, under which the number of made through the Telecommunication cellular users is growing in leaps and bounds. Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) in Over 90 per cent users in the country, added easing out the procedures and cleaning up after 1994, have access to STD facilities and the regulatory hurdles. With the introduction there are more than 8 lakh PCOs in the of healthy competition between various country, out of which about 6 lakh are in the categories of operators, the prices of long urban areas. Private companies like Bharti, distance calls and mobile services are on the Tata, Reliance and Connect have been 244 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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granted the licences as basic service to the users in the country. The number of providers, offering healthy competition to users is growing at a very brisk rate and in BSNL and MTNL. the next one decade, the tele-density in India may be as high as 15 to 20 per hundred of All this has been possible due to several population. With the advent of WLL reform measures undertaken since 1991. The services, which are the cheaper mobile process of fundamental institutional and option, the number of mobile users in the structural reforms began in 1991 when the country is expected to increase even more Telecom equipment manufacturing was rapidly. completely deregulated. Value added services, including the cellular services, were Telecom Sector has been benefited largely thrown open to the private sector in 1992, from the FDI inflows. As per Economic followed by opening up on basic services to Survey for 2002-03, during the period the private sector in 1994. TRAI was set up August 1991 to June 2002, 831 proposals by the government in 1997. As a major of FDI worth Rs.56,226 crore were reform, the Department of approved and the actual inflow of FDI was Telecommunication (DoT) was bifurcated Rs.9,528 crore. In terms of approvals of FDI, about three years ago and the policy the Telecom sector is the largest after the formulation function was retained by the energy sector. Department, while the operational network of the DoT was corporatised into Bharat Future challenges Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL). Telecom continues to be a high priority area A new policy for Internet Service providers for the policy makers. Among the fastest (ISPs) was introduced in the year 1998, growing sectors of the economy, this sector under which the private service providers is potentially profitable. With the traffic were allowed to enter this field, breaking the higher than the global standards on Indian monopoly of the VSNL. Any private Telecom channels, the private companies are company that wants a licence as an ISP can vying with each other to gain a larger share go in for foreign equity upto 49 per cent. in Indian market. Healthy competition The licence fee is virtually nil and a company among the multiple telecom players, stronger can obtain any number of licences. ISPs were role of TRAI and competitive policies should free to fix their own tariff, subject to review be the goals of this sector in near future. and fixation by TRAI at any time. Earlier, Internet telephony was not permitted, but Investment in the Telecom sector by the recently the government has decided to open private parties was quite high during the it as a cheaper option for international Ninth Plan and it is expected to play a communication. dominant role in overall investment in the economy even during the Tenth Plan. Since It may be observed that during the past about the rate of return in this sector is quite high, five years, Telecom sector has been the quantum of investment by the private revolutionised. Telecommunication of global sector is also expected to be high. standards, be it cellular or basic, are available 245 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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A few bottlenecks in the policy, however, are required to be smothered. Rural connectivity in the country continues to be an area of serious concern. While the private operators are more than willing to venture into the basic, cellular and WLL services in the urban areas, they are not interested to expand to the rural and backward areas, where the telecome traffic is low and the traffic is low and the tariff rates are also lower. The private operators in basic services should be required to provide some percentage of their lines in the adjoining rural areas. The numbr of village public telephones should also be enhanced and the facility of satellite telephones should be provided by the government in very remote and less populated areas. Indian Telegraph Act is utterly outdated and needs wholesale revision, in tune with the present policies. Advances in technology and present and future requirements of industry must also be taken into consideration while enacting a new legislation. Though some steps have been taken for rationalisation of procedures by the TRAI, yet tariff structure is still unbalanced, with cross subsidisation of local calls with the long distance calls.
The connectivity issues and the operational problems being faced by the cellular operators and the basic service providers must also be attended to on priority and suitable corrective measures should be taken. Attention must be paid to ensure that India emerges as a major manufacturing base and major exporter of Telecom equipment. Encouraging multinationals and joint ventures in this field, would go a long way in ensuring this. India is perceived to have comparative advantage in the field of Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled services depend largely on high quality telecommunication infrastructure. A real challenge in this field is rapid technological changes, which lead to major changes in the structure of telecom industry all over the world. The Tenth Plan Document aims at convergence of voice and image transmission facilities. Use of wider bandwidth and high speed Internet connectivity would add new dimensions to infotech and entertainment. Such covergence with telecommunication is possible only after an integrated Convergence Bill is passed by the government. (The Competition Master)
As estimated 100,000 Indian nationals working in Singapore remit about S$27 million every month back home.
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PHENOMENAL RISE OF THE SERVICES SECTOR IN INDIA
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he outset of the process of reforms witnessed an era of rapid economic growth in India. Even during the eighties, the growth rate of the GDP had been around 6 per cent, which was quite high as compared to the first three decades of planned economic development. However, this two-decade phase of high growth rate does not only bank upon the high growth rate of the industrial sector, but the growth has been outstanding in the services sector too. In fact, in the year 1995-96, for the first time after independence, the share of the tertiary sector in the GDP surpassed the total contribution to the GDP made by the primary and the secondary sectors taken together. Even at present, the same trend continues. The implications of this unique trend are multifarious. Unmistakable Trend The trend was clear even at the beginning of the decade of eighties. The relative share of the primary sector (i.e., agriculture and allied services) in the GDP rapidly declined during the last two decades, and as per the 199899 report of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), on currency and finance, released in December 1999, its share of 38. 1 per cent in the GDP in the year 1980-81 declined rapidly to 30.93 per cent of the GDP in 199091 and further to 26.83 of the GDEP in 199899. In case of the secondary sector (including industries, manufacturing, mining and quarrying, electricity, gas and water supply), the trend has been mixed. Pre-reform era witnessed considerable increase in the share
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of the secondary sector in the GDP, which increased from 20.91 per cent, in 1990-91. Thereafter, however, the share of this sector declined gradually but steadily and is hovering around 22 per cent for the last three years. Services sector, however, continued to contribute increasingly to the GDP, which was about 41 per cent in 1980-81, crossed the figure of 50 per cent for the first time in 1995-96, and has been slightly above 51 per cent during the past two years. As per the classification adopted by the government of India, services sector includes the construction activities, trade, hotels, restaurants, transportation, storage, communications, financing, insurance, real estate business, community services and social services. It is admitted that in a developing economy, industrial growth is of vital importance. But equally important is the services sector, which includes all important infrastructure services like railways, communication, transportation, storage, banking and insurance activities. It has also been recognised that trade and industry cannot come to the international standards if the supporting infrastructural back up is not available in the economy. If the trends of the growth rates of the three major sectors is also taken into consideration, the past two decades have witnessed high growth rate of industrial and services sector, while the growth rate of the agricultural and allied sectors has hovered around three per cent per annum. As per the RBI report, the trend of the growth rate of
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the GDP during 1980-81 to 1990-91 was 5.5 per cent, which increased to 6.9 per cent during the post-reform era, i.e., in the period 1993-94 to 1998-99. During the same period, industrial growth rate increased from 7.6 percent to 8.3 per cent. Services sector was not far behind and its annual average growth rate rose from 6.5 per cent to 7.9 per cent during the respective periods. Certain sub-sectors within the services sector are growing even faster. The RBI report reveals that while the contribution of the construction sector to the GDP has remained stagnant at around 4.5 per cent during the past two decades, there has been significant increase in the contribution of Trade, Hotels and Restaurant sub-sector, which increased from 12.02 per cent of the GDP in 198-81 to 15.66 per cent in 1997-98. The share of Transport, Storage and Communications also increased smartly from 4.68 per cent to 7.61 per cent of the GDP. While community and social services have remained static, at around 11 per cent all these years, the share of the sub-sectors of Financing, Insurance and Real Estate rose significantly, from 8.81 per cent to 11.44 per cent between 1980-81 to 1998-99.
introducing greater competition and efficiency. Vital Sector Currently, infrastructure development is the main thrust area in the economy. Further, with a view to provide a human face to the process of reforms, the social and community services have assumed enormous importance. Since both these sub-sectors generally form part of the service sector (except electricity, gas and water supply which fall under the industrial sector), this sector has emerged as one of the key areas for rapid development during the Ninth Five-Year Plan.
Most of the projects of infrastructure development are marked by relatively long gestation periods. Completion of ongoing projects in the service sector, which are linked with infrastructure, has to be ensured to avoid cost and time overruns. Adequate involvement of the private sector is thus essential to create the pipeline investment necessary for maintaining the accelerated growth rate of the economy, even in the postPlan period. Railways form the backbone of Indian economy and it is essential that it is Most of the developed countries in the West strengthened to increase its reach and have experienced rapid economic capacity. Road transport is even more development due to their outstanding important. With a view to develop it as an achievements in the industrial sector. So far alternate means of transportation, as well as the experience of economic development in to improve the accessibility to hinterland and India has been quite different. While the the rural areas, road transport is required to industrial sector has continued to develop be brought nearer to the international at a steady pace, the service sector has also standards. Similarly, the ports are also developed with a matching pace. This trend required to be upgraded to meet the global has wider implications for employment and requirements so that their capacity to handle trade prospects and there is an urgent need the cargo not only increases, but also for taking policy initiatives towards improves qualitatively to cater to the growing needs of the economy. 248 SAMARTHA BHARATA
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The urgent need to further develop the services sector cannot be over-emphasised. Improvement of service in the urban areas is equally important. To develop an equally efficient alternative to the Railways, the Union government has decided to set up a National Highways Development Project (NHDP). As announced by the Finance Minister in his speech while presenting the Union Budget 2000-01, the cost of NHDP is estimated to be around Rs.54,000 crores. Shipping development is yet another area identified for rapid development during the Ninth Plan period. The role of shipping sector has been recognised to be of immense importance in the context of overall growth strategy. On the one hand, this sector has a vital role to play in export earnings, and, on the other a modernised version of shipping sector needs to be developed which is compatible with the rapidly globalising economy of the country. There is an urgent need to modernise the existing fleet by acquiring modern and fuel-efficient vessels. A conducive climate is also required to be created for easy financing of new ships. Facilities at the cargo-handling ports are also required to be modernised. In tune with the requirements of the shipping sector, the Finance Minister reacted favourably while presenting the Union Budget for the year 2000-01. With a view to enable the Indian shipping industry to generate resources for strengthening and modernising its fleet, the Finance Minister enhanced the allowable deduction of their profits from 50 per cent to 100 per cent, if these profits are kept in reserve to be used for purchase of new ships. This deduction would be available for a five-year period beginning from the year 2000-01.
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It is expected that in the years to come, with the software industry expecting a big boom, the services sector would develop and grow with even more pace.
Strengthening of the tertiary sector over the years has made the Indian economy more resilient. As industry and agriculture form less than 50 per cent of the GDP, a sudden crop failure or even the industrial depression cannot affect the overall performance of the economy, resulting in a sustaining growth over longer period of time. This was one of the reasons that East Asian economic crisis and global industrial slow-down during the late nineties did not adversely affect the performance of the economy. In fact, during 1998-99, the growth rate of the GDP in real terms recovered despite a sluggish industrial sector, primarily because of a reasonably good growth in the services sector. Earlier, during the year 1995-96, the industrial sector witnessed a negligible 0.2 per cent growth rate, but despite that the economy achieved a record 8.6 per cent growth in the GDP. Need for Caution
Outstanding strides made by the services sector is a welcome trend and may provide buoyancy and sustainability to the economy for many years to come. But it may be wrong to get carried away by the feeling that the 249
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economy has moved rapidly, from the stage of lower order of value addition in the primary sector, to the higher level of value addition in the services sector, and that there is nothing wrong with this trend. In 1980-81, when the industrial growth rate had started to pick momentum, the share of industries in the GDP was 20.91 per cent, while the same of the services sector was already 40.99. The contribution of the services to the GDP never looked back thereafter. Within the services sector itself, the respective GDP share of trade, hotels and restaurant on the one hand, and that of the transport storage and communication, on the other has increased from 12.52 and 5.26 per cent to 16.68 and 7.61 per cent, respectively during the period 1990-99. This increase is particularly disturbing when compared with the contribution of the industrial sector to
the national income during the same period, which came down from 25.30 per cent in 1990-91 to 22.01 per cent in the year 199899. Many economists are concerned at this distorted development. It is not really serious that the industrial sector has lagged behind, but the matter of concern is the fact that the services sector has been growing at a much higher rate. The million-dollar question is whether the higher growth rate of the services sector can be sustained without proportionate growth in the industrial sector. Moreover, the urban-based tertiary sector may not materially improve the lot of the poverty-stricken millions living in the rural areas, for which more reliance has to be placed on the primary sector as well as on the small and cottage industries. In the overenthusiasm for rapid growth, the concern for the large majority of rural poor should not be overlooked. (The Competition Master)
ABDUL KALAM TALKS TO YOUNG PEOPLE
National institutes he University Grants Commission is now setting up four national institutes of science to attract students after Plus Two who want to study pure sciences.Sonali, from Nasik, asked the President to describe “the university of your dreams.” Prof. Kalam said: “It will have teachers who are real role models and all graduates given a six-month vocational course of their choice. They can then become entrepreneurs providing employment to others and not be job seekers.”
T
Genetic engineering When Bangalore’s turn came, a schoolgirl asked him about his views on cloning. Prof. Kalam said, “I am not in favour of human cloning…let God be the only genetic scientist when it comes to creating human beings. But genetic engineering does have its place in curing diseases.” Mamta from the Visvesvaraya Technological University headquarters in Belgaum wanted to know, “if the 21st Century is India’s as you say, in which fields will we excel?” Prof. Kalam’s reply was, “Bioinformatics now and if we use the opportunity, nanotechnology in the near future and this can even overtake today’s micro electronics.” (The Hindu)
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BT:THE NEXT BILLION DOLLAR SECTOR IN INDIA
Biocon chief Kiran Mazumdar Shah released the 2nd ABLE-Bio Spectrum Biotechnology Industry Survey in Bangalore.
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ndia is well on its way to becoming a “billion dollar nation in biotech sector” by 2005, according to Biocon chief and president of Association of BiotechnologyLed Enterprises (ABLE) Kiran Mazumdar Shaw. Speaking to reporters at Bangalore at the release of the 2 nd annual ABLE-Bio Specturm Biotechnology Industry Survey, Shaw said, “the biotech industry, which grew at 39 percent during 2003-04 and had a revenue of Rs.3,265 crore ($705 million), was poised for an exponential growth to touch the billion dollar mark in 2005. And if this momentum is continued, it would touch $5 billion in 2010,” N.Suresh, editor of ‘Bio-Spectrum’ said that the survey conducted with 235 companies revealed that the biopharma sector worth Rs.2,480 crore, was the largest sector in the biotech industry accounting for 76 percent of the market. Bio Services was the next biggest sector with total sales of Rs.275 crore.
crore in fiscal 2002-03 to Rs.820 crore in fiscal 2003-04,” said Suresh.Stating that an investment of Rs.1,000 crore was expected to be ploughed into the sector this year (2004), Shaw said that the investments had climbed by 25.99 percent at Rs.635 crore last year. Industry wise, Biocon Limited led revenues in the sector contribution Rs.502 crore, followed by Serum Institute of India with Rs.491 crore, Panacea Biotec with Rs.149 crore, Nicholas Piramal at Rs.130 crore and Novo Nordisk with Rs.110 crore are the others in the top 5 companies and together with Biocon and Serum account for Rs.1,382 crore or 42 percent of total market share. Queried on the expected biotech policy, Shaw said that the industry was satisfied with the recommendations of M.S.Swaminathan Task Force and Mashelkar Task Force, which would be part of the biotech policy the centre is bringing out early next year. “The Department of Biotechnology is working on many proposals for funding young entrepreneurs and startups, which include seed capital and soft loans and it would be submitted to the government for its consideration soon,” she added.
Exports accounted for 55.65 percent share of the total biotech sector, while domestic business accounted for 44.35 percent market share. Manpower in the sector grew by over 42 percent to 9,100 from 6,400 last fiscal. The biotech companies at the end of this fiscal would have a manpower strength of The Biocon chief said that she hoped that other biotech firms like Serum, Shantha about 11,000. Biotech, Bharat who are poised at the take“The Bio suppliers market was estimated off stage, come out with IPOs. (T.N.I.E) separately. This area grew from Rs.561.40
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OUTSOURCING: BOON FOR MANUFACTURING SECTOR
K.N.Arun
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he Indian manufacturing industry should be ready to take advantage of the imminent boom in outsourcing of manufacturing activities by western industrial giants, Chairman of National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) V.Krishnamurthy said. “The boom is already evident. We don’t want our manufacturing sector to lose out on this when it really arrives. We have to make sure that India becomes the most favoured destination for manufacturing,’ he said in an interview. Krishnamurthy, who is credited with the turning round of Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) and making Maruti Udyog a success story, points out that manufacturing sector as a whole had been stagnating and consequently its contribution to the GDP had even seen a fall. And the council, headed by him, has been entrusted with the job of suggesting ways to turn around the sector and make it globally competitive. “It is absolutely essential that the contribution of the manufacturing sector to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has to go up considerably. After all, our founding fathers had laid so much emphasis on this sector, which had been followed up by successive governments in the first 40 years of independence”.“We were able to design and build our own power stations, cement industries and communication facility. We need to get back to that level,” he said.
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How this could be done, is something that the council, when it gets under steam, will have to look into sector-wise. However, Krishnamurthy does have a few broad ideas which, he believes, can be the driving force behind an upswing in the manufacturing sector. Krishnamurthy falls back on his experience in Maruti Udyog, and turns to small and medium enterprises for a solution. “Large industries cannot have sustained success without support from SMEs. That is something which we did successfully in Maruti, where almost all our major suppliers were from the SSI sector,” he said.And he debunks the theory that SMEs are not qualitatively competitive. “We, at Maruti, have never had any such problem. For that matter, if the TVS group companies have become major suppliers for Western auto majors, that is because they have ensured that their own major suppliers conform to the standards required,” he said. “The linkages between the large industries and the SMEs’ technological, financial, and marketing linkages need to be strengthened. It will be the effort of my council to see how this integration can be achieved.” Said Krishnamurthy. (The New Indian Express)
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DISCOVERY OF MAJOR HARAPPAN REMAINS
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three-year-long excavation by the Archaeological survey of India at Rakhigarhi in Haryana has unearthed the remains of what could have been the “provincial capital” of the Harappan civilisation in Hissar district of the State.
intervals. There has also been “conclusive evidence” of domesticated cattle and animal farming.
Meanwhile, an ordinary patch of land in Muzaffarnagar ’s Mandi village has transformed overnight into an important link Two distinct cultures have been identified to the 4000-year-old civilisation. The reason: in the course of excavations—namely early a chance discovery of over 10 kg of gold jewellery, pottery and burnt bricks dating Harappan and mature Harappan. back to the Harappan period. The site of excavation, located in the plains of ancient Drishadvati river, a tributary of The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) the mythological Saraswati river, happens to has termed the discovery as one of the be the “largest Harappan site” measuring 230 biggest archaeological findings in several hectares, next to Mohenjodaro (now in decades. Part of the discoveries made at this small field are beads made of gold and semiPakistan). precious stones. They also unearthed ochreThe discovery of circular structures at the coloured pottery with black painted motifs. entrance of the valley, a unique feature of This pottery is similar to the Harappan early Harappan days, has also been reported. pottery, which was discovered earlier at the The structures are outlined by two or three sites of Hulas and Alamgirpur. courses of mud brick with port-holes at
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FIGURES SPEAK : INDIAN ACHIEVEMENTS
INDIAN AGRICULTURE 1. Index of Indian Agriculture Production 1950 46.2 1981 100 2001 177.3 2. Production Mn tonnes 1950 50.9 mnt 1996 199.4 mnt 2001 212,0 mnt 3. Index of Industrial Production 1950 18.3 1993 100 2001 167 INDIAN INDUSTRIES
1950
Finished Steel Mn Tonnes Cotton Cloth Bn sq mts. Buses/Trucks/ L.C.V.S. (1000’s) Passenger Cars (1000’s) Cement Mn tonnes Fertilizers (N + P)’000 tonnes Electricity generated Bn Kwh Crude oil (Mn tonne) Refinery throughput (mn tonnes) Small scale units number 1000’s Output Rs.crores Employment (Mn) Railways Route Kms (‘000km) Electrification (‘000kms) Revenue earning Freight (Mn tonnes) Passenger Traffice (Mn) Shipping Tonnage capacity ‘000GRT Cargo handled Mn tonnes Telephone connection (Mn lines) 1.0 4.5 8.6 7.9 2.7 18 5.1 0.3 0.3 140 2603 1.7 53.6 0.4 73 1284 391.0 19.2 0.1
1996
22.7 34.3 327.3 483.0 76.2 11,567 395.9 32.9 62.9 2857 412,636 16.0 62.8 12.7 4.09 4153 6,915 227.1 15.4
2001
31.1 41.4 129.1 619.1 107.0 13,549 573.2 32.0 107.3 3442 690,316 19.2 63.0 14.9 492 5093 6224 274.8 45.0
Indian Railways carried 4,673.01 million passengers between April 2003 and February 2004.
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BANKING AND CAPITAL MARKET Aggregate Deposits Rs.Crores Aggregate Credit Croses of Rs. Scheduled commercial banks members Branches Stock Markets Market capitalisation (Rs.Crores) Labour Total workers (millions) Organized Sector Employment (Mn) 1950 881 547 93 2335 7 635 140 12.1 1996 505,599 278,401 295 65,485 22 485,785 387 28.3 2001 1,103,360 589,723 295 66,259 23 612,224 403 27.8
SOCIAL SECTOR Primary/Middle Schools 000’s Enrolments (Mn) Secondary / High Schools 000’s Enrolments (Mn) Colleges Universities Literacy rate National income (Rs.Crores) Percapita income Rs. GDP (Current Prices) Rs.Crores 223.3 22.3 7.4 1.5 578 27 18.3% Rs.9,142 255 9547 775.2 157.2 102.2 24.9 8529 228 52.2% 10,93,961 11,564 1,243,546 825.3 152.5 125.5 28.4 10,701 261 65.4% 18,64,292 17,968 2,094,013
SECTORWISE NET DOMESTIC PRODUCT Primary Sector Rs.Crores Of which Agriculture Mining SECONDARY SECTOR Industrial Manufacturing TERTIARY a) Transport Communication Trade b) Finance, Insurance, Real Estate c) Community, Social Personal service Total Rs.Crores 419,291 240,865 288,961 1,876,955 (22.3%) (12.8%) (15.4%) (100%) 531,196 493,887 36,309 (28.3%) (26.4%) (1.9%)
396,642
(21.1%)
India is the fastest growing commercial vehicles market in Asia, with a growth rate of 28%
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INDIA’S DOMESTIC SAVINGS RS.CRORES 2001 2000 1999 Household Sector 515,565 453,641 402,360 Of which Financial Saving 256,647 217,841 203,702 Saving in Physical Assets 258,918 235,800 198,658 Private Corporate Sector Public Sector minus 92.060 57,662 86,142 84,329
minus 48,022 minus 20,049
Govt.Admn.Departmental Commercial Enterprises minus 131,515 Total Gross Domestic Saving 549.963 Consumption of Fixed Capital 217,058 Total Net Domestic Saving 332,905
minus 118,739 minus107,250 491,761 466,640 197,856 182,359 293,905 284,281
Food Grains Cereals Pulses Oil Seeds Cotton
AREA UNDER AGRICULTURAL CROPS 2001 2000 (Mn hectares) 121.9 121 100.2 100.7 21.7 20.3 22.9 22.8 9.1 8.5 AREA IRRIGATED (Mn hectares) 1998 1990 17.2 (30.2%) 17.0 (35.2%) 0.5 0.5 2.9 (5.1%) 2.9 (6.0%) 33.1 (58.1%) 24.7 (51.5%) 3.3. 2.9 57.1 (100%) 48 (100%) ELECTRONIC PRODUCTION PROFILE
1980 126 104.2 22.5 17.6 7.8
Govt.Canals Private Canals Tanks Wells / tubewells Others Total irrigated Area
1980 14.5 (37.5%) 0.8 3.2 (8.3%) 17.7 (45.7%) 2.6 38.7 (100%)
Rs. Crores Electronic Hardware Computer Software Grand Total
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2001 37,050 59,900 96,950 256
2000 30,700 37,750 68,450
1990 28,100 24,350 52,450
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FOOD Sugar Mn tonnes Tea Mn kg Coffee ‘000 tonnes Vanaspati ‘000 tonnes
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 2001 1990 18.5 12 847 705 306 170 1804 850
1980 5.1 568 139 753
Spun Cotton yarn Mn kg Cloth Bn Sq Mtr Mill Sector Decentralised Sector
TEXTILES 2825 (1999) 41.4 1.7 (2000) 38 (2000)
1717 22.9 2.6 20.3
1211 11.0 4.2 6.8
Steel ingots Mntonnes Finished Steel Mntonnes Steel Casting ‘000 tonnes Aluminum ‘000 tonnes
METALLURGICAL 27 (2000) 31.1 (2001) 370 504
13.5 262 451
10.3 6.8 71 199
MECHANICAL ENGG. Machine tools Rs.Cr. 1451 Machinery Commercial Vehicles ‘000S 129.1 Cars, Jeeps, land rovers ‘000S 619.1 Motorcycles Scooters ‘000S 3,932 Bicycles Mn 10.8 Agri.Tractors ‘000S 204.9 Diesel Engines ‘000S 202 Power Driven Pumps ‘000S 431 ELECTRICAL ENGG. Power Transformers Mn KVA Electric Motors Mn Hp Electric Fans Mn Electric lamps Mn Aluminum conductors ‘000tonnes 62.6 5.00 5.00 393 30
773 145.5 220.8 1,843 7.1 142.2 158 519
169 71.7 49.4 447 4.2 71.0 174 431
36.6 4.2 4.2 274 68
19.5 4.2 4.2 198 86
7,367 Indian nurses were recruited by Britain last year.
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CHEMICALS & ALLIED 2001 Nitrogenous Fertilizers (N) ‘000tonnes 10,017 Phosphate F (P) ‘000 tonnes 3532 Soda ash ‘000tonnes 1424 Caustic Soda ‘000tonnes 1587 Paper & Board ‘000tonnes 290.6 Automobile tyres Mn 43.5 Bicycle Tyres Mn 20 Cement Mntonnes 107 Penicillin MMU 1075 Streptomycin Base T Vitamin A MMU 43
1990 6993 2052 1385 992 2088 20 25 49 525 162 221
1980 2164 842 563 578 1149 8 27 19 337 227 60
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SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES 2001 3442 19.2 690,316 71,244 34% 12.6% 1999 3212 17.9 572,887 54,200 34% 17.3% 1995 2658 15.3 362,656 36,470 34% 16%
Number of Units ‘000S Employment Mn Gross out put Rs.Crores Exports Rs.Crores. Share in total exports SSI Credit as % of net Bank Credit
KHADI AND VILLAGE INDUSTRIES (2001-02) Net Disbursements Rs.1274 Crores (Khadi 634 Cr. – VI.640 cr) Production Rs.Cr.7557 (Khadi Rs.417 Cr) (VI Rs.7141 Cr.) Sales Rs.Cr. 8,911 (Khadi 528-VI 8383) Employment ‘000S 6,264 (Khadi 848, VI 5416) Wages / Earnings Rs.Cr.2860 (Khadi-216 – VI 2654)
MINERAL PRODUCTION (000’S TONNES) 2002 9439 2247 153 3117 58 1544 1.4 499 1980 1932 324 n.a. 948 19 1632 8.4 50
Bauxite Chromite Copper Concentrates Gypsum Lead Concentrates Manganese Ore Mica Zinc Concentrates
MINERAL PRODUCTION Mn TONNES Coal Iron ore Limestone Petroleum Crude Gold Kg 2002 340 86.4 147 33 2873 1980 114 42.2 30.2 10.5 2412
The certified area under organic spice cultivation in Kerala is now over 2,500 acre.
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NATURAL GAS RESERVES / PRODUCTION Bn.Cumetres 2000 1980 Reserves On Shore 301 82 Off Shore 462 329 Total 763 411 Net production 27.9 1.5 ELECTRICITY GENERATION Bn Kwh 2001 Generation 573.2 Public Utilities 515.2 Hydel 73.9 Thermal (Oil+Ng.+) 422.0 Nuclear 19.3 Self generating establishments 58.0 INDIA’S INSURANCE SECTOR Size of the insurance market Rs.Cr. 47,400/Growth rate over 2000 - % 43.0 in 2001-02 – Life Insurance Growth rate over 2000 - % 13.7 in 2001-02 – General Insurance Total Regd. companies – 27. Life Insurance Total 13 Public sector 1 Private Sector 12 General Insurance Total 13 Public Sector 4 Private Sector 9 Reinsurance Public Sector 1. Distribution Channels agents No.510647 Institutional 483 – individual 510,164 Surveyors 24,206 Institutional 1137 individual 23069 Agents training institutes 833 ESTIMATED STOCK OF MANPOWER BY MAJOR CATEGORIES (In Thousands) 2001 1991 1981 Graduates Medicine (‘000S) 391.9 296.4 219.5 Dentistry (‘000S) 24.0 13.9 8.00 Agricultural Science (‘000S) 238.6 168.4 105.8 Veterinary Science (‘000S) 46.7 34.4 24.4 India is home to about 3.5 crore manuscripts.
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1980 129.2 120.8 56.5 61.3 3.0 8.4
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Post Graduates Arts ‘000S Science Commerce Engineers Degree holders (‘000S) Diploma holders (‘000S) Nursing Personnel General Nurses(‘000S’) Auxiliary Nurses mid (2000) Wives ‘000S Health Visitors ‘000S 295.8 227.0 23.4 184.8 182.4 21.0 117.8 90 11.6 1024.4 1531.7 519.6 859.3 304.9 425.8 3917.3 805.0 4853.1 2185.3 482.1 2486.0 1113.6 294.2 1054.2
INFRASTRUCTURE OF INDIAN MEDICINE SYSTEM AS ON 1.4.2001 Facilities Hospital Beds Dispensaries Regd. Practitioners U.G.Colleges Admission Capacity P.G.Colleges Admission capacity Ayur Veda 2955 43,973 14721 430,890 194 7680 56 801 Unani 312 5128 958 43,108 35 1325 6 72 Siddha Homeopathy 237 1986 352 17,097 5 240 2 90 307 13,694 7411 197,252 172 10895 24 543 Total 3841 65753 23,597 688,802 412 20310 88 1506
LIVESTOCK SECTOR Largest livestock populations in the world 57% of world’s buffalo population 15% of world’s cattle population 20.5 crore cattle (1992 census) 8.4 Crore buffaloes (1992 census) Milk Production 84.6 million tonnes at the end of 2001-2002 (17 m tonnes in 1951) Egg production 34 Billion in 2002 (11 Billion in 1982) Wool production 50.7 million kg (2002) 38 M kg (1985) The Association of Financial Planners has set a target to create a team of over 10,000 financial advisors in India by 2007.
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India possesses 27 breeds of Cattle and Fish Development India’s Fish Production went up from 24.42 Seven Breeds of Buffaloes lakh tonnes in 1980-81 to 59.56 lakh tonnes in 2001-02. Poultry Development India ranks among the top 5 Nations in the Hospital And Dispensaries world. As on 1.1.2001, there were 17,952 allopathic hospitals Sheep Development 50.80 million sheep and 115 million goats 31.3.2001 – 3043 Community Health are there in India. There are 128 lakh pigs in Centres 22,842 PHCS, 1,37,311 sub centres (Source : Statistical Figures 2004 TATA the country Hand Book)
NRI APPOINTED DEAN OF BABCOCK SCHOOL
A
jay Patel, a non-resident Indian, has been appointed Dean of the prestigious Babcock Graduate School of Management by Wake Forest University in WinstonSalem, North Carolina. Mr.Patel was named Dean following a comprehensive and nationwide recruiting search led by a committee that included faculty, staff, students and alumni. “Importantly, he is widely respected within the Babcock School as an excellent teacher and scholar,”.
Assam’s area under tea is more than 2.7 lakh hectare, which in turn is more than half of the entire area under tea in the country. Film Industry India makes 900 movies per year. The Cinema Industry has 188 plus million viewers a year and its estimated size in 2007 is Rs.41,900 crores. Indian banks spent Rs.1,500 crore on software and hardware for core and internet banking services in 2003-04.
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UN ATTACK ON EASTERN CIVILISATIONS
Bharat Jhunjhunwala rofessor Samuel P. Huntington had published a widely discussed essay “The Clash of Civilizations?” in “Foreign Affairs”. Huntington’s thesis was that the Western Protestant civilisation was using its economic and political might to impose its values on other, mostly Eastern, civilisations: “Global political and security issues are effectively settled by a directorate of the United States, Britain and France, world economic issues by a directorate of the United States, Germany and Japan, all of which maintain extraordinarily close relations with each other to the exclusion of lesser and largely non-western countries. Decisions made at the UN Security Council or in the International Monetary Fund that reflect the interests of the West are presented to the world community.” Unable to resist the Western prowess, these civilisations are increasingly making alliances based on their common cultural heritage. Huntington gives the example of China making available nuclear technologies to Islamic countries as that of an emerging alliance between the Chinese Confucian and Arab Islamic civilisations. Huntington says that the present Western policy of bulldozing its interests may be okay in the short run but the West would have to become more accommodative of the different cultural values of Eastern civilisations in the long run: “Non-Western civilisations will continue to attempt to acquire the wealth, technology, skills,
P
machines and weapons that are part of being modern. They will also attempt to reconcile this modernity with their traditional culture and values. Their economic and military strength relative to the West will increase. Hence the West will increasingly have to accommodate these non-Western modern civilisations whose power approaches that of the West but whose values and interests differ significantly from those of the West.” A clash of civilisations is likely to take place if the western civilisation refuses to recognise the different cultural values of these civilisations. This straightforward suggestion is being opposed by another section of the Western lobby which refuses to provide space for separate and different values of the nonWestern civilisations. The lobby insists that the Western values are indeed universal values and the West has a legitimate right, nay responsibility, to use its economic and political power to force other civilisations into accepting these values. The United Nations Development Programme has espoused this anti-Eastern civilisations position in its Human Development Report 2004. The UNDP has said: The deciding issue, ultimately, has to be one of democracy. We cannot both want democracy and yet rule out certain choices, on traditionalist grounds, because of their ‘foreignness’ (irrespective of what people would choose, in an informed and reflective way). The value of democracy
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has to resist the banishing of citizen’s freedom of choice” (Page 20-21). The UNDP here demands that the people have an innate right to know of various alternatives. This means that the Western media has the freedom to forcibly enter into the Eastern cultures and spread its particular basket of information such as that of gay and lesbian relations. Armed intervention such as that made in Iraq with the consent of the Security Council is justified in this manner. The IMF also gets the right to impose conditions of democratic governance of Eastern Countries. Huntington says that the western civilisations should not forcibly impose their values on Eastern civilisations and must be accommodative towards them. But the UNDP says that the Western civilisations must forcibly intervene in the Eastern civilisations to spread these allegedly universal values. This is new western imperialism in its most vulgar form. Are personal freedom and democracy truly universal values as UNDP contends? Personal freedom used to invigorate the senses and to indulge in sensual pleasures take a person away from his inner self and condemns him into deep unhappiness though with a sheen of outer falsehood of a smiling face. On the other hand freedom to engage in work as dictated by one’s inner self is truly beneficial. Personal freedom is then beneficial only if it comes with training and an environment conducive to connection with one’s inner self. It is positively destructive in absence of this environment as we can see in the increasing violence, divorces, alcoholism, etc., in the western civilisation. Thus personal freedom is not a
universal value. It is desirable only under certain conditions. The problem of democracy is similar. The sources of information are held by the ruling elite. The governments of all countries— including the West—regularly provide false information to the people. The initial public opinion in the Western countries in favour of armed intervention in Iraq is a clear example of how democracies can me made to stand on its head by providing false information. The provision of correct information then becomes the condition which must be fulfilled before democracy can take over. It follows that the true universal values, if there are any, are those of freedom to pursue introspective and reflective enlightened selfinterest; and that of provision of true information to the people. Neither personal freedom nor democracy can qualify as universal value. These freedoms can be manipulated to get people to hit at their own self-interest and unwittingly become pawns of the ruling elite.
One lobby of the Western civilisation, the UNDP being part of it, seeks to propound values of personal freedom and democracy as universal values so that its economic interests can be secured to the deprivation of the Eastern countries. The lobby wants to convert the humanity into a consumption machine that is ever attached to new sensual pleasures and manipulated by providing doctored information. Huntington has warned against the long term consequences of this policy. But shortsighted wise men of the United Nations think otherwise. (The New Indian Express) India is among top 15 exporters of niche crops like lettuce, fresh peppers, raisins, tomatoes, squash, grapes, pistachios, oranges, grape fruit, lemons and fresh cherries. 264
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MEASURING INDIA’S PROGRESS
W
hile measuring India’s progress (and that of other ‘developing’ Nations,) the human development index (HDI) is used and India is rated low by the World level organizations. But while measuring progress, the world institutions like UNDP take into consideration only 1. Life expectancy at birth 2. adult literacy rate 3. gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary, and tertiary schools, 4. and per-capita income in purchasing power parity (PPP). Only now the world is waking up to the reality that ‘India has managed its diverse culture with pluralist policies and 15 official languages and made remarkable growth in health and education!’ of its indigeneous wisdom, what India has done is a great achievement. To bring three fourths of its people out of the clutches of poverty within a matter of a few decades after dragging its feet initially, is no mean performance.
For a country which has been ravaged by hundreds of years of invasions by foreign To do so, keeping its spiritual, familial, and powers and foreign cultures, colonisation social values almost intact is a great credit and plundering, neglect and discouragement to India. One should remember that America and Europe have failed in defending their social systems against the juggernaut of science and technological ‘value’ systems. Whereas India has sublimated science and technology to serve its human, religious and national interests. As Europe tries to build its New Union, combining diverse cultures, values, and Nationalities, it realises what a great and phenomenal achievement India has made, in retaining, what has become axiomatic in India-ITS UNITY IN DIVERSITY.
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country of comparable or half-its size would dare to take. India had to contend with media which would posit impossible goals in front of the state, telling the government that it should rebuild in half a century, what history has taken two millennia to destroy. With its 5000 year old, urban culture, India has not permitted urbanisation to destroy its family. Whereas in every other civilisation, urbanisation has always spelt doom to the family and the community. Often India is adversely compared to China. It should be remembered that China restricted the choices available to its people in almost all spheres, suppressed dissidence with an iron hand, gave no training to its people in democratic or entrepreneurial skills, and intensely centralised its economy. The Media there were under complete check, dishing out only what the state wanted its people to know. Religious and spiritual traditions were suppressed and a very limited and narrow concept of human identity was imposed on its citizens, cutting modern China away from its roots. India had to manage irresponsible political dissidence, impractical idealogues and imported economic systems which would not take roots in its soil. India had to manage a diversity, which western scholars would describe as nightmarish and as a functioning anarchy.
Yet India has grown, maintaining its spiritual identity, retaining its social values. It has kept its creative springs alive, it has successfully defended its borders in the post-independent period.Mother India should never compare herself with this country or that. Remembering that her history, her problems, and her challenges are unique, reminding herself that her goal is to lead the humankind to its spiritual destiny, India should compare her only to herself while travelling down the path of history and measure her progress by But India had to start its modern journey her own standards and values. with universal adult franchise, a risk no
India’s first home grown hand-held computer—Simputer—was commercially launched in Bangalore by President A.P.J.Abdul Kalam. It has been branded as “Amida”, meaning “infinite or the Buddha”.
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THE BACKGROUND
The whole of the Western world is on a volcano which may burst t o m o r ro w, g o t o p i e c e s tomorrow. They have searched every corner of the world and have found no respite. They have drunk deep of the cup of pleasure and found it vanity. Now is the time to work so that I n d i a ’s s p i r i t u a l i d e a s m a y penetrate deep into the West. T h e re f o re y o u n g m e n o f Madras, I specially ask you to remember this. We must go out, we must conquer the world through our spirituality and philosophy. There is no other alternative, we must do it or die. The only condition of national life, of awakened and vigorous national life, is the conquest of the world by Indian thought. - Swami Vivekananda
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Thus spake Swami Vivekananda
Up, India, and conquer the world with your spirituality! Ay, as has been declared on this soil first, love must conquer hatred, hatred cannot conquer itself. Materialism and all its miseries can never be conquered by materialism. Armies when they attempt to conquer armies only multiply and make brutes of humanity. Spirituality must conquer the West. Slowly they are finding out that what they want is spirituality to preserve them as nations. They are waiting for it, they are eager for it. Where is the supply to come from? Where are the men ready to go out to every country in the world with the messages of the great sages of India? Where are the men ready to go out to every country in the world with the messages of the great sages of India? Where are the men who are ready to sacrifice everything, so that this message shall reach every corner of the world? Such heroic souls are wanted to help the spread of truth. Such heroic workers are wanted to go abroad and help to disseminate the great truths of Vedanta. The world wants it; without it the world will be destroyed.
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INDIA REGAINING SELF-BELIEF, SAYS GOVERNOR
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ndia is emerging as a world leader and technology platform. It is strong in research fast regaining its lost self-belief, said the but weak in incorporating the developments Governor of T.N. P.S.Ramamohan Rao. into the industrial sector. Now industries have come forward to coverage with educational institutions, he noted.
He was speaking at the inauguration of the TIFAC’s (Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council) Centre of Relevance and Excellence (CORE) in Diabetic Retinopathy at the Aravind Eye Hospital, on Friday (16-04-2004).
The Government on its part is aiding the convergence by developing a user friendly data base for industry institution interaction, India is slowly coming out of the hangover which had resulted in India producing world from being ruled by outsiders for nearly a class automobiles. millennium’. Foreign rulers destroyed the self-worth of the Indians which they are fast Dr.P.Namperumalsamy, director, Aravind Eye Hospitals, said that his was the first regaining of late, the Governor said. medical institution to create a TIFAC CORE The Governor said that lack of objectives centre. and bureaucratic policies had hampered the development of India. Lack of a proper The centre will produce scientifically and policy environment has prevented convergence technically qualified manpower of the very of industry institution participation. But these highest quality, tailor-made for the requirement misgivings are being corrected of late, he said. of industries. These centres are the result of synergistic convergence of the three powerful The Atomic Energy Corporation and Indian pillars of economic growth, industry, education Space Research Organisation (ISRO) had institutions and the Government. created an ambience to prove that India is At present there are 17 centres in India and capable of scaling great heights, he said. the aim is to increase the number to 100. Dr.R.Chidambaram, Principal Scientific India has the largest number of patients with Advisor, Government of India and Chairman, diabetic retinopathy, a major cause for TIFAC CORE, in his keynote address, said blindness. Aravind aims at tackling the that India has a strong scientific and problem through this centre, he added.
India has documented over 44,000 species of flora and 75,000 new species of fauna and possesses within its borders two of the world’s ten bio-geographic zones.
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CAN THERE BE INDIAN GLOBAL BRANDS?
Ramesh Narayan
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s we settle down to live in a global village where the Madrasi Mami comfortably walks around Panagal Park resplendent in Reebok sneakers and the old lady on a snowbound New York Street calls a young girl sitting in a call centre in Bangalore to seek instructions on where the nearest steak house is, we wonder what is the meaning of a truly global brand. In a recent presentation forecasts that in 2003 the leaders of the world economy would be No.1 China, No.2 USA and at No.3, India would be fighting it out for the coveted third spot with Japan.
In FMCG, he feels ITC should roll up its sleeves and aim for the big ticket after “beating the pants off Hindustan Lever in the home market.” In the pharma sector, Batey picks Ranbaxy. He feels that Tata trucks should enjoy strong market share across Asia, and Tata’s Tetley should signal a more distinctive link with India.
In the biotech sector the favorites are Reliance and the Aditya Birla group who he feels should be eyeing the possible $900 billion market. Wishful thinking, one might say, but Batey says Air India should try and How will this seemingly Utopian scenario elevate itself to its former glory. Well, if you emerge? Indians having increasing access to ask me, the first step would be to let Air foreign investment funds, the government’s India buy a few new aircraft. policy of encouraging Indians to grow their enterprises on their own steam, a large low- Anyway, Batey also has some interesting cost domestic work force, the exploding random selections of branding opportunities depth of young well educated people, the lying quietly in India’s treasure chest, waiting enviable pool of creative talent and the for entrepreneurs to shape them into global exciting entrepreneurial spirit that is steadily brand champions. embracing India. The surprises include Old Monk Rum, These are in the words of Ian Batey, Nutrine, the mango fruit, Bukhara (the (Management Consultant Singapore). Closer Indian restaurant) and Kitchens of India. home Batey forecasts some of the Indian Finally, he says that wholly-owned Indian brands who should enthusiastically take up advertising agencies will emerge as forces, the global challenge. Kaun Banega Global to handle the big growth of Indian brands. brand? In the IT sector Batey says Infosys, I’ll cheer to that prospect. (The New Indian Express) Wipro, Sankhya and TCS have the potential. The general insurance industry in the country clocked business worth Rs.14,452 crores between April 2003 and February 2004.
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INDIAN ANIMATORS RIDE OUTSOURCING WAVE
ute cartoon characters and slick special effects may not seem obvious candidates for outsourcing, but Indian studios are popping up alongside software firms and call centres that do work for firms in the West.
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Animation, Pentamedia Graphics, Crest Communications and Jadooworks, are leading the way.
Local units of Los Angeles-based Rhythm and Hues and France’s Millimages, which makes content for American and European In films, television shows and electronic TV shows, also have increased their output. games, latecomer India has started to gain favour over more established animation But analysts warn the sector could become centres such as Taiwan, Singapore, South nothing more than low-cost sweatshops unless Indian companies seek to offer Korea and the Philippines. advanced formats and compete to become India is winning animation contracts for the co-producers and owners of their creations. same reasons it has become such a hot outsourcing destination for other industries: “Animation outsourcing is the media lower costs, a large English-speaking equivalent of business process outsourcing.” workforce and a track record in meeting Said Jyotirmoy Saha, director of UTV’s Western companies’ technology needs. A animation division. In the initial rush to meet recent $14-million deal between Italy’s demand from North America and EuropeMondo TV, Europe’s No2 cartoon producer the biggest animation markets besides Japan and distributor, and Padmalaya Telefilms, is – Indian firms took on low-end production the latest boost to India’s creative reputation. work. So far, analysts estimate Indian companies have won some $50-$100 million in business, a small slice of the $10 billion global animation industry. But that could change, as major US studios, such as Disney, Warner Bros Studios and Metro-Gold-Wyn-Mayer, who previously have done much of their animation in-house, try to cut costs. But that’s not the lucrative end of the market, and most have not yet moved on to invest, co-produce or retain intellectual rights-the areas where bigger profits can be made.
“For many players, this is still a costs game rather than a creative exercise, but (even) this advantage will be short lived,” said Farrokh Balsara, a director at consulting firm Indian companies, such as soon-to-be-listed Ernst & Young. UTV Software Communications, Toonz
Domestic production of auto components during 2003-04 was worth Rs.30,640 crore while exports amounted to Rs.4,500 crore.
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WALT DISNEY EXPLORES INDIA AS PRODUCTION BASE
CALL UP INDIA FOR FASTER SERVICE
n a pleasant twist to the outsourcing controversy, an American lending company has given customers the choice to call up either India or at home, with a warning that if they call in the U.S. it will take up to two days to process their loan request, while a call centre in India run by Wipro will do it the same day.
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lobal entertainment major, The Walt Disney Co., is exploring India as a production base for its animation and feature films, and is planning to tap the commercial ability in the country, including that in radio, animation and TV broadcasting and content. On-line lender E-Loan Inc gives its customers a choice: Press 1 for an outsourcing centre in “India is a significant base for outsourcing of India or 2 for centre in the U.S. It warns the entertainment content and co-production, and customer that if he presses the button for India, we are on a fact-finding exercise in the they can have their loan request processed the country”, Walt Disney Chief Operating Officer same day. (COO), Andy Bird, said here today (15/03/04 at Mumbai). If they want the application processed in the U.S. they may have to wait, may be, two days Mr.Bird, who had met the Information and longer. “With the movement of U.S. jobs Broadcasting Minister, said investing in radio, overseas becoming a hot political issue, music and film industry would be the companies are trying to find new ways to avoid company’s priority. He said Walt Disney the backlash.” Said The Wall Street Journal. intended to have a powerful presence in India. “E-Loan’s move is the latest wrinkle: disclosing that they have workers overseas, and letting customers themselves decide whether to opt for he advantages they offer,” it added. Since the company started offering the option four weeks ago, said Chris Larsen, E-Loan’s chairman and chief executive, 86 per cent of its customers for home equity loans had chosen the India route. To offer the faster service, E-loan contracts with a unit of Wipro, which, according to the daily, is expanding its workforce by 3,000 each quarter. E-Loan officials, said the Journal, expect more companies will follow suit.—PTI. Tea output of our country during this year (2004) is expected to cross 850 million kg.
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ABDUL KALAM OUTLINES TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS
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utlining nine technological events including the successful development of indigenous cryogenic engine, President A.P.J.Abdul Kalam today (11/05/2004) said these have the potential to penetrate the country’s economy and help transfer the society.
Kalam said commissioning of a large number of fast breeder reactors would provide energy security and also potable water through the seawater desalination process.
When an Indian communication satellite launched by a cryogenic upper stage, orbits in space, and the nation will be competitive Greeting the people on the occasion of in the export market, he noted. Technology Day in an address over All India Radio, he spoke at length on the milestones Touching on the light combat aircraft, the and the progress India has achieved President said the Armed Forces will be technologically in 2003-2004. proud of flying indigenous fighters in air space and make India a leading exporter of These areas included seed cotton military equipment. productivity, electricity generation from municipal waste, a brand in automobile Widespread use of mapping the technology, a fast breeder reactor, the “birth” neighbourhood by school children will of an Indian cryogenic engine, the light enhance the creativity of the youth and make combat aircraft (LCA) crossing the sonic them contribute to societal transformation, barrier, mapping the neighbourhood by he said stressing synergy missions for children, a synergy mission for environmental environmental upgradation would make up gradation and a digital library in every India “clean and green”. panchayat. The president contended that digital libraries The President said doubling of seed cotton in every panchayat would enhance the productivity would bring prosperity to the knowledge of the youth and become part of farmers while electricity generation through a beautiful rural life. mini-plants from municipal waste would enrich the environment and provide energy “Let these technological successes multiply security to the nation. and bring smiles on the faces of a billion people,” the President said adding the When the ‘Indica” car plied on the roads of technological progress towards enriching world capital it would ignite the youth to society signified the national spirit of “we increase productivity in every field of can do it.” (The New Indian Express) technology to make the nation globally competitive, he observed. Marriage industry in India is a Rs.10,000 crore business.
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affectionate atmosphere in our families. One INDIAN BUSES ON American husband after a few hours in an THE ROADS OF USA Indian house found that the lady of the house never came out to participate in the Karma Yogi discussion. On knowing more about the feminine fairness of India, he declared, “This n elderly American reading what a is great. I am unable to conceive of such an young American had written was atmosphere.” surprised. He asked where he had learnt to write so well. The answer surprised Every good thing has its other side. The him even more. “I learnt it in India.” One voluntarily submissive affectionate lady can may wonder how someone whose mother either be enjoyed as an emotional treasure tongue is English can learn writing English or taken advantage of for the purposes of from another person whose mother tongue masculine domination. Asia is an emotional is not English. The Right Honourable Sastri continent. It is said that some American made the Englishman feel shy by his precise youth visit Thailand so that they may marry pronunciation. a handsome, affectionate Thai girl to whom divorce or insubordination is inconceivable. JRD Tata in 1975 felt the same type of The day India realizes her inner strength will surprise when a young American proposed be a great day for us. to him that his buses could be sold to the USA. After a prolonged discussion, Tata was DABUR TO SET UP convinced. Life took a different turn. Tata received continuous export orders from the PLANT IN DUBAI Gulf countries and there ended our proposal. We know man does not know his Dubai: Dabur International, the whollyweaknesses. I would say, “Man does not owned subsidiary of the Indian PMCG and know his strength.” healthcare major Dabur India, will set up a manufacturing facility at Dubai My perennial theme is India has a treasure Investment Park, in line with its plan to in knowledge, subtlety, insight, intuition, expand operational presence in West Asia philosophy, and SPIRITUALITY. They are and promote exports across the globe. the treasures found nowhere else in the world, but they are not here in a usable form. This will be the third facility of Dabur They are found here as ingots of gold. Unless International in the UAE. The Indian they are made into jewels, one cannot use subsidiary already has a plant in Sharjah, them. Indians are unaware of their strength, manufacturing food products and hair oils, greatness of value. If the buried Indian while the Jabel Ali facility manufactures talents are brought to the surface, Indian Dabur’s range of personal care and manufactured goods will have an edge over healthcare products.—UNI the products of any other country. American parents who visit India marvel at the
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FOREIGN TRADE-RISING PROSPECTS
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xports are expected to reach $73.4 billion this year (2004) with the Government having raised the growth target to 16 per cent from 12 percent in the last two years. This is also likely to help exports reach $150 billion by 2009-10. Suggesting a major export thrust for services such as healthcare and education during the meeting, the FIEO (Federation of Indian Export Organizations) said the size of the
healthcare industry was $17 trillion globally with opportunities cutting across all the four modes of trade under categories laid down by the World Trade Organization. These include diagnosis and clinical consultations and telemedicine which come under Mode one, health tourism and education and training under Mode two, establishment of hospitals under Mode three and movement of doctors and health management personnel under Mode four.
EXPORTS EXCEED TARGET
Despite the appreciating rupee, India’s exports clocked a whopping 41.88 per cent growth in March, 2004 pushing up the overall growth to 17.26 per cent in 2003-04, surpassing the annual target of 12 per cent. For the first time, exports crossed the $60 billion mark to end 2003-04 at $61.8 billion, even as the trade deficit widened during the fiscal, virtually doubling to $13.36 billion from $7.44 billion the previous year, according to official trade data released here.—PTI.
WORLD’S OLDEST GEOMAGNETIC OBSERVATORY
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he centenary celebration of the world’s oldest geomagnetic observatory, which is also most modern with digital and real-time observation in the country, will begin on April 19, 2004. V.S.Ramamurthy, secretary, Department of Science and Technology will be the Chief Guest and G.Madhavan Nair, chairman of Indian Space Research Organization will make a keynote address on ‘Geomagnetic and Space science’.
THE OBSERVATORY, NAMED AS Alibag Observatory, was shifted from Colaba in South Mumbai in 1904 when the government decided to introduce electric trams in Mumbai for public transportation. Electricity affects the magnetic observations, according to G.S.Lakhina, director, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG). Alibag observatory, that is part of the international real-time geomagnetic observatory network, is part of the ‘Intermagnet’, Lakhina said-PTI.
Global HR outsourcing is valued at $27 billion and of this India accounts for $2 billion.
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NOW, ALOO AND ARRE GET INTO THE ENGLISH DICTIONARY
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nglish is being spiced up with a Many Asian words have already been sprinkling of some more words from naturalized into English. ‘Bungalow’, Hindi. ‘cheetahs’ and ‘ganja’ have all been shipped over from the sub-continent. In the latest edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, there is already a host of Hindi It is within ‘culinary speak’ that the largest words, including angrez (English person) changes are expected. “The British food and badmash (naughty) while many more are habit has been transformed by the arrival of being entered into the Collins Bank of Asian people in the community.” Said English, which screens words for entry. Mahendra Verma, director of Hindi programme at York University. The Hindi words likely to find a place in the latest dictionary are: achha (OK, or is that “The words are entering local vocabularies. so?), aloo (potato), arre (used to express Masala is replacing spice, mooli means white surprise), Chuddi (underwear), desi (local, radish, and the word balti is actually Hindi indigenous) filmi (related to Bollywood) for the type of pan that the dish is cooked very filmi (Drama queen or king), gora in.” (white person), jungle (uncultured) and yaar Accepting the words into the dictionary will (friendly form of address). also help British viewers to understand what According to a report in The Observer today, is being said when actors in Anglo Indian Arfaan Khan, a linguist based at Reading comedies use Hindi phrases, the report said. University, told reporters at the University of Newcastle to expect a “whole new dialect” to emerge.
Small savings in India during fiscal 2003-04 stood at Rs.3,74,666 crore.
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WHEN SAYING HELLO BECOMES A BUSINESS
Aparna Chandra
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It’s not always those headed towards a call centre who knock at a voice trainer’s door. At Tasmac Management Training Resources (TMTR), several techies have actually finetuned their presentation skills. “With help desks going international, it’s crucial to sell your service with just your voice over the phone. You obviously need to sound right,” Here’s the spread-a voice or speech training says director Pradeep Arora. module could be to train for a call centre, to neutralize regional accents, to acquaint Things have changed for even those who yourself with a foreign accent, to give voice- have been running the conventional speech overs, to be a radio jockey or, simply the classes. “Ten years ago I started with my workshops on confidence building through traditional “personality development”. mind control, meditation, spiritual breathing. “Voice training is certainly a booming sector Part of this has been confidence in one’s but one that is still in its nascence here,” says speech. While the enquiries and enrollments Sangita Rohera, director The Redwood have never dropped (approximate 350 a Contact (TRC), training course. “What has year), what has changed about speech largely changed about a voice training course modules is that we focus more on casual and is that today apart from being a means of spontaneous conversation rather than a self-enhancement, it’s become something structured one, as a reflection of current that can better your career prospects as well. social trends,” says Dr.Sudhir Arora. In fact, the demand for voice trainers greatly Mumbaiite Khodus Wadia, the voice in supercedes its supply,” she adds. several television ads, was in Pune recently Soon, Rohera observes, more than a Yankee with his brand of training, “My sessions in or a Brit accent demand will grow for global studios are more of a psychological process accent trainers as “today BPOs service to help kill that anxiety that inhibits some clients in countries as diverse as Spain and from expressing themselves. Today, my Australia where the focus is on clear and students take up anything from giving voicecorrect speech.” At least 400 students have overs to RJ’ing. Though old professional done the TRC course since it was launched preferences do exist, the calling for those eight months ago. willing to give their voice a sound hearing is certainly growing louder.” (The New Indian Expres) hey are literally teaching you to say hello all over again. And sure it is serious business. Times have traveled far from that favourite summer time occupation of enrolling in a public speaking course to now when voice training is fast becoming a specialized genre. India exported nearly Rs.6,000 crore worth of food grains during 2003-04.
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AN INDIAN CENTURY
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nfosys Technologies, the trendsetter in the Indian IT world, had become a billion dollar company. It has created many millionaires over the years and has rewarded its shareholders and employees very well. Kiran Mazumdar Shaw’s biotech company, Biocon, had a great opening in the stock market recently and its value also exceeded one billion dollars. Again the company has created a lot of wealth for those who put their faith in it. In 2003-2004, Reliance group became the largest creator of wealth in the country. The two-wheeler manufacturer Hero Honda has predictably maintained its record as the largest manufacturer of two wheelers in the world and has declared a 1,000 percent dividend. Tata companies TELCO, TISCO and TCS have already crossed the $ one billion turnover. The first two companies represent the new entrepreneurial spirit in the country. Both companies were promoted by first generation entrepreneurs who became role models for their industries. Interestingly, both set up
their companies during the pre-liberalisation days. They had to undergo struggles to build world class companies. And since then they have zoomed forward. Hero Honda may have Japanese collaboration, but their Indian promoters, the Munjals, rose up from the ashes of the partition days. Their’s is a truly rags to riches story. The Tata group had to face tough competition both in the automobile and steel sector when the economy was no longer protected. But the group reoriented itself to changing times and emerged triumphant. These are true Indian success stories. Infosys promoter Narayana Murthy did not come from a privileged background. His father was a school teacher while Mazumdar Shaw’s father was a professional working for a company. They were only armed with good Indian education and confidence. They did not go running to the government to bail them out at any point of time. These are the people who really make you feel that India is shining. Not leaders, not politicians. (An editorial in The Sunday Express)
‘CONNECTIVITY REVOLUTION ON’
A connectivity revolution is taking place throughout the country in 1998; there were only 12 lakh cellular phone connections. But now, there were four crore connections. Around 20 lakh connections were being given every month. The Government had drafted a policy which made the common man afford a cellular phone. The Government had allotted Rs.24,000 crores for laying good quality roads from north to south, and east to west. A sum of Rs.64,000 crores had also been allotted under the village Road Project to lay. A total of 2.29 lakh buses were sold in our country during April-February 2003-04.
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DOCTOR’S ORDER
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ick they may well be, but their wallets are far from emaciated. And that’s what matters for the doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who thrive from the flow of patients into Indian hospitals. A recent report from the confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and consulting firm McKinsey says there is a Rs.10,000 crore opportunity in “medical tourism” for up market hospitals in exotic locations around the country—and that’s just 3 to 5 percent of the existing healthcare delivery market.
people, while China, Brazil and Thailand have an average of 4.3 beds, the study says, adding that healthcare spending could more than double over 2004-2014. Dr.Naresh Trehan, chairman of CII’s National Healthcare Committee, says, “Compared with most developed countries such as the UK or the US, treatments like those for dental problems or major procedures like bypass surgery or angioplasty in India come at a fraction of the costs elsewhere. Cardiac Surgery in India, for instance, costs one-tenth of the bills many foot for a similar procedure in North America.”
Many hospitals are well placed to position themselves as ideal health spots for those who fail to manage expensive healthcare Right now, most of the patients who come accounts in the developed world, according to Indian hospitals are from West Asia and to the report. India has 1.5 beds per 1000 South Asia. They are now likely to be joined by fatter wallets from the North. (The New Indian Express)
Rs.46,472 crore worth of gem and jewellery were exported by our country between April 2003 and February 2004.
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THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF OUTSOURCING
K.Subramanian
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.S. companies under financial stress began their cost cutting pilgrimages and took to digitization as the road to Mecca It is a horror staring at U.S. professionals these days—the horror of receiving pink slips and their jobs going to lowly recruits abroad. They blame it all on outsourcing. Indeed, there are reasons for their despondency.
Leading journals have been writing on “global white-collar migration,” “the new job shift,” and allied topics and giving details of job losses in several areas, which are increasing in number. The companies Factors behind outsourcing affected include many in the Fortune 500 list. Global sourcing or outsourcing is as old as A heated debate is going on in the U.S. East Indian Company. Management theorists among academics and politicians. Bills and economists have analysed the factors seeking to restrict outsourcing have been that promote outsourcing. The rise of the introduced in several States as also in the multinational corporation (MNC) would not Senate. Against these developments, it is have been possible without outsourcing. No difficult to deal with the issue company can hope to produce all its dispassionately. Unwittingly, Gregory requirements in-house and has to procure Mankiw, Chairman of the President’s raw materials and components from other Council of Economic Advisers, was caught parties. There are risks attached to contracts, in the crossfire over his remarks that especially if proprietary assets like knowoutsourcing is “probably a plus for the how, patents and brand names have to be economy in the long run.” His remarks safeguarded. sounded so impolitic in an election year that President Bush distanced himself from him. Ronald Coase, a Nobel Laureate Economics, However, Dr.Mankiw did not resile from his explained that there are “transaction costs” academic stand. In his reply to the Speaker attached to contracts and contracts of the House of Representatives, he admitted invariably fail. It becomes necessary to that “any economic change, whether arising ‘internalise’ the assets to appropriate the Meghalaya has 9.22 million tonne of uranium deposits.
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from trade or technology, can cause painful dislocations for some workers and their families” but added that there should be policies to help workers to prepare for the change. Alan Greenspan, Chairman of the Federal Reserve, joining the debate a few days later, said that protectionist cures might make the situation worse. He hopes that the U.S. would manage to replace lost jobs from lower wage foreign competition with jobs in advanced industries as it had done in the past. The poser is, “Can it do it?” For an answer, there is needed to go into the political economy of outsourcing.
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rents in full. Branches and subsidiaries are floated abroad under common ownership subject to control and co-ordination. In such a situation, commodity flows across countries turn into intra-company flows. In one of its studies, UNCTAD assessed that nearly 70 per cent of international trade is in the nature of intra-company trade and such trends have been on the increase. Post war developments The post war years saw relocation of manufacturing from developed to developing countries, in areas like light engineering, shoes and apparel. Manufacturing was segmented globally and labour intensive parts were located in low wage destinations. Companies like Nike and Adidas were known for this style of operation. They had managers who provided designs for component manufacture in hundreds of locations and co-coordinated componentassembly in convenient countries. They were footloose in that they arbitraged on tax and labour regimes. These manufacturing patterns led to frictional unemployment in home countries. Those displaced could however be re-trained in other skills. In the process, within a reasonable time, they went up the food chain. The burgeoning service sector absorbed many of them.
concentrated on low skill segments, the labour back home worked on high value hardware. Successive reductions in the price of hardware generated continuing demand and sustained higher levels of growth and production. Wages rose in the Silicon Valley more than proportionately. High levels of consumption sustained the economic boom. The conclude the story; outsourcing was the driving force behind the global computer development. There was common cause between workers in East Asia and those in the Silicon Valley. It is doubtful whether similar symbiosis could be replicated, as there is no new technology in sight, which might bring about a paradigm shift as in the electronic years. Computer technology has plateaued except for incremental additions in the manufacture of new chips with higher capacity and in bandwidths. Moreover, the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICT) distorts the structure and patterns of production when combined with the current economic recession.
For economists like Mankiw and Greenspan the hope is that the American capitalist model that fosters flexibility and entrepreneurism, innovation can meet the challenge this time also. This is more a matter of faith. The trends in ICT seem to work The model described above held good even against any hope of economic revival in the around the time the electronics revolution near future. took over in the post war era. Electronics had its own special features and lent itself The driving force behind outsourcing in the ideally to segmentation. Pioneers like Intel ICT sector is for global labour arbitrage. As and Texas Instruments followed the FDI Stephen Roach put it, it is “—a by-product strategy of assembling chips in wholly owned of IT-enabled globalization that is now subsidiaries in China, Malaysia and Hong acting as a powerful structural depressant Kong. Even as low wage locations on traditional sources of job creation in highHandicraft exports from our country are slated to touch Rs.32,700 crore by 2009-10
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wage developed countries such as the U.S.” programmes where companies like GM and It is overlaid on the earlier jobless recovery Siemens locate global centres. contributed, again, by ICT. The demand dimensions are mind-boggling. U.S. companies under financial stress began Earnings for companies like Infosys and Wipro their cost cutting pilgrimages and took to have been increasing at unprecedented rates digitization as the road to Mecca. If in earlier and volumes. The UNCTAD’s Report (Eyears, they segmented production chains and Commerce and Development Report 2003) shifted labour intensive parts to low wage provided very optimistic estimates of earnings locations, now they would digitize them and drawn on the assessment of U.S. consulting access services from abroad through wires. firms. It predicted a market of $300 billion by They would get the service at 20 per cent of 2004. U.S. wages. The revolution is that digitization converts labour or service, which was The National Association of Software and considered non-tradable from the days of Services Companies, the industry association in Adam Smith, into tradable units. For many India, predicts in its ‘Strategic Review 2004’ an services, physical presence is no longer earnings of Rs.33,010 crores, up by 24.4 per cent necessary and the service personnel may be from 2003. In the same way the estimates of job losses create panic in the U.S. the employment located anywhere in the world. and earning estimates cause euphoria in India. For those in developing countries, it started in These lamps light a good part of ‘India shining!’ a big way in the late 1990s when the Y2K fever However, there is need for caution. gripped the world. Thousands of professionals entered the U.S. By 2000, the fever was over. It also coincided with the dotcom collapse. There began a backlash against foreign professionals. The U.S. responded by denying visas to professionals. Unfortunately, it coincided with the bursting of the stock bubble and the financial bankruptcy of many established firms. Those on survivor kits had to undertake fierce cost cutting programmes and digitization provided a way out. They decided to jump the visa walls and export the jobs to cost effective locations like India. Initially, the services were restricted to back office functions like call centres, help desks and customer support coming under the category of BPO. From BPO to other IT enabled services such as engineering design, architecture and radiography it was a short hop. The most exciting developments are in research
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It is also a hot issue for the Indian public and politicians. For them, the stakes are high. The earnings, even if they get reduced over time, are valuable additions to the Indian economy. The country reaps the benefits of its past investment in higher education. It mitigates the problem of educated unemployment. However, prudence would suggest that it is not a remedy for all its ills. It is only peripherally linked with the mainstream economy. There is fear that it creates ‘islands of affluence’ amid a sea of poverty in the country. There is a moral to this account. Erstwhile ‘free traders’ in the US may turn to protectionism. Vintage statists like Indians should not turn to crypto-free trade, as they have to safeguard their interests in more critical areas than ITes in the larger context on WTO negotiations. (The Hindu)
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ADB TO INCREASE INDIA LENDING, ISSUE MORE BONDS
BRITISH MEDIA COVERAGE OF INDIA MORE POSITIVE NOW: ROMEN SEN
Hassan Suroor
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he Asian Development Bank (ADB) plans to come up with its second rupee bonds issue and hike loan assistance for India to $2 billion annually during 2004-07.
omen Sen, outgoing Indian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, has called for the British media “We are planning to give a higher $2 billion coverage of India to reflect the “totality” of assistance to India annually in the next three the country’s reality. years,” ADB has sanctioned close to $1.5 billion in the last fiscal, (2003-2004) which Alluding to a recent channel 4 programme on the human rights situation in Jammu and would be stepped up from this fiscal. Kashmir, Mr.Sen said he was not against Some of the companies which are stated to criticism. In fact, some of the most robust get ADB loans are NTPC, NHPC and Power criticism had come from Indians themselves. grid. ADB is also planning to extend “We are not a police state,” he said. He did assistance to relatively poorer states like not believe in “knee-jerk” reactions. What was Madhya Pradesh, Assam and other North not on was “negative stereotyping.” East States for overcoming fiscal problems However, Mr.Sen pointed out that in the past and carrying out reforms. two years that he had been here, he had noted Admitting that India has never been an ‘aid- an appreciable change in Btitish perceptions dependent’ country, ADB Country Director, of India. The media coverage of India had not Jonghe, said “our assistance can help states only increased, but was now becoming more to leverage reforms, implement best positive. “The process is gathering practices, fiscal consolidation and capacity momentum.” building, which would in turn remove the regional disparity.” (The New Indian Mr.Sen, who retired today (30/06/04), said that Indo-British relations were at their best today Express) and the Indian potential in a whole range of areas was being increasingly recognized. In the past two years, there had been a quantumjump both in British investment in India and the Indian investment in Britain. “Indian investment in Britain now equals the British Investment in India,” he said, pointing out that British exports to India had gone up by 30 per cent.
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‘SMART-SHORING’ IS THE NEW BUZZWORD
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ith a nice round number like $3.6 billion ringing in every one’s ears, the annual strategy summit of the Information Technology-Enabled Services and Business Process Outsourcing (ITESBPO) sector, organized by the National Association of Software and Service Companies (Nasscom), got off to an upbeat start here today (9-6-04). That’s the total size of India’s ITES-BPO exports in 200304 – up 46 per cent over the previous fiscal, and almost a third of all IT software and services earnings abroad.
‘PROMOTION OF MEDICAL TOURISM WILL BOOST FOREIGN EXCHANGE EARNINGS’
he Federation of Hospital Administrators will approach the Centre for formation of a consortium of health care providers to devise ways for promoting ‘medical tourism’ and earn foreign exchange. In this context, FHA representatives have proposed to meet the Union Ministers of Finance, Health and Tourism in New Delhi to impress upon them the need for such a consortium in making India the ‘Paradise of health care’. The FHA is a body of administrators of various But industry panelists warned that the hospitals in the country. performance was still peanuts—when stacked against the total global volume of the outsourcing business. $250 billion. And Government must first form a committee to how long can India encash its edge: low cost look into the vast potential for getting of human resources and the ability to speak patients from abroad. English? Dan Sandhu, Chief Executive of the India operation of U.K. outsourcing leader, “The waiting time for surgeries in countries Vertex, aired the Summit’s first new such as the U.S. and the U.K, and the costbuzzword: ‘smart shoring’ – a canny mix of effective nature of Indian hospitals, along inshoring and offshoring was the smart way with the tourist potential, should be to our to go, he suggested, for the developed advantage.” The income from ‘medical tourism’ could be more than the total health nations. budget if the situation was capitalized to full And India was well poised to ‘pluck the low potential. The Centre was called upon to hanging fruit’ to use the neat phrase of James recognize health sector as an infrastructure Hale, Managing Partner of the U.S.-based industry to enable it get more concessions. venture capital company, FTV Management. (The Hindu) Even that would be a good chunk of the 250,000 jobs that are up for offshoring in the West, he suggested. (The Hindu)
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GOLDMAN SACHS SAYS INDIA IS BIGGER GROWTH STORY THAN CHINA
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he global merchant banking firm Goldman Sachs today said India has the potential to raise growth rates over the next five years from an average of 6.1 percent to 8.1 percent; it can match China in the quality of its Infrastructure and education. Describing India as a potentially a “bigger growth story than China over the long run,” it says fundamental changes in the economy and its governance support the country’s ability to meet these projections. Releasing its latest report on India, Goldman Sachs says India’s service led growth strategy is benefiting from domestic and global demand. Besides, globally competitive firms are emerging from the country’s “historically protected private sector” while broad based reform is fostering infrastructure development and greater openness.
China (BRICs), it says of these four, China and India are likely to become the world’s first and third largest economics respectively roughly 2040. “One highlight of our findings was the remarkable and largely underappreciated growth potential for India,” it observes while remarking that investors and corporations have focused intensively on China. Noting that economic growth in China is slated to taper off from 8per cent annually during 2000-05 to 2.9 per cent in 2050, Goldman Sachs projects that India will sustain an over 5.2 per cent growth over the same period. At the same time, it warns that India lags behind the other BRIC economies in levels of openness, basic education and infrastructure. “If the country can strengthen these conditions, India may well realize its potential as the sleeper success story of the BRICs,” it predicts.
The report considers infrastructure and education to be two crucial structural conditions to keep India The report says India’s on a steady growth path, gross domestic product giving the country’s till was slated to grow by 6.1 towards services sector per cent during 2005-10, activities. Making a and then come down to comparison of the four 5.9 per cent in 2010-15. fast growing economies of (The Hindu) Brazil, Russia, India and India produced 12,000,000 tonne of mangoes as against the total world production of 23,455,000 tonne last year.
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IT’S GOLD SHINING IN INDIA
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47 percent increase in investment in gold in the form of bars and coins. In spite of the increase in gold prices, the Indian consumers continue to be attracted towards gold jewellery, from an investment point of view, demand for gold bars and coins have increased because of its values of providing Total consumer demand in the country for stability and security to the overall gold (jewellery and net retail investment) investments and has ensured that the shine was up by 25 percent in tonnage terms and is back in the Indian gold market.” by 37 percent in rupee terms in the first quarter of 2004, compared to the somewhat “Though the trends are positively inclined for the future, other political and economic depressed levels of a year earlier. factors will be crucial for the industry. We Sanjeev Agarwal, managing director, World expect the new government to take some Gold Council, Indian Subcontinent adds, “In positive steps to channelise part of the India too, we have witnessed a surge in Rs.5,000 crore of annual savings being consumer and investor confidence in gold invested in physical bars and coins to be which is reflected in the 21 percent growth routed through the banking sector in the in demand for gold jewellery and a whopping form of a more efficient savings vehicle,” Sanjeev further stated.(The Hindu) he saying goes that “all that glitters is not gold.” But here in India, it sure is gold glittering. According to the World Gold Council, consumer demand for the yellow metal has improved dramatically over the last year in India.
INDIAN IMMIGRANTS LIVE LONG IN CALIFORNIA
Indian immigrants have the highest life expectancy among California residents, exceeding the state average by almost six years, according to a recently-released study. The study, titled “The Demographics of Mortality in California’ and conducted by the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC), revealed that immigrants in general outlive the US born residents. Life expectancy for immigrants in California was 81.5 years, compared to 77.4 years for US natives. Almost all of the Asian subgroups, except Laotians and Cambodians, have life expectancies exceeding the state average according to the report, which was based on data from the 2000 US census and the California Department of Health Services. The study concluded that among the 19 ethnic groups studied, which included White, Black, Mexicans, Cubans, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino and Vietnamese groups, Asian Indians had the highest life expectancy of 84.3 years. (P.T.I) The actual direct tax collections of the Centre during 2003-04 stood at Rs.1,04,678 crore.
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NASSCOM PROJECTS SOFTWARE SERVICES REVENUE AT $20 B
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he Indian software and services industry is projected to cross the $20 billion mark in 2004-05, with exports from this sector growing at 30-32 per cent to reach revenues of over $16.3 billion, according to the National Association of Software and Services Companies (Nasscom), a chamber of commerce of IT software and services industry in India. Speaking to newspersons, the Nasscom Chairman, Jerry Rao, said, “Despite the challenges of slow growth of IT spending globally, jobless recovery in major markets, and appreciation of the rupee, the Indian software and services industry has been able to maintain its growth momentum and consolidate its partnership with overseas customers, adding to their competitiveness”. An encouraging trend during the previous fiscal was the healthy growth of the IT services sector, which has gone up from $7.1 billion in 2002-03 to $8.9 billion in 200304, registering a growth of 25 percent. The
year also witnessed increased maturity of the Indian ITES-BPO sector, which grew by 46 percent, adding about 70,000 jobs. “The need of the hour for the industry is to alleviate service excellence which includes knowledge capital, information security and service delivery to further strengthen India’s position as leading software and services destination,” added Mr.Rao. It helps that the industry has expanded its radar to new service lines such as package software implementation, systems integration, and R&D engineering and network management as new horizon for robust growth. The Nassocm President, Kiran Karnik, pointed out that the Indian IT industry is among the top ten industries in India. The industry is witnessing a transition phase and evolving in terms of delivery models, service offerings, industry composition and market reach.
U.K. DEPARTMENTS WANT OUTSOURCING IN INDIA:
REPORT
Apart from multi-national financial institutions, British government departments now plan to outsource in India as part of their cost-cutting and efficiency drive. “Departments should seek to match the savings achieved by private-sector firms through so-called off-shoring,” Sir Peter Gershon, former chief executive of the Office of Government Commerce, recommended in his final confidential report for the Treasury last month. The Sunday Times reported today (16/05/04) —PTI. India is the second largest producer after China in fruits and vegetables with a production of about 146 million tonne.
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MANUFACTURING SECTOR UPBEAT: SURVEY
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he latest ASCON survey reports that the Indian manufacturing sector is continuing with its bullish trend thanks to strong fundamentals of the country’s economy and a pick-up in overall demand in many sectors, which were earlier registering moderate and negative growth. According to the survey, carried out by the Associations Council of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), the manufacturing sector is upbeat and the trend, which started last year (2003), is expected to gain ground, leading to an increase in overall production, sales and exports. Out of the total of 129 sectors reporting production, 26 sectors recorded an excellent growth rate of more than 20 percent. Thirty-five sectors recorded a high growth rate of 10-20 percent, 49 sectors registered moderate growth rate of 0-10 per cent while 19 sectors reported negative growth. The performance this year (2004) was far better compared to the corresponding period last year.
and 22 sectors reported moderate growth while 8 sectors recorded low or negative growth. During the corresponding period last year, 7 sectors reported excellent sales growth, 20 recorded high growth rate, and 43 recorded moderate growth rate while 6 sectors had registered negative growth. Cast iron spun pipe, could rolled steel, and sugar machinery recorded negative sales growth. Indian manufacturing is not only charting a success story in the domestic front, but is also doing well globally, conquering many markets. The latest survey covers 47 sectors compared to 57 last year, of which 21 sectors have shown excellent growth compared to 22 last year, witnessing more than 20 per cent increase in exports.
The figures for 11 sectors are in the high growth category, defined as an increase in exports between 10-20 per cent and 9 sectors recorded moderate growth, defined as 0-10 per cent growth. In the low growth category, Similarly, out of the 62 sectors reporting which is defined as an increase in exports of sales as compared to 76 last year, 13 sectors less than 10 per cent, only 6 sectors registered excellent growth, 19 high growth, registered a fall in exports. (The Hindu)
There are 5 national parks, 12 wildlife and three bird sanctuaries in Assam.
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SARAS: A SWADESHI SLAP ON THE ALIENATED INDIAN
S.Gurumurthy
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aras. Many would not have heard of it. This is a civilian aircraft made by National Aeronautics Limited, NAL for short. SARAS is a 14-seater aircrafts. An Indian make. The story of SARAS is very instructive. The Indian newspapers would not tell the SARAS story. So hear what Shri Srinivas Bhogle, a scientist who was in the NAL team to build the SARAS, has to say about SARAS.
on for five years.” The chief designer’s tablet intake crossed 20 a day, says Shri Srinivas. Yes, 20 tablets a day. The speed trials commenced in March 2004. SARAS reached a speed of 90 knots, that is 198 km per hour. It would need 105 knots for its nose to lift and take off. At this stage, suddenly, the Air Chief of Staff announced that SARAS would fly on May 28. Everyone was shocked. The first flight is generally a hush-hush one. Every one was nervous. With monsoon SARAS is very economical in design, a advancing, the weather was bad. The stage fraction of the cost the West incurs for was finally set for a take-off on May-29, developing a new design. The SARAS work instead of May 28. started over 15 years ago. But until 1998 no government would look at it. Dr.Murali On May 28, Shri Srinivas walked into the Manohar Joshi as the Minister of Science and Pilot’s final briefing. Sqn Ldr Venugopal laid Technology fought and got for the project out the plan, discussed every contingency, Rs.135 crore. including the failure of the mission technically known ‘a/c becomes u/s’, The NAL team began its work really only in (meaning aircraft becomes unserviceable) September 1999. But, by then, NAL was and Shri Venugopal dying! On May 29, at already under US technology sanctions as it the airport there was palpable tension. was supporting the government’s missile Venugopal and his copilot Shri R.S.Makkar, programme. Shri Srinivas says all its a Sardar, got into the aircraft. The weather purchases were blocked, it couldn’t even was windy, so risky. smuggle stuff in by subterfuge. But NAL worked and struggled resolutely. Two ‘chase’ aircrafts took off first. Then SARAS began taxiing. At 8.10 am its engines The SARAS programme became that began roaring as it started to gather speed. wonderful binding force between Its nose lifted, everyone clapped. Said a aerodynamics, structures, materials, flight proud Srinivas. “As SARAS climbed higher mechanics, propulsion, composites and and higher our clapping attained a new controls. He says “a third of NAL’s crescendo; this was the sound of a new, employees worked voluntarily every proud and shining India. We built our plane Saturday with a compensation package of and, look, we’re bloody flying it.” only rava idlis and bisi bele bath. This went
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At 8.45 am SARAS touched down, a Tricolour appeared from nowhere. Venugopal came out and saluted his boss who hugged him. He said they had ‘a great flying machine’. Everyone was euphoric, shouting, cheering, and hugging, says Srinivas. Shri Venugopal’s wife brought their two-year-old child to Venu. Srinivas said, “SARAS is not going to separate the child from Venu any more.” Indeed, a moving tribute.
SARRAS made the NAL people to work together. Srinivas says the team also ‘endured snide remarks’ from the media. The SARAS success was small news for most newspapers. Not a word about how the NAL struggled. Not a word about how it overcame the US tech sanctions. Not a word about how Brazil is selling these planes an executive jets at $21 million a piece. Only snide remarks. The Indica and Indigo cars of Tatas put us among the auto-makers of the world. The cryogenic engine devised by ISRO puts us among the space powers of the world. Likewise, the SARAS put us among the aircraft makers of the world. It is significant for India. But not a word in the media as to what is means for India.
But how did the Indian elite respond to SARAS. Says Srinivas, many people run down such Indian efforts by saying rather cruel things like; “It is assembled” or the Russians built such a plane 25 years ago, the Brazilians did it 10 years ago. He calls them dumb statements. He says they do not know how technology evolves. It is assimilated Imagine the scenario if the SARAS test-flight had failed and Venugopal had died! The incrementally. media would have gone to town as to why He says “start with US LRUs (line we should be reinventing the wheel: when replacement units) today. Convert to India aircraft are available on the shelf why make LRUs tomorrow.” Future wars, Srinivas them. Yes they will be on the lookout only says, will not be for fair maidens, or a piece for the failures of India. SARAS is indeed a of land, but for technology, technological sound slap, Swadeshi slap, on the elite, the strength. alienated Indians. (The New Indian Express) REVERSE COLONIALISM K.G.Kumar Guess which erstwhile Commonwealth country has the distinction of being the eighth largest investor in the UK? Why, apna Bharat, of course, the last post of British Raj. According to latest figures published by the UK Trade and Investment agency, the UK attracted 811 investment and expansion projects by overseas companies, creating more than 25,000 jobs. India has 28 projects in the UK creating 646 jobs, ahead of China, which has 23 projects, creating 324 jobs. And among the sectors topping the list of investments are the good old ones—software (with 76 projects), Internet and e-commerce (73) and electronics (68), followed by pharmaceuticals and biotechnology (58). (The New Indian Express)
An estimated 4.5 lakh used cars were sold in our country last year as against 8,44,000 new ones.
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BIOTECHNOLOGY: INDIA EMERGING AS A PARTNER OF CHOICE
K.T.Jagannathan
technology as the engine of economic development in the 21 st century.” In this context, it pointed to the success of Biocon India’s public offering. With its abundant high quality, low cost technical manpower, India was emerging as a partner of choice. Though intellectual property protection in the country continued to be a bugbear, several Indian companies had managed to cross IPR hurdles to work with international partners through confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements, the report said. Partnering, it said, was equally an imperative for Indian companies as they were increasingly pursuing a resource-intensive, productdriven model for sustainable growth in the wake of the new IPR regime. Indian biotech companies had initially emulated the information technology sector’s service based model to earn early revenues, “India’s major biopharmaceutical companies are now accelerating efforts to get bio-equivalent versions of patented, well-characterized recombinant proteins onto the market before the window closes in 2005. The small biotech companies are focusing on innovative research, and are picking niches where there is little competition,” the report said. (The Hindu)
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ndia is among the five emerging biotech leaders in the Asia-Pacific region, according to the regional edition of the Global Biotech Report titled “On The Threshold” released by Ernst and Young, a well-known professional services company. The report has selected India as one of the five emerging biotech leaders in Asia Pacific. The others and Singapore, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Mainland China. India is currently ranked third in the region based on the number of biotech companies (96), trailing behind Australia (228) and China, including Hong Kong, (136). The report said that the events of the past year “clearly indicate that Indian biotech companies are getting their fundamentals firmly in place. Business models are maturing and product commercialization capabilities are improving.” While noting several policy changes and fresh sources of capital, the report pointed out that “India’s position as a biotech player in Asia-Pacific is assuming greater eminence as it continues to build critical mass in terms of skills and capabilities”. The report said “the biotechnology has now the potential to replace information
It is estimated that there are about 180 million households in India, of which a little over 10 million have invested in mutual funds.
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PRIVATE REMITTANCES TO THE FORE
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rivate remittances from In fact, there has been a non-resident Indians growing recognition of the have touched record importance of workers’ levels recently. In 2003 inflows remittances not only in India under private transfers but also in many other (forming part of the larger developing countries. category of “Invisibles” in the Remittances have financed current account) aggregated to the entire merchandise trade $18 billion, 30 per cent higher deficit for India last year and than the previous year’s figure. kept current account deficits To understand its true in check in many previous significance, a comparison with years. An RBI study points the software sector, India’s out that Bangladesh, most promising exchange Pakistan and Sri Lanka have benefited earner among the services, will help. The similarly from workers’ remittances. There latest Reserve Bank of India (RBI) figures is a strong case for a more comprehensive show that during the last financial year policy framework to aid the current account earnings from software were $8.63 billion. flows besides enhancing their effectiveness. Private remittances during the same period A dynamic policy should take account of the were over $14.8 billion. In percentage terms shift in the sources of remittances coming software earnings were 20.37 per cent of the into India. With the oil boom in West Asia total inflow under “Invisibles” while private subsiding the contribution of the region to remittances accounted for 34.14 per cent. providing opportunities for unskilled and Of course India’s emergence as a software semi-skilled labour has come down major has already caused a surge in significantly between 1997-98 and 2002-03. remittances into the country. It holds However, higher inflows to India from the immense potential as more and more United States and Europe have offset the computer professionals move abroad to loss. Also, the motivation for expatriates pursue their vacation. Even during the 1990s sending money to India ought to be better as the RBI study shows, Indian software analysed. While even in the recent past, nonexports demonstrated a significant resident Indians looked to the higher returns comparative advantage over the more the country was offering (through bank traditional service exports such as deposits and special schemes such as the transportation and travel services. That in Resurgent India Bonds), the motivations turn is a reflection of the higher skills of seem more complex today. Faced with a huge Indian workers going abroad with its obvious accumulation of external reserves, the implications for enhanced remittances flow Government has been scaling down the level into the country. India consumed 6,798 million tonne oil products in April 2003.
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of incentives to non-resident Indians. Last week the interest rates on non-resident bank deposits in India were aligned with yields offered elsewhere. Yet if past cuts are an indication, there will be no significant reduction in the fund flows. Unlike private capital flows, private remittances do not seem to be unduly influenced by interest rate differentials. Stability of remittances in relation to capital flows and other current receipts is a great virtue, especially in a context where a surge in remittance during the last three decades of the twentieth century made India the highest remittance receiving country in the world. Accounting for almost three per cent of the country’s GDP, expatriate workers’ remittances have provided splendid support to the balance of payments. India’s demonstrated ability to attract and retain remittances has, on the face of it, more than made up for its relative lack of success in wooing other forms of inflows, especially through foreign direct investment. Yet it would be prudent to emphasize that each type of inflow has its distinctive characteristics and role in the big picture. (An Editorial in the Hindu)
‘DEMOGRAPHIC ISSUES MAKE OUTSOURCING INEVITABLE’
N.Venugopal urprising as it may seem, but two experts who have been into hi-tech contract research and development outsourcing for considerable time feel that outsourcing will be driven more by demographic reasons than on cost advantage. Mukesh Gandhi and Dave Zischke, former professors at Michigan State University, who left the academic field to launch Quantech Global Services, a 14-year old automotive design, analysis and engineering services company, point out that cost might be an important factor right now but ten years down the line, it would be pure demographic reasons for the US to depend on offshoring. In an informal chat with the pressmen, concerning several professional and business issues, Gandhi said, “for some time now it has been cost that drove outsourcing. But in the long run it won’t be cost. There are other issues like quality and talent pool. A related, but most important issue is a broad demographic one. The US society doesn’t have enough young, employable people. It’s becoming a society of old people. In ten years they are going to have a shortage of 1.5 million professionals. Japanese society is also like that. In that scenario, outsourcing will be inevitable.” (The New Indian Express)
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Rs.4,901.84 crore was the value of marine products exports from India between April 2003 and January 2004.
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CONGNIZANT TO RECRUIT IN THE US AND TRAIN IN INDIA
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The training in India would cover the different aspects of the onsite-offshore model including Cognizant’s pioneering 4 th Generation offshore model, he said. Process and quality management, programme management, strategy and consulting, domain-specific solutions, financial modeling etc. would be some of the focus areas for According to Cognizant president &CEO this training. Lakshmi Narayanan, “15 management graduates would be hired from the top Speaking at a conference call after schools in the United States. These announcing the company’s earnings. professionals would be then deployed in Lakshmi Narayanan said, “Cognizant has customer-centric and consulting roles such been the most active among the leading IT as relationship managers and account services players in India in recruiting from managers.” He further added that by taking premier B-Schools in India. Cognizant this kind of approach, the company would recruits only from the top seven B-Schools be able to offer greater value to its in India”. customers. T major Cognizant Technology Solutions has embarked on a new initiative of recruiting management graduates from Ivy League B-Schools in the US such as Stanford, MIT, Carnegie Mellon and Columbia and bringing them to India for six months to a year for training and orientation.
TAX COLLECTIONS CROSS TARGET AFTER NINE YEARS
Buoyant revenue collections for the last fiscal, 2003-04, will provide a good cushion for the next Government when it finally presents the budget for this year. Tax inflows have risen by 18 percent, according to provisional data, ensuring that the budget target has been crossed for the first time after nine years. This has also pushed up to the tax-GDP ratio to over 9 per cent after five years. Disclosing this here today, (April 20, 2004) the Finance Secretary, said direct tax collections rose by a steep 27 per cent while indirect taxes increased by 12.3 per cent. The total revenue collections are estimated at Rs.252,162 crores as against the budget estimates of Rs.249,315 crores. Direct tax revenues crossed the one lakh crore marks for the first time touch Rs.104,678 crores while indirect taxes are estimated at Rs.147,484 crores in 2003-04.(The Hindu) 85.34 lakh tonne of groundnut would be produced by India during the current season (2003-2004).
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INDIAN LEATHER - COVERING NEW FRONTIERS
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looking to source from smaller Indian companies after the Chinese industry had proved too inflexible in handling small orders. Added to this, the improvement in the quality of Indian footwear has helped the country emerge as an alternative to China. Footwear is the most promising segment. Leather footwear exports are expected to grow to $2.5 billion by 2010, a four-fold Employment generation and foreign increase over the current level. exchange earning capability are aspects that make the Indian leather industry a significant “India”, “will emerge as a leader in the manufacture of finished leather goods. contributor to the economy. Already, the country ranks high amongst Riding piggyback on the abundance of nations that convert hides and skins into livestock, the industry has almost finished leather goods. The significance of consistently been improving its performance. the industry has not missed the attention of India’s export of leather and leather products the Centre and modernization of the leather in 2000-01 touched an all time high of sector is high on our priorities. There are $1963.55 million, which was nearly 23 many exciting packages under consideration percent more over the previous years’ for the leather sector.” $1604.35 million. OUR STRENGTHS Tamil Nadu has a dominant presence in • Employs 2.5 million persons. leather and leather-based industries, • A large part (nearly 60-65 percent) of the accounting for around 70 percent of the total production is in the small/cottage sector. installed tanning capacity of about 225 • Annual export value poised to touch million pieces of hide and skins a year. The about US$2 billion. state accounts for over 45 percent of the • Among top 8 export earners for India. country’s export of leather and leather- • Endowed with 10 percent of the world related products such as shoe uppers, shoes, raw material, export constitutes about 2 garments, and so on. The good news for the percent of the world trade. industry is the signs of loosening of the • Has enormous potential for future Chinese grip on the market. growth. • Very high value addition with the country. Indian leather footwear makers are upbeat about the future because Europeans are ndian leather industry is marching ahead by being in tune with customer preferences and exploring new export markets. If the industry is able to keep pace with the requirements of the global market and caters to an expanding domestic market, it is largely due to the efforts of 2.5 million people directly employed by it. US is India’s second largest shrimp buyer after Japan accounting for purchases of $1 billion.
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ENGINE OF GROWTH
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he auto industry is one of the key sectors of the Indian economy. The industry comprises of automobile and the auto component sectors and encompasses commercial vehicles, multiutility vehicles, passenger cars, twowheelers, three-wheelers, tractors and related auto components. The industry has been growing since the opening up of the sector to foreign direct investment (FDI) in 1993. It has deep forward and backward linkages with the rest of the economy, and hence, has a strong multiplier effect. This results in the auto industry being the driver of economic growth and India is keen to use it as a lever of accelerated growth in the country. The component industry is undergoing vertical integration resulting in the emergence of systems and assembly suppliers rather than individual components suppliers. Thus, while most component suppliers are integrating into tier 2 and tier 3 suppliers, larger manufacturers and multinational
corporations (MNCs) are being transformed into tier 1 companies. The auto component industry in the country has made rapid strides. The number of key players is estimated at 416 as on 2002-2003, employing around 250,000 people. Turnover has almost doubled in the last five-year period from $1.9 billion in 1995-96 to $5.1 billion in 200203. The auto component industry in India is now equipped with significant advancement in its technological capabilities, due to its alignment with major vehicle manufacturers in the country and abroad. Therefore it has high export potential. Since the late 1990s, exports of auto-components have grown by a CAGR of about 20 percent. Currently, the share of exports out of the total production of auto-components is 10 percent. During the last 5 years, the exports of auto components increased from $215 million in 1996-97 to $800 million in 2002-03, which is more than 15 percent of the total output. (The New Indian Express)
EXPORTS: NEED FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION
That Indian products and services are able to meet the most demanding international standards of quality and price has been rising notwithstanding competition. In fact, the 12 percent growth target set by the Government in the last two years has proved too modest. In fiscal 2002-03, exports grew by 20 per cent while last year the growth was 17 per cent, despite a continuous appreciation of the rupee against the U.S.dollar. Handicraft exports of our country between April 2003 and February 2004 was Rs.8,832.11 crore.
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SURVEY FORESEES HIGHER GROWTH IN CORE SECTORS
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survey of core sector industries undertaken by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) foresees a higher growth for these vital sectors in the first two quarters of 2004-05. It also pinpoints the basic issues and problems being faced by individual sectors. These have been compiled on the basis of the feedback received during interaction with a number of companies and industry associations.
of addition to capacity is difficult in view so many criteria involved, the survey underlines the need for redress of some basic common issues and some sectoral issues affecting the current pace of growth.
Some of the issues relate to inverted duty structure, anomalous import tariff, rising prices of basic raw materials with inadequate availability. The survey focuses on slow pace of implementation or non-implementation of sectoral packages for a number of items and the need for improving the financial health of the State Electricity Boards besides If confirms that the core sectors can attain measures aimed at increased investment, projected growth rates and can even reach higher allocation and improving higher growth figures beyond projection infrastructural facilities. provided some of the basic problems pertaining to each sector are resolved. The survey highlights the need for pro-active government action to help industry achieve Though the task of calculating the impact lower cost, improved quality and better of the current issues pertaining to the performance in the competitive environment. individual sectors on their total individual It also lists the specific issues of concern to production and the respective gain in terms the individual sectors.
‘INDIA BECOMING GLOBAL PLAYER IN HEALTHCARE’
India’s success in healthcare has just begun and the day is not far off when it will go to the rescue of the West, the chairman of the Apollo Hospitals Group, Pratap C.Reddy, said. He was delivering an address through a ‘tele-medicine’ facility from Chennai, at an annual symposium on ‘accident and emergency’, organized by the Apollo Speciality Hospitals. Other nations had started realizing the potential of India as a healthcare expert. However, a little augmentation was required in the country to build more facilities before acquiring the full-scale global status.
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WHY AGARBATHI INDUSTRY GETS INCENSED
Maheswara Reddy
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garbathis. This is one industry of which the erstwhile Maharaja of Mysore was a great patron. Little wonder, Karnataka’s name and fame fanned across the seven seas through the fragrance With Gaya and its surrounding districts of the incense sticks. where 20,000 tonne of unperfumed Agarbathi industry provides employment to agarbathis were made per year, Karnataka lakhs of people across the country. It is a has lost its share in agarbathi manufacturing great help for small farmers to generate volume-wise but has remained as the source additional income during the lean period. of premium agarbathis. Women rolling agarbathi sticks to eke out their livelihood is a common feature in most Agarbathi industry has Rs.1,000 crore potential in the country with Rs.200 crore of metropolitan slums. worth of agarbathis being exported”, Simple efforts and minimum investment requirements to start an agarbathi unit have
attracted lakhs of people to venture into this industry. Though 600 manufacturers of agarbathis have registered with All India Agarbathi Manufactures Association, thousands of agarbathi manufactures are form the unorganized sector. A few years ago even some of big companies like Hindustan Lever Ltd, Reckit & Colman, Nirma, etc. marketed agarbathis on different brands in attractive packs and utilized their distribution network but in vain.
INDIAN FIRMS’ REVENUE UP 29 P.C.
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hile India-based IT service vendors represented a small segment of the worldwide market, with 1.4 per cent of total revenues, collectively their revenues increased 29 per cent in 2003 compared with only 4 per cent growth among U.S. based vendors, according to preliminary results released by Gartner Inc. Further, the report says that India-based vendors depended almost entirely on exports with 92 per cent of their revenues coming from customers outside India and only 8 per cent within India.
The average IT spending by a large enterprise in India during 2003-04 stood at Rs.12 crore.
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NICHOLAS UNCORKS THE POWER OF ‘SINGLE HERBS’
Thanuja BM
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he Rs.3,000 crore Indian herbal drug market has recently seen the entry of another big pharma players Nicholas Piramal India Ltd (NPIL). But unlike the usual “recipe polyherbals” sold in the market, the company says it would be focusing on “single herbs.”
“We plan to sell herbal drugs which have an ayurvedic origin-these will usually be single P.Vikram Reddy herbs, biostandardised and fingerprinted rather than the recipepolyherbals sold in the ust when everyone thought medical market. We would also look at exporting transcription was down and out, it is these drugs,” says Swati Piramal, director staging a recovery and is all set to grow (strategic alliance and communication), exponentially in India. C bay Systems, NPIL. incorporated in the U.S as early as 1998, in the thick of the last round of IT euphoria, The company is currently working on has emerged as the fourth largest medical various ayurvedic formulations like bulk transcription company in the U.S and has producing laxative with peristalsis stimulant started implementing its gigantic expansion action, custom designed cough syrups, antiplans based on its model of 95 percent rheumatics (oral and topical dosage forms), outsourcing from India. And it seems quite hepato-tropics, herbo-mineral antacid unfazed by the ongoing BPO controversy in suspension and capsules, hypoglycemic oral the U.S. formula, anti-obesity, stretch care formula for women and anti wrinkle formula for skin. With 33 franchisers and five of its own centres in India, C bay now employees about NPIL is also developing a botanical active 1,200 people (which it has trained) and based Nutra and cosmoceutical range for recorded revenues of $33 million and a 70 management of hypercholesterolemia, per cent growth rate. Its expansion plans are menopausal osteoporosis, PMS, diabetes a mind-boggling 10,000 people working to and BPH. generate revenues of about $100 million by 2005. (The Hindu)
MEDICAL TRANSCRIPTION INDUSTRY STAGING A COMEBACK
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India exported engineering goods worth $10 billion in 2002-03.
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Constituencies in the States of Madhya VOTING SPECIAL Pradesh, Rajasthan and NCT of Delhi at the General Elections to the respective onsider these facts: 670 million Legislative Assemblies in November 1998. registered voters. Around 7,25,000 electronic voters machines (EVMs). And the EVMs seem to have come of age, Over 4,000 candidates and 700 parties unlike in some other more developed competing for 543 parliament seats and nations. Last month, Associated Press places in four state assemblies. And three reported how frozen screens and weeks of voting. malfunctioning computers plagued some Super Tuesday voters who tried to cast Mind-boggling? “The world’s largest electronic ballots. In California’s San Diego democracy doesn’t do anything small.” The Country, touch screens failed to respond, general election makes India, already the causing delays of up to two hours and forcing world’s largest democracy, also the world’s some voters to other polling stations—where largest user of computerized voting they cast their ballots the old-fashioned machines. Other countries, including Brazil way—on paper. the United States and the Netherlands, also use electronic voting machines, but in smaller Now that’s something India will save. One numbers. estimate says over 8,000 tonnes of paper, made from approximately 16 million trees EVMs manufactured in 1989-90 were first were used to print ballots for past general experimented with in 16 Assembly elections. (The New Indian Express)
GOING BANANAS
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nd while you wait in the queue to cast your vote, snack away at a banana or a mango. You’ll be in world-class company. India has become the world’s largest producer of mangoes and bananas, having produced 12 million tones of mangoes in 2002-03, as against the world’s total production of 23.5 million tones. This is according to S.Dave, director of Agricultural and Processed Food Products Only Brazil produces more fruits than India. Export Development Authority. And in vegetables, India grows more cauliflower than any other country. Some Indian fruit with your aloo-gobi, sir? (The New Indian Express)
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Making a presentation to leading British importers at the India House, Dave said the country also topped in the production of bananas with 10.2 million tones, compared to the world production of 58.6 million tones. India ranks 13 th in production of grapes and the country is implementing measures to ensure that pesticide residual limits in grapes meet prescribed standards, following an alert issued by the European Community last year.
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WHY INDIAN SCIENCE SCORES
Shashi Tharoor
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orking, as I have been for the last couple of years, on a short biography of Jawaharlal Nehru, I became conscious of the extent to which we have taken for granted one vital legacy of his: the creation of an infrastructure for excellence in science and technology, which has become a source of great self-confidence and competitive advantage for the country today. Nehru was always fascinated by science and scientists. He made it a point to attend the annual Indian Science Congress every year, and he gave free rein (and taxpayers’ money) to scientists in whom he had confidence to build high-quality institutions. Men like Homi Bhabha and Vikram Sarabhai constructed the platform for Indian accomplishments in the fields and atomic energy and space research; they and their successors have given the country a scientific establishment without peer in the developing world. Jawaharlal’s establishment of the Indian Institutes of Technology (and the spur they provided to other lesser institutions) have produced many of the finest minds in America’s Silicon Valley. Today, an IIT degree is held in the same reverence in the U.S as one from MIT or Caltech, and India’s extraordinary leadership in the software industry is the direct result of Jawaharlal Nehru’s faith in scientific education. Nehru left India with the world’s second-largest pool of trained scientists and engineers, integrated into the global intellectual system, to a degree without parallel outside the developed West.
And yet the roots of Indian science and technology go far deeper than Nehru. I was reminded of this yet again by a remarkable new book, Lost Discoveries, by the American writer Dick Teresi. Teresi’s book studies the ancient non-Western foundations of modern science, and while he ranges from the Babylonians and Mayans to Egyptians and other Africans, it is his references to India that caught my eye. And how astonishing those are! The Rig Veda asserted that gravitation held the universe together 24 centuries before the apple fell on Newton’s head. The Vedic civilization subscribed to the idea of a spherical earth at a time when everyone else, even the Greeks, assumed the earth was flat. By the Fifth Century A.D. Indians had calculated that the age of the earth was 4.3 billion years; as the 19 th Century, English scientists believed the earth was a hundred million years old, and it is only in the late 20th Century that Western scientists have come to estimate the earth to be about 4.6 billion years old. If I were to focus on just one field in this column, it would be that of mathematics. India invented modern numerals (known to the world as “Arabic” numerals because the West got them from the Arabs, who learned them from us!). It was an Indian who first conceived of the Zero, Shunya; the concept of nothingness, Shunyata, integral to Hindu and Buddhist thinking, simply did not exist in the West. (“In the history of culture,” wrote Tobias Dantzig in 1930, “the invention of zero will always stand out as one of the greatest single achievements of the human
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race.”) The concept of infinite sets of rational numbers, was understood by Jain thinkers in the Sixth Century B.C. Our forefathers can take credit for geometry, trigonometry, and calculus; the “Bakshali manuscript”, 70 leaves of bark dating back to the early centuries of the Christian era, reveals fractions, simultaneous equations, quadratic equations, geometric progressions and even calculations of profit and loss, with interest.
highly sophisticated system of weights and measures in use around 3000 B.C. Archaeologists also found a “ruler” made with lines drawn precisely 6.7 millimeters apart with an astonishing level of accuracy. The “Indus inch” was a measure in consistent use throughout the area. The Harappans also invented kiln-fired bricks, less permeable to rain and floodwater than the mud bricks used by other civilizations of the time. The bricks contained no straw or other binding material and so turned out to be usable 5,000 years later when a British contractor dug them up to construct a railway line between Multan and Lahore. And while they were made in 15 different sizes, the Harappan bricks were amazingly consistent: their length, width and thickness were invariably in the ratio of 4:2:1.
Indian mathematicians invented negative numbers: the British mathematician Lancelot Hogben, grudgingly acknowledging this, suggested ungraciously that “perhaps because the Hindus were indebt more often than not, it occurred to them that it would also be useful to have a number which represent the amount of money one owes”. (That theory would no doubt also explain why Indians were the first to understand how to add, multiply and subtract from zero— “Indian mathematical innovations,” writes because zero was all, in Western eyes, we Teresi, “had a profound effect on neighbouring cultures.” The greatest impact ever had.) was on Islamic culture, which borrowed The Sulba Sustras, composed between 800 heavily from Indian numerals, trigonometry and 500 B.C., demonstrate that India and and analemma. Indian numbers probably Pythagoras’ theorem before the great Greek arrived in the Arab world in 773 A.D. with was born, and a way of getting the square the diplomatic mission sent by the Hindu root of 2 correct to five decimal places. ruler of Sind to the court of the Caliph al(Vedic Indians solved square roots in order Mansur. This gave rise to the famous to build sacrificial altars of the proper size.) arithmetical text of al-Khwarizmi, written The Kerala mathematician Nilakantha wrote around 820 A.D, which contains a detailed sophisticated explanations of the irrationality exposition of Indian mathematics, in of “pi” before the West had heard of the particular the usefulness of the zero. With concept. The Vedanga Jyotisha, written Islamic civilisation’s rise and spread, around 500 B.C., declares: “Like the crest knowledge of Indian mathematics reached of a peacock, like the gem on the head of a as far an field as Central Asia, North Africa snake, so is mathematics at the head of all and Spain. “In serving as a conduit for knowledge.” Our mathematicians were poets incoming ideas and a catalyst for influencing too! But one could go back even earlier, to others,” Teresi adds, “India played a pivotal the Harappan civilization, for evidence of a role.” Research is a rich lode.(The Hindu)
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‘A MAGNET OF SERVICES’
ndia, one of the fastest growing economics in the world, has become ‘a eaders from the Group of Eight magnet of services,’ according to the industrialized nations are considering 2004 World Competitiveness Yearbook inviting China and India into their released by the Swiss business school, IMD, elite club, Italian Prime Minister, Silvio today (4.5.04). Berlusconi, said on 10-6-04. India is placed at 34 in the annual rankings of national business and economic efficiency “It doesn’t make much sense for us to talk with the 2004 report putting it among the about the economy of the future without two fastest rising areas along with China’s countries that are protagonists on the world stage,” Mr. Berlusconi Zhejiang region, ranked 19th. India told reporters after a first has become a ‘magnet of services’ by morning of talks at the not only by attracting outsourced annual G-8 summit of administrative services, but also by world powers. developing the competitiveness of its software, entertainment and financial The G-8 comprises the services, IMD said. United States, Japan, Germany, France, It estimated that two million jobs in Britain, Italy, Canada financial services would be relocated and Russia. to India from industrialized countries within the next four years. Mr. Berlusconi said the leaders discussed the India has shot up the rankings by 19 places strength of the Chinese economy and the fact by tapping into offshore investment from that it was not constrained by the sort of traditional western economic pillars seeking labour laws that exist in the West. lower costs. “But we said that we shouldn’t be afraid of That competitiveness is partly fuelled by China because it is a huge consumer market western money, with Asia attracting 60 and the ideas was put forward to call China percent of U.S. private sector investment in and India to join the G-8, making it the G-9 developing countries, the report indicated. or G-10,” Mr. Berlusconi said.
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G-8 CONSIDERING INVITING INDIA, CHINA
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“For every dollar invested in the U.S., $4 He did not say if any decision had been are invested by American enterprises taken.—Reuters. abroad.” Said the report’s editor, IMD economist, Stephanie Garelli. –AFP. India is set to attract about $1 billion fresh foreign investment this year.
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‘INDIA THE FIRST COUNTRY TO CONSIDER WHEN SENDING WORK ABROAD’
Pragya Singh
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ebates on the backlash against outsourcing are hotter than ever, but a new book what’s this India Business argues that India is an asset to the global economy, an ideal offshore destination and a completely livable business environment. Its author, Paul Davies, exmanaging director of Unisys, explains his perspective on outsourcing and India in an interview.
strategic development managers, and even Human Resources or Procurement, could find real advantage from it. My second audience was Indian business people. By exploring how Indian companies present themselves and showing western responses, I was addressing an important area for the success of India Inc.
Q. A section is dedicated to Indian culture Q. What’s this India Business gives the and people. How important are these aspects impression you are absolutely sold on the for business today? idea of off shoring, and India. Do many in A. In most business discussions with western the west agree with you? companies and CXOs, these aspects of India A. I am convinced the value proposition of are rarely mentioned. Yet when I broach the off shoring is so significant that every subject of the charm and allure of India, Western company has to make a decision there’s always a real enthusiasm for going about it. It may be perfectly right for some to India to understand more. Americans are enterprises not to go offshore-but it has to more circumspect as a group. But even there, be a decision taken in the light of all the ‘there is an understanding of the intellectual information. India, for almost all areas of heritage of India and an appreciation that ITES and BPO, is the right place – and India has more to offer because it is not a clone of western business. certainly the first country to consider. Q. Did you have a particular target audience Q. You argue that off shoring could free productive workforce to do what couldn’t in mind when writing? be done before. Are firms following this A. My initial target audience was western model today? business people who had either never been to India, or who hadn’t come to grips with A. A subsidiary of Unisys is looking at thisthe ways of doing business here. It was aimed but much of this is commercially sensitive. at the Chief Executive, Chief Financial, Chief This is a complex subject-and has Operating the Chief Information Officers-the opportunities both in India and the west. The so-called CXO market-but it was broadened World Bank has already suggested areas so that project directors and managers, where this applies.
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‘PROMOTE INDIA AS I.T. RESEARCH HUB’
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ndustry should work to establish the country as a global hub of research and development in information technology, S.Ramakrishnan, executive director, Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, said on Monday (17-05-04) at Coimbatore. Skilled workers, engineers and other professionals had been going abroad for over three decades, but a ‘reverse migration’ began now. I n d i a n b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r y, academia and the Government have joined hands to use telecommunications and the Internet to break into the global market. The Department of Electronics had established software technology parks as “one-stop shops” to offer efficient service
and globally competitive telecommunication infrastructure, he said. Indian companies had expanded their services and multinationals had invested in development centres. “Much ahead of, and even more than our cricket team, Indian IT became a brand ambassador for the nation, wherever one traveled.” To find the best way of succeeding in research and development, a global research agency compared India with Israel, Taiwan, China and Ireland. It found that there was ‘tremendous promise” for India in information technology, telecommunications and electronics. Some of the specific areas the study identified were computer graphics, multimedia, encryption, network security, software engineering, mobile communication services, wireless sensors, semiconductors and photonics technology. By 2010, the opportunities for the outsourcing markets in research and technology were $9.1 billion for information technology, $4.1 billion for telecom and $2.7 billion for electronics. This would create a large number of jobs.
India produced 1,200,000 tonne of grapes during 2002-03 while global production was 57,397,000 tonne.
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MALDA MANGOES FOR LONDON
Marcus Dam
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or the first time ever, a West Bengal Government agency—the Food Processing and Horticulture Development Corporation—is exporting mangoes to London. The first consignment of the delectable “Himsagar” variety of the fruit grown in Malda district left Kolkata this morning (11.06.04).
INDIAN PHARMA COMPANIES ON A TAKE OVER SPREE
‘Gerberas,’ which resemble daisies with multiple hues, and tuberoses are also being Ramnath Subba exported to new York where there is huge ndian pharmaceutical companies have demand for the flowers, entrepreneurs from been moving aggressively to acquire London were impressed with the Himsagar companies over seas in the recent past. mangoes they tasted and recently finalized a That should not come as a surprise because deal for weekly export of the fruit to the over the last few years, they have not only United Kingdom. gained critical mass in terms of balance sheet In the United States, there is a growing size and streamlined operations, but also demand for the ‘gerbera’, which is issued for have access to cheaper funds. interior decoration. The flowers which grow in the hills of Kalimpong in north Bengal are All available indicators show that global also now being cultivated in poly-houses at generics market is growing. It is very a temperature of about 26o Celsius in the competitive there and provides funds for R&D. drugs prices outside India are far more North 24 Parganas and Hooghly districts. remunerative than here and that generates Mr.Hazra said. To boost mango exports, a investible surplus,” said D.G.Shah, secretary multi-purpose pack-house cooling chamber general, Indian Pharmaceutical Alliance unit has been set up in Malda district at a (IPA). “This is no doubt an entry strategy cost of Rs.1.74 cores. and move to accelerate growth,” he added.
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4,40,177 tonne of raw cashew nuts was imported by our country between April 2003 and February 2004.
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INDIA ROARS
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hey say it is boom time in India now. And rightly so, for the country is poised on the brink of becoming a roaring tiger, much like the South East Asian nations of the 70 and 80s. So strong is the bullishness of India that not a day passes without a mention of India in the foreign press. And lately, the country’s IT prowess has also come under watch with ‘outsourcing’ campaigns becoming the order of the day. That has not stopped economic pundits from the country as well as those from abroad make grandiose projections about the economy, GDP etc. Securities and brokerage firm Geojit Securities has said in its latest Economic Outlook that Indian economy is expected to grow at a blazing 8.2 percent this fiscal. “India is Asia’s fastest growing economy with GDP etc. Securities and brokerage firm Geojit Securities has said in its latest Economic Outlook that Indian economy is expected to grow at a blazing 8.2 percent this fiscal. “India is Asia’s fastest growing economy with GDP registering a 10.4 percent year-on-year growth in Q3 of FY04 compared to 22 percent in Q3FY03. This is more than China’s 9.9 percent and Argentina’s9.8 percent for Q3,” the report says.
an average GDP growth rate of over 6 percent. The current account deficit has turned into a surplus over the last four years, achieved through non-debt creating flows. Among emerging markets, India’s ratio of foreign exchange reserves to GDP stands at 14.5 percent as against a high of 94.3 percent for Singapore and low of 7.9 percent for Mexico. “This is in the backdrop of the country’s forex reserves having crossed $110 billion.” It said.
The report also says that although the taxGDP ratio continues at low levels, the high fiscal deficit has not been binding on the private sector due to the growing savinginvestment surplus. In FY02 and FY03 private sector surplus has spilled over to the external sector and has financed public sector It goes on to add that since the economic deficit. The robust secondary market and reforms in 1991, the country has maintained strong macro economic fundamentals have Rs.2,200 crore is the size of the bread industry in our country.
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added to the strong business confidence and capital flows are expected to continue. India is a production base and an export hub for goods ranging from agricultural products to automobile components to high-end services. Not only that Indian firms are new part of global production chains and the country is increasingly getting integrated with the world economy. The robust performance of the manufacturing sector has kept industrial growth buoyant. The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) growth rate for April ’03-Jan ’04 is up at 6.5 percent. The cumulative growth for the industry as a whole during this period was 6.5 percent. The manufacturing sector grew by 7.1 percent, mining by 4.5 percent and electricity by 3.7 percent. Capital goods production (which are indicators of investment levels) for this period grew to 10.3 percent over the corresponding period last year. The growth has largely been fuelled by agriculture which has expanded by 16.9 percent during the same quarter of the preceding fiscal. The good news is that economic growth is reasonably broad-based and not just confined to the farm sector. TOP 10 TRADED COMMODITIES (Financial Year ’04) Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Commodity Soy Oil Sunflower Seed Cotton Oil Safflower Seed Cotton Seed Sunflower Oil Sunflower Oil Lead Crude Palm Oil Sunflower Cake Turnover Qty (MT) 10.30,038 6,34,672 6,08,954 5,89,534 5,85,260 5,78,592 5,58,228 5,34,282 4,94,962 4,58,950 Gross Value ($mn) 1071 299 633 266 154 813 839 128 401 55
Back office processing segment industry in India is expected to be worth $6,102 million by 2006.
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THE GLOBAL INDIAN TAKEOVER
Swaminathan S.Ankelsaria Aiyar
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adies and gentlemen, please take your seats. You are about to witness one of the greatest shows on earth: the gradual Indian takeover of global companies. As the process unfolds, every worthwhile Indian company will become a multinational corporation (MNC) that not only starts business abroad but also swallows up existing foreign multinationals. When Indian began globalizing in 1991, the Indian left howled that this would mean the wholesale takeover of Indian companies by foreign multinational companies (MNCs). When liberalizers like me suggested that globalization would equally mean the take over of foreign companies by Indian multinationals, we were viewed with amusement as some sort of creatures from outer space. So entrenched was the notion of Indian inferiority and foreign superiority that the very thought of Indian companies taking over global ones was regarded as science fiction. Today, it has become a reality. The trend began haltingly a few years ago. In 2000, Tata Tea took over a global company, twice its size, Tetley Tea, the second biggest tea company in the world. This was a leveraged buyout. That is the financiers provided the funds to enable an Indian minnow to take over a global whale. Far from being a force of neocolonialism, global finance is now helping smaller Indian companies to acquire much larger global ones. Next, Essel Packaging, owned by Subhash Chandra, took over Propack of Switzerland
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to form Essel Propack. The merger created the biggest producer in the world of laminated tubes, and an Indian MNC became a global number one. But these takeovers remained exceptional events till 2003. Only in that year did the pace of Indian takeovers accelerate so much as to constitute a new trend, one that the world must sit up and take notice of. According to one source, more than 40 foreign companies were taken over by Indians last year (2003). Just consider main examples: • Tata Motors is all set to acquire the truck factories of Daewoo in South Korea for a reported for 118 million dollars. The Ambanis have a bid for, and look very likely to takeover Flag International, a major international telecom network, for perhaps 211 million dollars. Ranbaxy, our biggest pharmaceutical company, has just acquired RGP Aventis, the French generic wing of the multinational Aventis. Here again, an Indian minnow has acquired a part of a global whale. Wockhardt, owned by the Khokariwalas, acquired CP Pharmaceuticals of UK. The Khokariwalas had already made minor acquisition, of Wallis Laboratories, in 1998.



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Hindalco, the flagship company of Kumar Birla group, acquired two Copper mines in Australia – Mount Gordon and Nifty.
ancillary companies are sweeping world export markets and in the process acquiring MNC rivals that cannot complete.




Sterlite, the successful bidder for the • After 30 years of supplying privatization of Bharat Aluminium components to UK-based SPP and Hindusthan Zinc, has become a Pumps, Kirloskar Brothers have now true multinational by acquiring acquired a majority stake in the copper mines in Australia. It has also British Company. Truly, this is a case been short-listed as the preferred of the Empire striking back. bidder for buying a 51 percent stake in Konkola Copper Mines, the I do not wish to bore the readers by making biggest government owned mine in this column into a long, seemingly, endless list. Yet, the lengthy and seemingly endless Zambia. nature of our global takeovers cry out for Readers might think that only the our attention. biggest Indian companies get into global takeover game. This is simply In this column, I have listed only Indian not so. Many middle sized takeovers of foreign companies, not yet the companies, which readers may not many few factories the Indians are putting even have heard of, are becoming up overseas. Again, I have left out of my list multinationals through foreign a large number of softwares and BPO companies that are being acquired by top acquisitions. Indian companies. I have concentrated on Sundaram Fasteners, whose manufacturing, where Indians are supposed production line includes humble to be least competitive. items like radiator caps, nuts and bolts, has acquired Dana Spicer The left is correct in saying that globalization Europe, the British arm of a global implies in takeover of Indian companies by multinational. Separately, Sundaram MNCs, but wrong in implying that takeovers Fasteners is setting up a plant in are a one-way street. The global system is China to take on the mighty Chinese. no longer rigged by and for white men. It can be used by Indians no less by Americans Amtek Auto, another auto ancillary to leverage their talent to create global that came up in the 1990s, has just corporate empires. The process has begun. acquired the GWK group in the UK, which is twice its size. Indian auto (The Times of India)
Indian banks have shed 1,25,000 workers or 12.5 percent of their workforce through voluntary retirement schemes during the last few years.
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IT’S A HERBAL WORLD
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‘Green Revolution’ is taking place in the fast moving consumer goods sector. A ‘herbal’ tag attached to a product is enough to make it sell, says Madhavi Ravikumar. Grandma didn’t go to beauty parlours, skin specialists, or cosmetologists. Yet grandma’s skin glowed, her hair was lush and dark. What was grandma’s magic? Simple, reply on natural home remedies for a variety of cosmetic and medical needs. Yes, Brahmi, amla, reetha, henna, haldi, chandan, neem, gulab, cucumber, mint, tulsi, coconut, lime…the same herbs that are making a comeback today in sachets, tubes and bottles. The convenience of a shampoo bottle or a skin cream tube compared to the time consuming and cumbersome procedure for using these products in the good old days are making them popular once again. When growth rates for cosmetic products showed down, marketers had to think of something new. Herbal products were always available in India, but they became a marketing man’s dream products only recently. Today, there is a growing awareness of the benefits of using natural products. Whether they are cosmetics, medicines or health drinks, the mantra today is to keep away from chemicals. “The future for the herbal industry will be in catering to the personal and healthcare needs of consumers across the world. And it looks bright and promising,” says Ravi Prasad, managing director of the Bangalore-based Himalaya Drug Company.
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Taking a cue from the changing customer preferences, companies have started digging deep into the herbal pot of gold and flooding the market with over-the-counter products. The global markets for herbal products, including medicines, health supplements herbal beauty and toiletry products, is estimated at a mind blowing US $ 62 billion. The market for herbal medicine alone is estimated at US $5 billion and is expected to grow to U S $ 16 billion next year. In Europe, the market for licensed herbal medicines is approximately US $ 475 million. In India, over the past couple of years, there has been a clear herbal wave, particularly in the personal care segment. The Rs.300-crore market is perceived to be the hottest and the fastest growing. The Indian cosmetics industry, including toiletries, is estimated at Rs.3,000-crore. With growing competition even traditional ayurvedic companies like Dabur, Himalaya Drugs, Charak, Zandu, Sri Dhootapapeshwar and Baidyanath are sprucing their products up to face the onslaught. From expanding their range, upgrading manufacturing facilities, investing in R&D activity, strengthening distribution and marketing the players are all exploring ways to reach out to the consumer. According to industry sources, “A herbal tag is one of the easiest ways to increase products acceptance and popularity.” Increasing acceptance of Indian-made herbal products in the international market, greater
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health awareness, changing trends of selfgrooming and lifestyles and even the mythological serials on television are cited as some of the factors for the boom in the herbal-products industry. Toilet soap is one segment witnessing an intense competition between established brands like Medimix, Margo, Vrinda, Santoor, Chandrika and the repositioned Hamam and Rexona on the natural/herbal platform. Godrej Nikhar is also eyeing a slice of the market.
Foaming the herbal lather further are shampoos like Nyle, Ayur, Dabur Vatika, Herby, Meera. Godrej has also launched its latest shampoo with herbal extracts targeted only at a niche market. In the cosmetics market, the herbal cosmetics segment is witnessing a growth rate of 60 percent and more as against the 20-25 percent growth of the total industry.
The World Health Organization has listed over 21,000 plant species used around the world for medicinal purposes. It has been In toothpaste, Colgate Herbal recently joined estimated that India has 47,000 species of Vicco Vajradanti, Babool, Promise, Meswak, plants. and Neem. The growth in the entire market (The New Indian Express) is going to come from this segment, industry sources say.
‘NEW-FOUND CONFIDENCE AMONG INDIAN COMPANIES’ The new-found confidence of Indian companies in meeting the challenges of globalization and the rising demand for consumer credit augur well for the banking sector, according to K.V.Kamath, Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer of ICICI Bank Limited. He said that along with the steady growth in consumer credit disbursement, which included housing loans, there was a big revival in credit off take by corporates. “What we see now is a completely different story compared to a couple of years ago,” he said, pointing out that Indian companies were investing on building new capacities and improving productivity and quality. Apart from deploying “organic capital” (internal accruals) more and more companies were restructuring their debt portfolio by retiring high cost loans. A new-found confidence was visible among the corporates in the last quarter of 2003-2004.. R.Seshasayee, Managing Director, Ashok Leyland Limited, said that despite the growth achieved after liberalization, the economy had a long way ahead, particularly through the development of agriculture and improved industrial productivity. (The Hindu) 75,000 tonne of natural rubber was exported by our country 2003-04.
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THE BPO PANIC
N.Sakthivelan
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he feverish election rhetoric in the US rages about BPO, (Business Process Outsourcing). A better term would be ITES (IT-enabled services). The panic is about job-drain tumbling out of the US to India in the ITES and to China, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia in manufacturing, making goods for American markets. Earlier, the buzz was about China becoming a global manufacturing base for the global firms. Now it is about India becoming ‘the service capital of the world’. It is even beginning to replace China as the ‘most favoured economy’ of the global business community with software being the flavour of the times. Our core strength is in the service sector-70% of the GDP in US! Of the ten million computer-related jobs, two million have gone abroad. Twelve per cent of IT firms and three per cent of non-IT firms have outsourced their work (Washington Post). Hence the panic about an army of 160,000 cybercoolies, cyber-clerks, and even cyber-bullies, ranging from back-office work to bumpkins at the high end IT design, robbing the Americans of their jobs and tugging at global value-chains. And ITES business will grow four-fold in a couple of years (Gartner estimate). Already Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai and Gurgaon are shining on the IT map. This unpleasant dimension of globalization was not foreseen
by the advocates of globalization in the ‘80s in the bid to exploit developing nations. And globalization backlash has landed US in protectionism. Presidential contender J Kerry a fierce critic of outsourcing, with his new-found protectionism, would christen outsourcing firms as ‘Benedict Arnolds’ for their disloyalty.
What is wrong if, for instance, a software engineering job of $80,000/- year in US can be done in Bangalore for $20,000? The fierce profit logic of the US must choose Bangalore naturally. Their patriotism and nationalism can wait! With the Indian BPO/ITES opportunity soaring ($24-35 billion in 2008) there are already visions of a ministry of BPO!
Rs.1,40,000 crore is the asset size of the mutual fund industry in our country as on December 2003.
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FOREIGN ACQUISITIONS
Growth of Indian MNCs is good news gone global. Globalization has thus acquired a new meaning in the Indian context and over the last four years there have been over 160 acquisitions of foreign companies by Indian firms. It is a kind of globalization that the Indian critics of the process may find quite acceptable! The multinationalisation of Indian companies has become possible entirely as a result of the liberalization of the economy. The pressure on them to face up to global competition has been crucial in making them lean and competitive. They have been forced to cut costs and improve their technology and management skills. The opening up of trade and industry has transformed them into players in the global market. Capital account convertibility has allowed them to purchase foreign firms. After all, acquisitions of foreign companies were not possible as long as Indian companies were not allowed to take money abroad. They could not, consequently, take advantage of the scale and technology that such acquisitions offer. It is important that Indian companies are not shackled by the remaining controls on the capital account in the future. The ministry of finance and RBI should ensure that outdated rules do not hobble the increasing global competitiveness of Indian firms. [An editorial in The New Indian Express]
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he acquisition of Nat Steel, a Singapore-based steel company by TISCO is part of a new trend in India’s globalization. This acquisition will give TISCO greater access to the South East Asian—including Chinese—steel markets. This is the third overseas acquisition by the Tata group. When the group bought Tetley, the world’s second largest tea company, in 2000 it was for the first time an Indian brand name was seen prominently in households abroad. That deal for $431 million represented the largest takeover of an international brand by an Indian company. The Tata group’s next big takeover was the truck unit of Daewoo. Tata’s competence in the domestic market lay in small trucks. The Daewoo unit’s competence in the high-end of the commercial vehicle market, allowed Tata to enter a whole new area in truck production, as well as access to new markets. In ’01 and ’02, foreign acquisitions by Indian companies were dominated by software firms. Most of these were small companies at prices around $10 million. Pharma companies like Ranbaxy, Dr.Reddy’s and Wockhardt followed in ’03 and ’04, making acquisitions of French, German and British pharmaceuticals. Others, such as the Aditya Birla group, Reliance Infocomm, ONGC Videsh and Jindal Stainless, have all
Floriculture exports from our country currently stands at Rs.132 crore.
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BPO MOVEMENT OUT, KNOWLEDGE PROCESS OFFSHORING IS COMING
N.Venugopal
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ven as Indian BPO industry is upbeat on the expected growth opportunities, inherent difficulties like accent problems, low-tech employment and lowcost proposition, might turn the apple cart and the new hope seems to be Knowledge Process Offshoring (KPO), which is being rebranded from its current status as a segment under BPO. The US-based business research organization Evalueserve projects the CAGR of KPO to be 46 per cent, as against 26 per cent for BPO by 2010. Indeed, there seems to be a lot of money in KPO-it is expected to grow to $17 billion by 2010 from $1.29 billion in 2003. “Knowledge has no boundaries and India can become a knowledge delivery hub within the next 5 to 10 years. Global corporates are exploring every month what processes can be offshored. The areas that come under KPO are those that need hitech and domain expertise, as BPO is seen as call centre services only and highly commoditised. In fact, we are only scratching the surface of BPO and there are so many competitiors,” said Arjun Rao, CEO of Value Labs, one of the pioneering KPO providers in the country.
potential candidates would be MBAs, engineers, doctors, lawyers, accountants and other highly skilled professionals with advanced analytical and technical skills. There is no denying that the fundamental driver is cost and the cost differential would be in the range of 40-60 per cent, says Arjun. “However, there are other countries which
may beat us on cost front. India has an edge in terms of competitive quality, most destinations, scalable models, besides reasonable price,” he adds. Referring to the business opportunity, Arjun says, “contrary to popular belief, there are significant margins here. In the US a qualified high-skilled professional costs anywhere between $200 cand $500 an hour. You can compare that with the cost of a professional here.”
KPO services consist of several critical, knowledge-driven segments including tech Value Labs is currently engaged in high-end support, market research, clinical data tech support for software engineering management, and contract research. The processes, market research for FMCG India’s trade with the world in 2003 stood at $114.13 bilion.
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companies, customer support interms of can produce a preliminary draft of a patent categorizing and trend analysis and clinical application, which is then reviewed and data management. modified by a registered US patent attorney, who ultimately files it with the USPTO. This Quoting Evalueserve’s study, Arjus says, can result in huge cost savings.” “writing patent applications in the US is expensive and typical application costs Similarly, the cost differential between a between $10,000 and $15,000 for drafting Ph.D in sciences or engineering in the US and filing with US Patent and Trademark and India is in the range of $60,000-80,000. Office. In KPO model, an IP specialist here [T N I E]
VELLANKOIL FAST TURNING INTO A MURUKKU HUB
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f Kancheepuram, Kumbakonam and Salem are renowned for silk sarees, betal leaves and mangoes respectively, Vellankoil village in Erode is fast turning itself into hub of murukku business. “The spicy snack, made from rice and dhal flour, now helps over 100 families in the village, located 35 km from Erode, earn good money. The murukku business here is worth Rs.3 lakh every week. Further, the good marketing strategy in place ensures the product reach markets in neighbouring Coimbatore and Salem districts too. Vellankoil has today earned a reputation for its murukku and the product is today seen on par with the famous Manapparai murukku.
The activity has helped many women in the neighbouring villages also get a minimum of Rs.50 per day as wages. “The wages range between Rs.3.50 and Rs.10 for making various types of murukkus out of 1 kg of flour,” Shanthi, a worker, said. The price of murukku ranges between 25 paise and Re.1 Attractive packages and brand names have created permanent market for the products in many areas. “We are trying to popularize the product through a website,” said another producer Maheshwari.
Usually, the entire village turns busy in the winter season, when the demand is high. “An investment of about Rs.5000 is enough to ensure a constant income to run a family. Some families today produce related eatables The profit could be in the 10 to 20 percent such as mixture and boondi and they are range,” Munusamy, a trader, reveals. being sold in upcountry markets in Saudi Arabia and Sri Lanka also. However, so far, Equally famous, if not more, are the no major orders have been received,” Rasagollas of Bengal, Shaeve of Bikaner, Pethas of Agra, Pedas of Mathura and Halwa G.R.Ganesh, a murukku producer, said. of Mumbai.
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GREEN BUILDINGS MAKE CONSTRUCTION BIZ COMPETITIVE: JAMSHYD. N GODREJ
reen buildings should be an integral part of the competitive strategy of the Indian construction industry, according to Jamshyd. N Godrej, Chairman, CII-Godrej GBC.
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protection. The current paucity of rains is a consequence of insensitivity to ecology,” he said.
Stating that renewable energy is very important, the chief minister said the In his presidential address at Green Building Government is taking all steps to promote Congress 2004 in Hyderabad, he said Green biofuel generation. Business Centre is a proof of what Indian industry can achieve to be competitive and Indian green Building Council Chairman R Parasu Raman, in his theme address, said of energy-efficient. late there has been a transformation of the CII-GBC will work in association with the corporate perspective of construction. Green Government of Andhra Pradesh in water and building activity can also ensure good energy sectors and in developing building business opportunity, he stressed. codes, he added. On the occasion, Confederation of Indian The Chief minister Andhra Pradesh said the Industry has signed a memorandum of Government will promote the concept of understanding with the US Green Building Council for exchange of information and green construction. introduction of LEED India rating system “Ecology has been tampered too much till for green buildings. now and it is time to concentrate on its [TNIE]
Agriculture is the largest industry in the world employing 1.3 billion people and producing goods worth $1.3 trillion.
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INDIA ENJOYS ADVANTAGE OF YOUTH POWER: KASTURIRANGAN
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n the comity of nations, India enjoys the advantage of a vast youth power. More than half of its population is under 25. In contrast, by 2030, about half of the adult population in Germany will be above 65 years and a similar situation is predicted in Japan, the United States of America, Europe and China, K.Kasturirangan, former Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation, has said. space, the world community had recognized Mr.Kasturirangan said that if the Indian it as a significant space-faring nation. youth were equipped with quality education, they could play a major role in all However, in facilitating quality of life to knowledge-based activities. every citizen, it had still a significant unfinished agenda. Achieving socioThe global trend was towards knowledge economic progress to the level of the societies—where the flow of knowledge, developed nations should therefore, be the compared to money, across borders would priority of the country. be relatively easy. India had seen tremendous developments in different spheres of activity, It was heartening that when the bigger and for its accomplishments in the field of economies had slowed down, India was slated to sustain its economic growth at an average rate of 5 per cent for the next five decades. This implied that India would overtake the Japan’s GDP (gross domestic product) by 2032, said Mr.Kasturirangan. The space scientist said other countries were looking at India as a potential marketplace and outsourcing destination. [The Hindu]
Private healthcare will be the largest component spending by Indians in 2012 rising to Rs.1,56,000 crore from Rs.69,000 crore presently.
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BRAND INDIA
N.R.Rajagopal
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he inauguration sometime back of the biotech department at IIT, Kanpur and the announcement there that five more IITs were in the offing—both by the Prime Minister—should be greeted with the usual hurrah of development analysts of the country. Coupled with the impressive array of statistics provided by the Communications Minister, on what and how have the Indian Industries done us proud in the highly competitive and technology-driven global markets, the PM’s statements may indeed lead one to savour the feel-good factor. Yet from here to a dormant state of complacency is but a short step, and one that needs to be avoided for a variety of reasons. Outsourcing The hue and cry in the U.S. on outsourcing of IT jobs to India (and China in that order) is at a feverish pitch. Knives are out in the Senate and before long something may happen to upset the concerned in both the countries. IT firms are resorting to costcutting measures by outsourcing jobs and pushing on for technological alternatives that might further bring down dependence on human (Indian or Chinese) endeavour. Already there are attempts to tag consumers by labeling goods sold them and monitoring their movement by RF signals. New ground is about to be broken in the communications sector when cell phone business transactions will be on the rise. Till recently thought as a passing fad, WI-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) technology is up and about.
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Wi-Fi. refers to an over-the-air connection with a wireless client and a base station or between wireless clients. It can provide high speed internet access for a limited distance, as of now. Distance will not matter in the next 4-5 years because there is a concerted effort to get over it by Intel, Cisco, Microsoft, AT&T and IBM. Experts believe Wi-Fi nodes will soon become as widespread as cellular telephone coverage. “My visits to India convinced me that their research labs were filled with scientists equal to or better than those in the United States— and in a lot more disciplines than software,” says Jack Welch, the then CEO of General Electric, in his book Straight from the Gut. No wonder we now have in Bangalore the Welch technology Centre. Outside the U.S. this is GE’s largest R&D set-up with over 1600 researchers. Automobile giants Suzuki and Hyundai, firmly established in India now, are creating or working with major research centres. India’s Communication’s Minister, reports that over 70 MNCs, including Delphi, Eli Lily, GE and Hewlett Packard have set up R&D facilities in India in the past five years. So far so good, but all of them will be generating technologies which will be commercialized up there (and then here partly or fully depending on the climate here) and we will obtain goods and services with brands definitely not Indian. So how
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about going over the entire technology spectrum here, doing things ourselves by preparing for the future particularly in Welch’s more disciplines than software.’ Consider for instance the biotech set-up in the University of California, which ranks fourth in government research funding. Describing the phenomenal growth of the department, Cliff Edwards points out (Business Week, Sept. 8) 2003 how the expansion will ‘combine physical science and biology with intense computational research to study some of the most complex biological processes. The focus will be on new drug development and newer methods of prevention and management of diseases. The process began when gene pioneer Bill Rutter took over the bio-chemistry department in 1969 and created an atmosphere of meaningful collaborative research. As opposed to the traditional practice of placing them in departments based on specialization, researchers sharing common interests were grouped.Thus chemists were enabled to work with mathematicians and biologists. This led to a surge of activities and new discoveries ending up with two Nobel awards and formation of biotech companies in the Bay area. On the other side, dealing with emerging technologies, Technology Review (MIT, Sept.3) describes developments taking place in the fields of location-based information, future directions in the field of location-aware computing,
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notwithstanding the problem of intrusion of privacy. Molecules, not silicon, may be the workhorse tomorrow’s ultra fast, ultra powerful computers, HP, IBM, MIT, Harvard, Rice and a few more university groups are working on DNA computing molecular electronic devices, nanocells, nanotube electronic components, quantum computing, as alternatives to silicon. Yet there is even now the human angle when advanced technology comes into play in the area of air safety. The post 9/11 scenario in security screening in U.S. airports is under constant scrutiny Passengers are subjected to electronic and personal screening before being cleared. Footwear is also screened separately. The U.S. Transportation Security Administration wants to increase the use of technology to improve airline security. It will not really help, says Issack Yeffet, former head of global security of Israel’s El Al airline, asserting “Technology cannot replace the human being: it can help.’ Here we come. With an established system of airport security (much before the U.S. and other developed countries were forced to adopt) and depending more on human intervention than technology (traditional intuitive skills), can we help them by training staff to rely more on mind than machine? IT or no IT, we still can do more with little and show them how to do. Equal terms There is an opportunity for us to move on now to a higher level of technology growth. We were at the receiving end when superior technology stared us in the face. We are now
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able to talk to advanced nations on more or less equal terms, in terms of expertise, in a few areas, partnering and collaborating with them, but essentially doing their jobs here. From there to rise to the next level of dominance, though a steep climb, is necessary. Our R&D should now move on lines where they are focused. We should prepare to be there when they arrive. Then and only then can we bid for technology of the Indian brand—at least in those areas where we have perceived capability. There seems to be no impediment as far as policies are concerned. It is a matter of restructuring a few of the advanced centres and creating groups with clear-cut and well-defined objectives, with enough funding. We may also require systems staffed with suitable people to do aggressive marketing of technologies both for domestic and global
markets. Such systems cannot be expected to function efficiently if clubbed with existing bureaucratic units. In fact, it will be advisable to equip them with enough power to operate independently and on commercial lines. There must be mechanisms with such state support as may be necessary to translate our technologies into realizable, recognizable and widely available goods and services, for domestic consumption as well as export. This means we have to think of high volume, competitive and tomorrow’s technologies and formulate R&D programmes with such focus. We need change here and now. As a minister while discussing disinvestment issues and public sector undertakings, put it, ‘the way we look at things, our discourse, the drag of interests that are vested in the way things are—these are what we need to change.’ Will this apply to India Brand Science too? [The Hindu]
B.P.O. FIRMS; MAJOR HEADCOUNT ADDITIONS ANNOUNCED BETWEEN JANUARY-JUNE 2004
Name of BPO Daksh HIMT Accenture Dell VCustomer Xansa Wipro Spectra mind Perot 24/7 Slash Support Hughes Zenta WINS Keane
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Headcount additions announced 1,500 1,500 5,700 2,000 2,500 2,000 1,300 2,000 3,000 1,200 1,000 2,500 1,000 3,400 [T.N.I.E.]
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BAMBOO GETS TALLER
P.K.Krishna Kumar
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he wonder grass bamboo will get an elevated status in Kerala through the efforts of the ongoing State Bamboo Mission. Till now, the government had focused on the industry front through Kerala State Bamboo Corporation but now it is planning all-round development with thrust on cultivation and diversification. To start with, the State is importing 40,000 bamboo seeds from Tripura for distribution in 25 select panchayats. These varieties facilitate better harvesting, “We are also going to adopt Wayanad as bamboo district given the growth potential of the grass there,” says C.P.John, vice-chairman of the Bamboo Mission. The defunct Gwalior Rayons unit in Kozhikode used to be the main consumer of bamboo from Wayanad. Around 400 tonnes used to reach the factory daily. But with the closure of the unit, a major chunk of the bamboo crop has been going waste.
The Bamboo Mission has hit upon a plan to make boards from bamboo available from Wayanad as it is found to be thicker. The NGO Uravu in Wayanad, which has lot of experience in making bamboo handicrafts, is being given training for making the boards. By focusing on Wayanad, the State can cater to the Mysore and Bangalore markets, John feels. The Mission is also helping the bamboo workers, numbering around one lakh on rough estimate, to increase their productivity by replicating new machines, particularly for breaking bamboo. The idea is to produce more handicrafts from bamboo. The National Institute of Design will assist in developing new designs. Several articles made from bamboo like hanger, furniture, toothpick, pen-holders with murals drawn on them sold like hot cakes in Delhi in exhibitions. The Mission has been taking several NGOs engaged in making bamboo articles to such exhibitions to market their products. A bamboofest is being planned in Kochi in November to tap potential markets. [TNIE]
INDIA REMAINS AN ISLAND OF FINANCIAL STABILITY: REDDY Thanks to the economic reforms, India remained an island of financial stability amidst the ocean of turbulence during the last fifteen years, said Y.V.Reddy, governor, Reserve Bank of India. Reddy referred to the current macro-economic situation and said “positive side is getting more positive on the domestic front while the international situation remains uncertain. Policy response is measured and careful.” [The Hindu].
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OUTSOURCING HELPS GAIN CONTROL, OBSERVES SURVEY
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s organizations outsourced more business processes, executives gain more control over capabilities that affected their entire organization, according to a report by Accenture, a multinational consulting firm.
Those who gained better control as a result of BPO found that processes and information within their organisation became more transparent.
Over a third of the executives agreed that outsourcing allowed them to not only change In a report, ‘Control: Getting it and keeping business direction at a faster and more IT in business process’ outsourcing,’ controlled rate but also supported the Accenture says it found 92 per cent of acceleration of business growth. executives interviewed reported that their overall level of control increased as a result Asia Pacific executives placed high of BPO. “The kind of control these significance on the issue of trust, which is executives got was more powerful than what closely related to control. they initially feared losing,” the firm says. Over 84 per cent of them specifically cited Over two-thirds of those interviewed trust and the Asian way of doing business, described control as “very important” or built around personal relationships, as a key “important” obstacle during the evaluation consideration in any outsourcing phase of a BPO deal. These include fear of relationship. What was evident overall was losing control of operational performance, the desire to find a trustworthy outsourcing personal influence, knowledge and customer partner and the challenge of having to do this without first working together, the relationships, the report says. report says.
EXPORTS: NEED FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION
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hat Indian products and services are able to meet the most demanding international standards of quality and price has been rising notwithstanding competition. In fact, the 12 percent growth target set by the Government in the last two years has proved too modest. In fiscal 2002-03, exports grew by 20 per cent while last year the growth was 17 per cent, despite a continuous appreciation of the rupee against the U.S.dollar.
Exports through SEZs in India during first ten months of 2003 were valued at Rs.12,000 crore.
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OPHTHALMIC SURGERY TRADITIONS - T.N. CAN BOAST OF
Pushpa Narayan
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edical case sheets of ophthalmic disorders, dysfunctions along with the treatment and results dating back to nearly two centuries have been dug out from the Saraswathi Mahal library in Thanjavur by a team of doctors from Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai. Following an invitation from the prince, S.Babaji Rajah Bhonsle, a team of ophthalmologists from the hospital, including chairman Dr.S.S.Badrinath and head of the department of Pathology Dr.J.Biswas, camped in the district for more than three days this March 2004 to trace the roots of Ophthalmic medicine.
Prince Babaji Rajah Bhonsle, who had invited the doctors, was all smiles. “I found these documents in our library. As I am an engineer, I could not figure out what they meant. Fearing that something precious could be lost in the recesses here, I invited the doctors for research. The discoveries are indeed heartening,” he said. The doctors, along with archaeologists and librarians, traced forty-four case sheets with 18 drawings of the eyes. While at least half a dozen were written in Modi script, the remaining was in English.
The ophthalmic terminology including lid, con-juctiva, cornea, lens, capsule of lens, The team discovered that doctors in the posterior chamber were found in the case state’s cultural citadel, under the rule of sheets. Rajah Sarfoji II between 1798 and 1832, took special care to treat eye ailments. Presenting samples of case sheets, Dr.Biswas said the doctors had diagnosed cases of “Our experience was truly humbling. We ophthalmic purulent is, ventricular cataract, were surprised to note that they had capsulolenticular cataract and leucoma. The meticulously recorded minute details of patients were treated in Dhanvantri Mahal, treatment along with the results. More than a multi-specialty hospital established by anything else, it was an inspiration,” Rajah Sarfoji.It also served as a research Dr.Biswas said. institute that produced herbal medicine for humans and animals. He presented the team’s findings at an ophthalmic conference held in the Chennai The name of Dr.Mc Bean, an English city. ophthalmologist along with Dr.Amrithalingam Pillai, figured in most case The case sheets and the findings of the team, sheets. “We went round the town but could he promised, would be published in reputed not find the hospital anywhere. But some medical journals soon. people guess that it would have been demolished subsequently,” said Dr.Biswas. [TNIE]
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INDUSTRY IN NEW GROWTH PHASE
P.A.Seshan
Major industries fare well
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ndoubtedly, there will have to be a step up in India’s outlays in power, oil and transport sectors. While a definite view in this regard can be taken after a new government is formed at the Centre, it is gratifying to note that the performance of major industries since 199899 has been highly encouraging, signaling the emergence of several new forces.
An analysis of production trends of some important industries indicates, an increasing demand for all types of manufactured products, in the domestic and export markets and more effective use of capacities created in a big way in earlier years. In fact, it has become necessary for some key enterprises to plan expansion involving heavy capital Outlays on new and expansion schemes of expenditure. Indian and foreign car makers in the past five years have been on an unprecedented scale It can be asserted that industrial growth is and the output of cars has risen by 94 per now on new lines and that the industrial and cent to 7.59 lakh units, while that of services sectors will be the future engines commercial vehicles has nearly doubted to of growth, as asserted by Dr.Kelkar and 2.68 per cent to 55.97 lakh units in the same others. Thus, the output of finished steel has period. risen by 53 per cent to 34.41 million tonnes in five years, aluminium by 50.92 per cent Since the multinationals have recognized that to 8.21 lakh tonnes and exports of cotton production costs in India are 30 per cent yarn, fabrics, manmade, readymade garments lower than in developed countries, and the and others by 44.84 per cent to Rs.50,594 sub-continent will be a good export base for crores. cars and other four wheelers, the industry
The automobile industry, for its part, has risen immensely in stature, following the heightened activities of U.S., South Korean, Japanese, Italian, German, British, and other interests. The advent of Maruti Udyog, in the mid Eighties, of course marked the beginning of a new era for the automobile industry.
Cashew kernel worth Rs.1,624.50 crore was exported by our country between April 2003 and February 2004.
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It will, thus, be agreed that the developments in the industrial sector have taken place in can hope to achieve much greater heights in an unprecedented manner and the industrial a short period. base has got considerably broadened and strengthened. The power and transport The petroleum sector too is witnessing sectors will be witnessing similar significant developments. Apart from a developments in the near future. spectacular rise in refining capacity to 131 million tonnes in 2003-04 from 61.55 million Buoyant services sector tonnes in 1997-98, the output of crude and natural gas from indigenous sources is likely The exemplary performance of the services to show a more pronounced rise, following sector will be aiding faster growth to GDP, the establishment of new proved reserves of as software exports alone have risen to $10.3 these two fossil fuels in onshore and offshore billion in 2003-04 from only $2.6 billion in areas. As huge quantities of natural gas will 4-5 years. As invisible receipts from foreign tourist traffic, remittances from expatriates and other sources have also been rising impressively, surpluses on current account have emerged since 2001-02. Even in 200304, the surplus may be more than $4 billion, in spite of a more than doubling of the trade deficit to around $16 billion on the basis of the data provided by the Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and also be imported, pipeline networks are being Statistics. created in a big way to cover all regions in the country, along with huge terminals at Abundant forex and rupee resources various ports. With forex reserves crossing the $110 billion It is needless to point out that there has been a metamorphic change in the telecommunication sector with both Indian and foreign interests creating the requisite facilities involving huge expenditure. The consumer electronics sector too has developed beyond recognition with Korean and Japanese interests entering the fray with a bang. mark and foreign exchange assets the $106 billion mark and the compulsion on the part of the Government to offer market stabilization bonds for absorbing excess liquidity in the money market, there can be no dearth of forex or rupee resources, with the secondary and primary markets already witnessing buoyant conditions and new boom conditions being witnessed after the elections if a stable government can be formed at the Centre. [The Hindu]
Pickle exports from our country during 2002-03 were 56,384 tonne valued at Rs.154.16 crore.
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OVER ONE LAKH BPO JOBS HEADING TO INDIA!
usiness process outsourcing and call centre jobs are increasingly being sent to low-wage nations by American firms, but the nation to register highest growth in BPO jobs will be India, says Datamonitor, a Londonbased research firm. The firm says that of the 110,000 jobs outsourced from one country to another, at the end of last year, 63,000 of those jobs came to India. The research firm says that the total number of call centre jobs to be outsourced by 2007 is likely to increase to 241,000. Of these about 1,21,000 jobs will come to India. Although American call centres are not in danger of being wiped out, Datamonitor says that the expansion of the industry would have hit a dead end. Once flourishing, call centres now are dwindling, a trend that is already threatening thousands of jobs.
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Currently, there are bout 50,600 American call centres employing about 2.9 million people. Datamonitor expects the number of US call centres to fall to 47,500 by 2008, Soon thereafter, HSBC sent 4,000 British with 2.7 million employees. jobs to India. Barclays, National Rail Enquires and many US-based Fortune 500 Because of lower wages overseas, companies too have joined the bandwagon. technological advances and tough Giants like Microsoft, Oracle, AOL, Amex regulations, call centre jobs are exiting the already route customer service calls to India United States. Agencies. [TNIE] Per capita consumption of milk in our country is 225 gram per day.
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Most of the jobs are moving to countries like India, the Philippines, Mexico, Russia and Canada, where the wages are lower. An American call centre worker is paid about $10 an hour, while for the same job a worker in India is paid $1.20 an hour. This results in huge savings for companies engaged in outsourcing. Jobs in IT, financial services, insurance, legal support, human resources and medical transcription work have also been moved to India.Aviva made headlines being one of the first groups to set up call centres in India in 2002. Prudential followed, launching a call centre in Mumbai and moved one third of its 3,000 UK-based customer service jobs.
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OUTSOURCING: A HARDSELL IN THE U.S.
lobalisation is having a bad year. Unions do not like it. Politicians on the campaign trail rail against it. As each monthly employment report confirms the anemic pace of job creation—05/03/04 report was especially grim—more members of the Congress talk about obstructing it. Now, even some practitioners are speaking out against business globalization, too. “I really hate it,” said Al Lubrano, President of Technical Materials Inc., a Lincoin, R.I., manufacturer of specialty metal parts for computers, telecommunications equipment and other applications. “I think we’re really selling out our manufacturing community down the river.” But like many other American business executives, Lubrano has had to join the trend: Next year, to better The business community’s dissonant serve its customers, Technical Materials attitudes toward global outsourcing—hiring out work overseas—are evident in the results plans to open its first operation in China. of a survey released on 05/03/04 by the The gap between the stated ideal and the business consultant McKinsey & Co. business reality is also evident with Angelo R.Mozilo, Chairman of Countrywide But when the executives were asked about Financial, one of the largest mortgage the effects of outsourcing on their own lenders, who was quoted in October in the businesses, the executive consensus broke trade publication National Mortgage News down. In Europe, 70 percent of executives as saying, “I feel it is Countrywide’s said outsourcing was good for their business. responsibility to create jobs in the U.S., not So did 86 percent of Chinese executives and 97 percent of those in India. outside the U.S”. By this year, however, Mr.Mozilo was describing how countrywide had leased 40,000 sq.ft. of office space in Bombay and planned to create 250 customer service and support jobs there over the next two years.
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Yet in the U.S. headquarters to many of the most aggressive and successful globalizing companies in the world, the fraction of executives that said outsourcing was either very positive or somewhat positive for their company dropped to 58 per cent.
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Some of this ambivalence may reflect the growing political hostility in America against outsourcing, which has come to a boil in the face of lackluster job creation despite robust economic growth. On the presidential campaign stump, Sen. John Kerry, D-Mass, regularly condemns the ‘Benedict Arnold’ companies that send jobs overseas. Senate Democrats are backing a bill that would require executives to provide at least 90 days’ notice if they plan to lay off more than 14 workers to move their
functions overseas. On Thursday 04/03/04, the Senate passed by a large margin a measure that would put new restrictions on government contractors’ shifting jobs overseas. Foreign direct investment by American corporations has averaged about $125 billion annually over the last ten years. Though much of this was devoted to serve foreign markets, a growing portion has sought to reap the benefits of cheap labour and resources to make products and services for sale back home. –New York Times.
DELHI FIRST CHOICE OF INVESTORS
group, and the inverse incidence of strikes”. Delhi is followed by Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa. Andhra Pradesh, which has aggressively courted foreign investors, had a surprisingly low rank of eighth, just one notch above “Among the key factors contributing to communist-ruled West Bengal. Delhi’s high standing were: its level of affluence, the purchasing power of the The 14 parameters used to assess were: consumer, the performance of its social general achievement of the State, sector and its financial sector”, said a investment climate, infrastructure penetration, efficiency of infrastructure, CII statement. finance, consumer purchases of goods To rank States according to the and durables, personal finance, attractiveness of investments, the expenditure on employment, education economists analysed per capita State and health, labour, social sector income in 1998, the annual average indicators, environmental indicators, law growth of State domestic product in the order and justice, indicators of affluence 1990s, changes in commercial bank and mass media penetration. Within credit between 1991 and 1997, these 14 categories, 83 variables were population in the 15-39 working age also used for the analysis. ccording to a comparative study of States, carried out by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), Delhi has emerged a clear number one, both in overall terms and investment rankings.
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Linseed output in Indian during the current season is estimated at 1.8 lakh tonne.
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THE RISE OF INDIAN MULTINATIONALS
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he Indian software industry is the number one exporter today, overtaking the gems and jewellery and textile industries, according to Kiran Karnik, President, National Association of Software and Service Companies (Nasscom), Mr.Karnik was speaking at the Stanford Asia Technology Initiative (ATI) global entrepreneurship conference on ‘The rise of the Indian multinational: Global business trends’. Mr.Karnik said of the total merchandise exports of $60 billion, software exports accounted for $13 billion. The industry grew at 30 per cent last year despite slowdown in U.S. economy and the projected growth this year has been pegged at 32 per cent. He attributed the performance to India’s excellent brand value and the PQRS factor— productivity, quality, rate and skills where the last factor referred not just to numbers but to scalability of skill sets as well. Nevertheless, there were certain issues that needed to be addressed for India to emerge as an IT superpower. In order to ensure adequate security and privacy of large data, the Nasscom was working on a frame-work on which legislation and enforcement go hand in hand. On the issue of human resource development, the Nasscom was working with State government schools to introduce the English language and computer education, at the primary level itself, besides ensuring regular updation of knowledge dissemination practices from the secondary level upwards. Mr.Karnik was also optimistic about the improvement of infrastructure particularly in the telecom sector. Earlier, in his keynote address on knowledge based business practices, Ajay Piramal Chairman, Nichola Piramal group, said India’s share was only $6.5 billion of the $470 billion global pharmaceutical industry. However, in terms of volume, the country was the fourth largest consumer and manufacturer. India was also among the top five manufacturers of bulk drugs and growing at 30 per cent. Another interesting
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feature was that of the top ten companies in India in terms of market capitalization, only one was a multinational and others were Indian.
product—$30-35 million against $1.2 billion that it would cost in the U.S.A. third factor in India’s favour was the availability of skilled R&D personnel that was compounded by the fact that there had been Mr.Piramal added that India had several a reverse brain drain of sorts with research opportunities in the pharma sector. These fellows coming back to the country after included development of drugs for tropical receiving high quality training abroad. diseases which had great potential with more than 12 percent of the demand coming from N.K. Singh, former member of the Planning this segment, but only 15 drugs had been Commission and Secretary to the Prime developed over the past 25 years. Minister’s main Economic Advisor stressed the need for a sustained 7-8 per cent growth Second, the country enjoyed a great cost in GDP over the next five years in order to advantage in terms of developing a new acquire a competitive edge in international markets. [The Hindu]
TREES MAY REWARD INDIA FOR AGES OF WORSHIP
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ndia could well emerge as one of the largest beneficiaries of carbon credit trading, an emerging global commodity market that analysts estimate could be worth upto $150 billion by 2012. The country’s dominance in carbon credit trading is expected to be driven, no so much by domestic industry, but by its huge tracts of plantation land. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol has set firm targets for national level emissions and has also identified key elements in how countries could achieve those targets. This includes on agreement on trading in emission credits and the use of planted forests as a means to meet prescribed levels. Trading carbon credits is an emerging market designed to allow firms that fail to meet emission standards to buy credits
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from other firms that undercut their targets. The Kyoto protocol envisages carbon credit trade between countries with ‘carbon sinks’ (planted forests) and others that produce higher levels of pollution than they are allowed to. At 15 million hectares, India has the largest plantation area in the tropics, much larger than even Australia, which aims to be a major player in emissions trading by adding two million hectares of plantation by the year 2020. Countries like the US, Germany, Japan and China are likely to be the biggest buyers of carbon credits. However, it needs to be remembered that the US has not yet accepted the terms of the Kyoto protocol. The US puts out about a quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions that course global worning.
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BOOMING BPO
Thanuja B.M Big BPO marriages • Wipro buyout of Spectamind (Rs.470crore or $113 million) • Transworks acquisition by Aditya Birla Group • BM takeover of third party BPO Daksh ($129 million)
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usiness process outsourcing (BPO) as everyone knows has become the ‘in’ sector in India. Though the ITES-BPO industry in India is a relatively young and nascent sector, barely over five years old, it has shown an amazing growth and future potential. According to NASSCOM, participants in the ITES-BPO segment number in the hundreds and the figures keep growing every year. Check this out—during 2003-04, the ITESBPO exports accounted for US$3.6 billion in revenues, up from US$2.5 billion in 200203. By the year 2008, it is expected to employ over 1.2 million people and reach revenues of $24-25 billion.
preferred destinations for BPO related work because, ultimately, it is superior quality work that counts. All this positives apart, the Indian BPO sector does have some important issues to deal with. From the service providers side, it is very ironic that there are ‘no 20 Wipro, Spectra minds” in India quips, Raman Roy, CEO of Wipro Spectramind “There are around 500 companies registered with Nassocm for BPO. Less than 100 of them have 1,000 people employed with them, less than 5 companies have more than 5,000 people and only one company has more than 10,000 employees which is Spectra mind. We need to have more consolidation. There are a number of companies looking at assets and entry strategy but we need 2-3 companies merging to form big companies,” he adds. The outsourcing backlash Amidst the mounting furore against outsourcing, there have been fears that it could affect the Indian BPO industry. But industry people say that the sector has actually got more publicity out of this issue, which has resulted in more customers. Says Raman, “there seems to be a positive to all the negative publicity India has been getting in that even companies which didn’t know about India’s prowess in outsourcing are now coming to us”.
As Akshaya Bhargava of Infosys’ Progeon says, “what we see right now is just the beginning of a very large global trend. As we go forward, BPO industry will move from being a mere call centre to doing full endto-end work for broader markets, resulting in high value deal sizes.” Pankaj Vaish, India BPO Lead, Accenture adds that India has a Manpower challenges right mix of people, skills and capabilities to provide cost-effective, high quality solutions While India, with its vast base of Englishand services and continues to be one of the speaking people, is geared up in terms of
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manpower for the ITES-BPO industry, much more needs to be done. According to Raman, “our educational system does not cater to the requirements, aspirations and needs to this industry. For example, NasscomMcKinsey numbers say that $45 billion is the size of accounting services. But there is not a single college or institution in the country which teaches US GAAP. We need fundamental changes in our system to enable the industry to have ready professionals.” Or as Nasscom puts it, resources produced may have a strong conceptual/theoretical background but often lack communication and vocation-specific skills and the creative drive or specific regulatory certifications required by clients in foreign countries. Data Privacy This is another big issue facing the industry today so much so that Nasscom is preparing a security audit for its 860-member companies in a bid to allay rising fears in the US and UK about customer privacy and data protection in India. Currently, India does not have a Data Protection Act (DPA). However, Indian companies primarily comply with BS 7799— a global standard that covers all domains of security. While the industry body and many IT people have been saying that the DPA should be put into effect soon, the Wipro Spectramind chief begs to differ. “We are complying with DPAs of the home countries of customers, so a specific act in India is not absolutely necessary, provided you comply with global standards. In fact, DPAs in other
nations cover aspects like tax records, bank accounts, preferential information etc. I don’t think India is mature enough to have all these areas covered” he explains. Attrition Reports claim that attrition rates vary by 2040 percent in some firms, while the top ones average 15 percent. Trained employees are leaving one company for another after being lured by higher salaries. “While service rates for voice-based call centre work are coming down, the numbers of seats are growing and HR costs have reached an all times high of 50-60 percent. The high costs are a result of the high demand for quality manpower. This in turn results in wafer thin margins,” says J.A.S.Diaz, Executive Director of Mainstary Teleservices pvt.Ltd. Competition India lacks of long-term strategy and could lose 45 percent of its market share soon to South-East Asia and Central Europe, according to Gartner, BPO earned India US$2.3 billion last year, representing more than 80 percent share of the global market. “But India would stand to lose 45 percent of that 80 percent share by 2007,” its research director Sujoy Chohan recently said. This was because the government and the industry suffered from “the erroneous belief” that the sector could match the booming growth of the IT industry without devising a long-term road map to do so. (With inputs from Sangeetha Chengappa T.N.I.E.)
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B.P.O. FUTURE OUTLOOK
Tanuja B.M.
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he ITES-BPO market is segmented along the lines of customer care, finance, HR, payment services, administration and content development with companies offering customers a range of outsourced services including customer care, Web sales/marketing, billing services, database marketing, accounting, transaction document management, transcription, telesales/telemarketing, tax processing. HR hiring and biotech research. Now, in a bid to do more high-end work, most BPO are moving from voice based services to high value services like teleradiology, data mining, patent processing, risk analysis etc. Growth areas in BPO The industry verticals that are expected to experience the highest amount of ITES-BPO activity in the next few years: • Financial Services: A large number of Indian ITES-BPO companies are focused on providing services like accounting, billing
and payment services, transaction processing, and equity research support for this sector, which continues to create the largest opportunities. Over the last couple of years, they have also started to offer higher value services to customers in the areas of insurance claims processing and equity research support. • Telecom: Another segment which is attracting ITES-BPO companies is the telecom industry which is using offshore outsourcing for functions such as customer support, technical support, offshore development of products. • Retailing: Last couple of years, large global retail chains have been offshoring processes such as transaction processing billing, telemarketing and inventory management to India. • Automotive: The automotive segment has been outsourcing its engineering, finance and accounting activities. While engineering activities include computer-aided product and tool design, simulation and product and process documentation the finance and accounting processes include claims processing and general legal activities.
INDIANS ARE SECOND TO NONE IN THE WORLD
he Indian Prime Minister Dr.Manmohan Singh has said, “Given fair opportunities Indians are second to none in the world. Among the migrants to U.S., no nation has done so much as Indians have done in America within a time-span of a single generation. Scientists, doctors, engineers, industrialists and traders and educationists, in fact every professional has done well.
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He sought the NRIS’s help for rebuilding India. President Bush has remarked that India’s share in business with America is continuously growing. Until 1980, the home-sick Indians (settled in America) spent a big share of their income on telephoning to India. This prompted Sabhir Bhatia, an Indian settled in America, to discover hot mail, e-mail technologies – the Prime Minister said.(Translated from Dinamalar)
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ITES-BPO GROWTH BY SERVICE LINES
Service lines 2002-03 Employment Revenue 65,000 24,000 2,100 11,000 25,000 44,000 171,100 810 510 45 210 310 465 2,350 2003-04E Employment Revenue 95,000 40,000 3,500 21,000 40,000 4600 245,500 1,200 820 70 430 540 520 3,580
Customer Care Finance HR Payment services Administration Content development Total
Note: All figures are tentative estimates, most players offer multiple processes in different shifts and so do not provide processing revenues or employees. [T.N.I.E.]
EUROPE’S CAPITAL FLIGHT
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Geneva based report says that half of Europe’s’ Industrial giants have shifted their production-base to other (read-mostly developing) countries. They were driven to this decision by mounting production costs in Europe. The change-over may result in the saving of as much as one third of the production costs. The European council for Trade and Development and the Industrial consultants Rolland Berger have collaborated in a survey which revealed these facts. One hundred European Industrial giants have taken away 39% of their production work to other localities. 44 other Industrial concerns have decided to follow suit. 61% of British establishments and 15% of German Industries, have decided to leave their original bases. 37% of them want to relocate their factories in Asia. European Industrialists prefer Indian sites for relocating their factories, because of the availability of good communication skills, English language-educated personnel, good managers, technocrats etc. 80% of the relocated industries have saved about 30% in costs. German, French, Austrian and Swiss factories have reported full satisfaction in the post-shift-scenario. The survey is silent on loss of jobs to Europeans because of their capital flight. (Dinamani)
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WINDS OF OPPORTUNITY BLOWING IN THE JOB MARKET
G.Naga Sridhar
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ollowing the proverbial lull before the the knowledge of major European languages. storm, winds of change are set to sweep According to sources, current opportunities are the job market, thanks to the spurt and more in German and French. diversification in business process outsourcing. While the banking and insurance expansion is Interestingly, it is not only the core ITES likely to benefit graduates in economics and professionals who are at the gaining end but insurance professionals with experiences in PSUs, analysts are predicting a windfall in also graduates with non-IT background. favour of pharmacy graduates. According to Kavitha Reddy, assistant vicepresident, Team Lease, there could be a Similarly, openings for commerce graduates multiplication in the job opportunities in the are also going up. days to come. “In the US, banking insurance and pharmacy “There is considerable interest being expressed job market is growing and shortly the same by the European countries, Germany for thing can be seen in India too,” says Javed example, in hiring or outsourcing Indian Mirza, President, Taj Software System, which professionals. This is in addition to the also takes up placements. opportunities in the US and MNCs in India,” But the core IT sector is now open to only those Kavitha Reddy says. who are from pure IT background. “Earlier, Another trend is the growing number of non- even a humanities graduate who had done voice jobs. According to one estimate, voice- courses in mainframe or oracle could find a jobs in call centres had about 90 percent share placement in the US. But now, it is not the case,” explains Javeed. earlier. Now, non-voice jobs are occupying more than Another trend is ‘hire & fire’ employment nicknamed in the business as ‘temping’. Many 35 percent. MNCs are preferring to take the aid of “This can be a niche area for non-IT graduates. consultants for this, “because this saves them For they can handle maintenance and scripting administrative costs and the liability of firing work effortlessly,” adds Kavitha. The chance them,” says Kavitha, whose Team Lease has a of a lucrative package is high if a person has headcount of 8,500, all of its associates put together. [T.N.I.E.]
26,83,675 tonne of soybean meal were exported from India between April 2003 and March 2004.
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BHARAT VARSA
S. Wajed Ali
only learnt that the bridge was being built. I did not have the chance to know what happened next—whether Ramchandra ever crossed the sea by that bridge and if so, what he did thereafter. After a few days I went back to my village. Since then I have been to so many places that I have lost count of them. Many changes swept over my life like the flow of an ever-
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nce twenty-five years ago I visited Calcutta. I must have been ten or eleven years old. Near our house stood a grocery run by an old man. The way to our house ran his shop. Seated on a mattress and chanting like a snake-charmer, he used to read from a thick volume. At the base of his head was a fringe of brilliant white hair, otherwise he was completely bald; perched on his nose was a pair of big silverframed spectacles; his cleanshaven face was grave. He was the very image of a wise man. Every now and then a middleaged man came out and sat by him to listen to what he read, getting up to attend to customers as they arrived. A boy of my age, bare-bodied, continued to sit with the old man. Next to him sat two young girls. All of them listened attentively to the old man’s reading. They seemed to enjoy the subject greatly. I became very curious to know what the old man was reading. Leaving my residence I stopped at the grocery to listen. It was the story of how with the help of an army of monkeys Ramachandra built a bridge across the sea and reached the island of Lanka. Hearing of that strange adventure the children’s eager faces glowed with delight and excitement. I used to get so engrossed listening to that story that I would have to be summoned back home. I
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changing river. The picture of the peaceful and innocent life of that old man and his brood was lost in some hidden chamber of my mind. I forgot their very existence. We forget so many such things every day. Only the other day, be sheer accident in the course of my wanderings, I found myself once again passing by that same road. All the buildings and houses had changed. Large mansions have now come up where earlier small houses stood. Previously only a few rickshaws or horse-drawn carriages plied along that road; now big motorcars raced about all day. Where gas lamps used to flicker, now electric lights made night as bright as day. As I stood thinking about the inexorable changes of time I glimpsed that old grocery. It had not
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changed at all. Things were arranged exactly as before. From the roof hung a kerosene lamp, perhaps the self-same lamp that I had seen twenty-five years ago. But what astounded me was the scene I saw within. An old man, very much like the one I had seen twenty-five years ago, was seated on a mattress and was reading from a thick volume, intoning like a snake-charmer. A middle-aged man, like the one twenty-five years ago, was now and again coming up to him to listen to the recitation and going back to attend to his customers. A boy similar to the one of those days gone by, bare-bodied, sat gazing at the old man’s face. Seated beside him were two girls, similar to those I’d seen all those years ago. What magic had brought back those days long gone by? Spell-bound, I began to listen. The old man was reading the same story of Ramachandra’s building of the bridge—which I had heard twenty-five yeas ago. I couldn’t wait any more. Straightway I went to the old man and asked, “Sir, please excuse me. Twentyfive years ago I saw you reading this book to these children. During these long years haven’t they changed? Has there not been any change in you either? Is Ramachandra still building that bridge?”
The old man raised his eyes and looked at me. Taking off his spectacles he cleaned them with the corner of his dhoti and replaced them on his nose. Slowly and gravely his glance scanned me head to toe; then he asked me in amazement, “Did you pass by this place twenty-five years ago?” I replied, “Yes sir.” The old man said, “In that case you saw my late father reading this Ramayan. My children used to sit with him, listening. You see that boy has now grown up. He must be your age. My daughters are married. By the grace of God they are now managing their own houses with their husbands and children. This boy is my grandson and these two girls are my granddaughters—they are the children of my son you see there.” Pointing to the book in the old man’s hand I asked, “How old is this book?” A sweet gentle smile lit up his face, “This is the Ramanyan of Krittibas. My grandfather had bought it from the bat-tala bazaar. It was long time ago, before I was born.” Saluting the old man I left the grocery. It seemed to me that I had been gifted with a supernatural insight. An immaculate picture of the real Bharatvarsa revealed itself before my eyes—the same tradition continues uninterrupted; nowhere has it changed. (Orignal story in Bengali by S.Wajed Ali (1890-1951); translated by Kumud Biswas; edited by Mini Krishnan –The Hindu)
20.17 lakh metric tonne of major fertilizers were produced in the country during February
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DIAMONDS ARE FOREVER… AND SO IS JEWELLERY
T.Bhanu
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em and jewellery sector is unquestionably one of India’s leading foreign exchange earners. From US$28 million in exports achieved in 1966-67, the sector has registered a spectacular growth over the years to $9.1 billion last year. But the lion’s share of this, or $7.11 billion, is accounted for by exports of cut and polished diamonds as India continues to lead from the front in this segment globally. Diamonds account for 80 percent of the total export basket of the industry, with gold jewellery contributing 16 percent and coloured gemstones and other contributing 2 percent each. Did we say gold jewellery? Yes, it is gold jewellery that is slated to drive the growth from now on even as the industry’s position from the stand point of diamonds shall remain unchallenged for years to come. Cutting and polishing of diamonds calls for special skills and these are available here in good measure. Notwithstanding assumed threats from China and some neighbouring countries, the skills and scope available in India make it almost untouchable for others to come anywhere near and snatch the title. But there are limitations. We are largely known for cutting and polishing small, and what are called, cheap goods. Working on stones of bigger size and higher value is not exactly our forte, though attempts continue to be done on that behalf. In short, the ‘cheap goods’ make up for the industry’s bread and butter.
Indian diamond merchants are well aware of the inherent dangers of putting all their eggs in one basket. Which is why they are constantly on the lookout for diversification. The search has taken them to the jewellery sector—both plain and studded—and over the last ten years the jewellery sub-sector has made rapid strides. India has now emerged as the fastest growing jewellery exporter in the world, averaging a growth of nearly 40 percent each year between 199192 and now. Thus exports of gold jewellery in 2002-03 touched US$1.5 billion from just $304 million in 1991-92. According to the Gem & Jewellery Export Promotion Council India’s export jewellery industry has made rapid strides in terms of machinery and design development. Its quality, designs and management are on par with world standards. Indeed the announcement sometime ago of grant of duty-free imports into the US under the GSP to certain categories of jewellery has increased India’s competitiveness vis-à-vis other countries and boosted jewellery exports. But the significant point to note is that jewellery export per se on a big scale is a relatively new experience, compared to cut and polished diamonds whose Indian connection dates back to the fifties. And since the focus was mainly on diamonds, the jewellery sector perhaps did not get the attention it deserved. That must partly explain why there is such a big divide
Gold use for jewellery in India during 2003 was 2,547 metric tonne.
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between the diamond and jewellery exports. And, in the case of diamonds there is yet another factor which weighed heavily in its favour.
In the initial stages, bureaucrats more or less treated diamonds like the present-day information technology (IT) industry. They hardly had any clue about the diamonds and about their cuts and caratage or even about the ‘sights’ to source the roughs. By the time they came to terms with diamonds, the industry had already grown to a formidable size. Yet bureaucratic hurdles, that border on foolishness, were imposed from time to time, but these were overcome thanks to some of the stalwarts in the industry who could put across their case cogently and get the government see reason. By its peculiar nature, gem and jewellery industry is not something where one can get into and flourish at will. If money were the only criterion, then the Tatas and Birlas would have been the leaders in the industry which, alas, is not the case. You need to have a hawk’s eye and a sixth sense to remain intact in this industry which is a body of closely knit units. It is against this background the Indian diamond merchants are doing their Claims the Gem & Jewellery Export business. Promotion Council: “India is the only centre which offers a truly mind-boggling variety We talked about diamonds, sourcing of of gems and plain, diamond studded and which was and is relatively simple. But that coloured stone studded jewellery suited for was not the case for jewellery. For making every market in the world.” The stage seems jewellery, you need gold and with our archaic to have already been set. There is bound to Gold Control Act and other physical be forward integration into manufacturing restrictions, gold was hard to come by. of plain and studded precious metal jewellery Thankfully, over a decade ago, the Act was and the industry will spawn many joint repealed but several controls were still in ventures, partnerships and mergers. The gem place making it virtually difficult to import and jewellery industry has grown by leaps free gold. The government has recently and bounds. According to Vision 2007, a The processed food sector in the country creates 1.8 jobs for every lakh of rupee invested.
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removed all restrictions on import of gold and that should stand the jewellery sector in good stead. If, in an era of all kinds of restrictions and controls, the jewellery sector could flourish and register a year-on-year growth of 40 percent, one can well imagine where the sector is headed. According to a leading diamond and jewellery exporter, this is one sector which is worth watching in the years to come. Today, eleven out of 12 diamonds set in jewellery worldwide come from India. Tomorrow, India will boast of that kind of presence in the global jewllery market with perhaps 70 or 80 percent share!
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document drawn up by the Council, plans are to achieve diamond exports of $16 billion three years from now and raise the share of world jewellery market estimated at $93 billion, of which India’s share at present is a minuscule $1.5 billion. Making India a one stop shop for jewellery offering all designs and varieties and transforming the country from the largest diamond manufacturing centre to the largest trading centre of the world are the other two mission statements of Vision 2007. For an industry which employs over a million people with a marketing network of some 2,500 offices across the globe, this does not appear to be a tall order.
However, as Sanjay Kothari, chairman of the Council points out… “We need support from banks to counter basic troubles faced by the Indian gem and jewellery sector like easy availability of dollar credit, project finance interest rates to be at par with the external credit rates, encouragement of diamond and jewellery dollar account, finance of deemed exports that need to be put across to government agencies and the banking fraternity. Furthermore, we would require proposals to be cleared in a defined time and encouragement of small and medium enterprises.” [The New Indian Express]
OBJECT FRONTIER TARGETS TOP 20 IT FIRMS Object Frontier Software Pvt. Ltd, a Chennai-based provider of persistence frameworks for J2EE, JDO and J2SE platforms with relational databases, is entering services and aiming at top 20 IT firms in the country. The company’s flagship product Frontier Suite, on O-R mapping tool, has erned the Sun Tone certification from Sun Microsystem Inc, said A James Walter, CEO, Object Frontier. “This is the first Indian product of its kind, and only third in the world, to earn this prestigious certification. The certification confirms that the product meets stringent scalability, availability, reliability and performance standards necessary for quality deployment of web-based services,” he said.
INDIA TO ASSIST BHUTAN IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY India will send two expert delegations to Bhutan for the preparation of draft proposals to extend technical and other assistance in animal husbandry and dairying and agriculture marketing. The delegations from the Department of animal Husbandry and Dairying and the National Institute of Agricultural marketing will visit Bhutan in September. Rural postal life insurance business in the country grew to Rs.6,000 crore in 2003 from Rs.550 crore in 1999.
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THE LONG ROUTE
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raditionally, India has always excelled in the field of diamond and gem cutting, polishing and in the craft of gold smithy. India’s diamond tradition goes back thousands of years and is the oldest in the world. In fact, diamonds were discovered in India around 8,000 BC. For 1,000 years, starting 4th Centruy BC, India was the only source of diamonds in the world. In about 600 AD, diamonds were found in Kalamantian, Borneo and are still mined there. Except for a minor supply of diamonds from Borneo, India was the world’s only source until the 1730s. Important sources of diamonds discovered in Brazil in 1725, and in South Africa in 1867 marked a dramatic increase in the world diamond supply.
By the end of the 19th century, the great Indian diamond era had passed into history. However, the beginning from the 1960s, another industry took roots, viz. the Indian diamond-processing industry. This was largely created when the world demand and prices of industrial diamonds had declined during the 1960s, because of the advances India’s maximum production, around of synthetic industrial materials. It was then 100,000 carats annually in the 16th century, discovered that some is small by modern industrial diamonds could standards (120 million be processed using cheap carats during 2002). Indian labour, and the resultant craftsmen were the first to polished diamonds be unlock the secrets of applied to jewellery. Thus diamond cutting, although the term ‘near-gem’ or the cutting did not include ‘Indian goods’ was faceting and polishing as is invented. common today. Most Indian diamonds were flatAs compared with the cuts. They were also almost traditional diamond cutting all very large stones and polishing centres of because the mines at Belgium, India, with its low Golconda, Andhra Pradesh labour cost, opened up new were hand-dug. The Golconda mines were possibilities for the world diamond industry. exhausted in the 19th century, just about the This was because, inexpensive stones, in time alluvial diamonds were found in Brazil. which the cost of processing would be a
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significant component of the selling price, could now be processed. As a result, diamonds could be made affordable for new, less affluent buyers. India captured an increased proportion of this market, and at present, is the world’s leading diamond cutting and polishing centre. In recent times, India has increasingly held a dominant position in the world in the cutting and polishing of diamonds. At present, India is the world’s leading diamond cutting and polishing centre, accounting for 53 percent share of the global polished diamond market in terms of value, 80 percent share in terms of caratage, and 95 percent share in terms of pieces in the global production of cut and polished diamonds.
With negligible domestic production of gold, diamonds, and other gemstones, the Indian GJ depends entirely on imported raw materials. During FY2003, imports of pearls, precious and semi-precious stones aggregated Rs.292.99 billion (US$6.05 billion), accounting for 16.3 percent of India’s non-bulk imports, and 9.9 percent of total imports. Nearly 82 percent of India’s G.J. imports during FY 2003 were of rough diamonds (which are then cut & polished for re-export), followed by polished diamonds (8.5 percent), and gold bars (8.2 percent). (Excerpts from an ICRA report on the gem & jewellery industry)
U.K. DEPARTMENTS WANT OUTSOURCING IN INDIA: REPORT
part from multi-national financial institutions, British government departments now plan to outsource in India as part of their cost-cutting and efficiency drive.“Departments should seek to match the savings achieved by private-sector firms through so-called off-shoring,” Sir Peter Gershon, former chief executive of the Office of Government Commerce, recommended in his final confidential report for the Treasury last month. The Sunday Times reported today (16/05/04) —PTI.
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Ad spends on television in our country are currently estimated at Rs.4,220 crore compared to Rs.250 crore in 1992-93.
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BIOTECHNOLOGY: THE REVOLUTION BEGINS
Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw-CMD-BIOCON
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CII’s India Biotech, apart from summits addressing global partnering drug discovery, biogenerics, genomics and other biotech areas. ABLE, the Association of Biotechnology Led Enterprises, and Biospectrum have been raising the profile of the Indian Biotech sector through various collaborative programmes with national and international bodies including WIPO (world International Patents Organization) and PhRMA (Pharmaceutical Research & There are 40 National Research laboratories Manufacturers of America). in the country employing 15,000 scientists. There are more than 300 college level Other important statistics include: the educational and training institutes offering vaccine producers from India (Serum degrees and diplomas in biotechnology, bio- Institute, Bharat Biotech, Shantha Bioinformatics and the biological sciences, technics, Panacea Biotech, Wockhardt, producing nearly five lakh students annually. Bharat Immunologicals and a few others) command a global leadership position which There are over 100 medical colleges was been well recognised by international churning out 17,000 medical practitioners a organisations such as the World Health year. Given this skilled resource pool, India Organisation, The Gates Foundation and is in a good position to create a sustainable others. Biogenerics is another area where biotechnology business. The sector is Indian companies are rapidly gaining a global gradually building critical mass both in terms vantage position. Biocon and Wockhardt, between them, can address Asia’s insulin of infrastructure and markets. requirements. In agri-biotech, India has the There have been many significant potential to be a leading supplier of developments in this sector over the last few genetically modified (GM) seeds to the years. The year 2004 is proving to be a world. India’s chemical engineering skills watershed year for Indian biotechnology; it offer a real potential to be world leaders in witnessed the sector’s first IPO being biotech equipment. The potential is endless oversubscribed over 30 times indicating but the opportunities are real. over-whelming investor interest in this new segment. The year will see three mega Given this impressive back-drop, biobiotech events; Bio Asia, Bangalore Bio and technology is certainly the next big frontier he Indian biotechnology industry is gaining momentum. With revenues of over $700 million (Rs.3,265 crores) in 2003-04, the fledgling industry, despite all hurdles, is well on its way to cross the psychological barrier of $1 billion in the current year (2004). It is poised to leverage its scientific skills and technical expertise to make a global impact from a strong innovation led platform.
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for the Indian economy. The current market for thousands in India and other across the size is estimated at Rs.6,500 crores ($1.5 globe. billion) encompassing agri, pharma and India’s plant and microbial biodiversities also industrial biotechnology. provide a treasure-trove for drug discovery. Many of the international pharma majors Competitive advantages have collaborative HTS (high-throughput Leadership position possible India’s efforts screening) programmes with universities to attain a leadership position in worldwide and are now entering into similar biotechnology look achievable given the prospecting partnerships with several Indian human biodiversity that exists here. This companies. Added to this is india’s inherent offers unique human gene pools as powerful knowledge base of ayurvedic and unani as those of Iceland, for exclusive genomic medicine, which offer a unique mining and pharmaco-genomic studies, Indian opportunity for new drug molecules. companies have a golden opportunity to unravel high value IPR by way of disease- India’s vast and diverse disease and patient linked genes and the diagnostic and population also provides an enormous clinical development opportunity. The cost therapeutic products emanating thereof. of drug development is largely attributed to For example, thalessmia is a genetic disease the cost of conducting clinical trials. Indian prevalent in many inbred Indian societies. CROs (Clinical Research Organistions) have Given the proper approach, India can an opportunity to access the $10 billion convert the disadvantage of a diseased global market for clinical trials. The presence population into a strong research advantage, of a large talent pool of medical and which can translate into therapies and cures paramedical professionals is conducive to STATUS OF AYURVEDA IN INDIA
The Indian government and non-government organizations have been collecting statistics on the Ayurvedic system in India and these data about the manpower and institutional aspects of Ayurveda have emerged: • • • • • Registered medical practitioners: 366, 812 • Dispensaries: 22,100 Hospitals: 2,189 • Hospital Beds: 33, 145 Teaching Institutions (undergraduate): 187 • Upgraded P.G. Depts: 51 Specialities in Postgraduate Medical Training:16 Pharmacies Manufacturing Ayurvedic Medicines: 8,400
In India, 60 percent of registered physicians are involved in non-allopathic systems of medicine. In addition to the nearly 400,000 Ayurvedic practitioners, there are over 170,000 homeopathic physicians; India has about 500,000 medical doctos (similar to the number in the US, but serving nearly 4 times as many people). Reliance on Ayurvedic medicine is heavy in certain regions of India, such as Kerala in the Southwest. Many Ayurvedic practitioners in small villages are not registered. (The New Indian Express)
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building a strong clinical development infrastructure. International CROs have already recognised this opportunity and have set up operations in anticipation of policy changes that will enable clinical trials to be carried out in India on equivalent lines of those conducted elsewhere. The ‘India Advantage’ in clinical development is clearly the speed of patient enrolment and thereby shorter time lines for clinical trials. Apart from Phase 1-4 clinical trials, Indian companies have a large commercial opportunity in pre-clinical trials, Indian companies have a large commercial opportunity in pre-clinical and ‘proof of concept’ studies.
integrate into research and discovery. Such bio-partnering opportunities need to be encouraged strongly by the venture capitalists as a de-risking strategy. The biotechnology sector is already showcasing India’s potential to attaining leadership in vaccine production, genetically modified crops and clinical development. Global success for Indian biotechnology will largely depend on creating the lowest cost base for innovation.
It is therefore imperative to evolve fiscal and regulatory policies that support capitalintensive research and manufacturing, long There thus exists an exciting opportunity for gestation time for product commercialisation biotech companies in the U.S. and Europe and investments in patenting and technology to forward-integrate their drug development licensing. programmes at lower cost and shorter time lines in India which would provide them with A strong patenting regime, regulatory a lower cost validation option over trials reforms that permit Phase I clinical trials and conducted in the more expensive research pragmatic fiscal support to research and environs of the west. Alternatively, the development will enable India to realise its monetary risk could be shared with an Indian global aspirations for biotechnology. partner who is keenly seeking to backward (The Hindu)
INDIAN NURSES; NEED IN THE WEST
Before 2008, some 4.5 Indian nurses will be needed in America alone. Britain, Canada, and Australia also need nurses. A number of nursing schools have come up in India recently. Big hospitals have started their own training institutes in India. The shortage of nurses has been a problem in the US for the past 15 years. The new found enthusiasm among American youth for accounting and management jobs has pushed the demands for nurses up.
70 lakh tonne of groundnut was produced by Gujarat in 2003.
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NILGIRIS MOUNTAIN RAILWAY
A fit case for heritage status: UNESCO consultant D.Radhakrishnan
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he Nilgris Mountain Railway (NMR), which is in a remarkably original state, is a fit case for world heritage status, according to the Australian academician and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) consultant, Robert Lee. A parallel could be drawn between the NMR and ‘rack railway lines’ in Austria and Switzerland. But unlike the NMR they were modified. ‘Safety standards high’ Asked about the special features of the NMR, he said its environment was unique and it was much longer than similar lines. However, the engines “are not quite original”. He said though the operations on the lines were arduous, the NMR’s safety standards were high and the signalling system was much better than in Europe. For grant of heritage status, changes which were done over the years were not taken into consideration. The NMR was a marvel of engineering skill. Rack railways were mostly low in productivity and the only way of covering
the operational cost was to increase the fares.
He could not think of anything which could be construed as negative about the NMR. Its potential for attracting foreign tourists was tremendous, there were no shortcomings. With the world heritage status, the NMR’s stock as a global tourist attraction would go up manifold. Though the UNESCO would not directly extend any financial assistance to the NMR if it was declared a heritage site, it could fund community development and educational schemes associated with the line. (The Hindu)
Toy industry in West Bengal is expected to earn revenues of Rs.300 crore by 2006
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HERBS AND LIMBS
B.M.Thanuja ome 80 percent of the world’s population relies on traditional medicine, says the World Health Organisation (WHO). With increased concerns about rising healthcare costs, some governments are encouraging the use of indigenous forms of medicine rather than expensive imported drugs. This has been a strong driver for the resuscitation of herbal drugs. medicine, but this sector was not very popular as it is generally perceived as fraudulent. But now, with increasing acceptance not just in these countries but also others, herbal industry has become big business. China uses around 5,000 plant species while India uses over 7,000 species in its traditional ‘ayurvedic’ medicine. Sales of traditional medicines in China are said to have more than doubled in the last five years, while Indian exports in this sector have Natural medicine seems to be the new tripled in the past decade, according to catchword across the world and this has reports. revitalized the herbal industry. Although herbs have been used since time immemorial, India’s most popular form of traditional it is only now that it has become legitimized medicine is ayurveda. The synergy between as an industry. In other words, herbal ayurveda and modern medicine is now medicine and natural pharmaceuticals evolving-in India. Until recently, the methods (neutraceuticals) are moving from the fringes of traditional medical systems were obscure, of society to the mainstream, with many esoteric and shrouded in mysticism. But not more people seeking herbal remedies now. any more. Modern science is rapidly But why? unlocking the way these methods achieve results. This in turn has led to the arrival of “The global consumer and medical fraternity a new type of medicine using ancient are fast realizing the limitations of the techniques under scientific management. The present mainstream healthcare system. new system is broadly categorized under the Medical practitioners and consumers who nomenclature ‘Active Ayurved’. earlier looked at the herbal system as an ‘alternative’, are now beginning to integrate The commercial potential of Ayurveda can it into mainstream healthcare system as also be gauged from the fact that the global complementary,” says Ravi Prasad, CEO of market for herbal health care is estimated at Himalaya Drug Company, adding, “Yes, the $62 billion. In India, the estimated size of future for the herbal industry in serving the herbal health and personal care market is in personal and healthcare needs of consumers the range of Rs.2,500 crore to Rs.3,000 across the world indeed looks bright and crore and it is growing at a rate of 15 to 20 promising.” percent per annum, according to Prasad. China and India have traditionally been the Ayurvedic medicines are produced by scores two most widely known nations for herbal of companies in the country, but most of
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them are very small, including some neighbourhood pharmacies which make their own concoction. The industry is dominated by less than a dozen big companies like Dabur, Himalaya Drug Company, Baidyanath, Zandu which together have about 85 percent of India’s domestic market. The products of these companies are included within the broad category of FMCG which mainly involves foods, beverages, toiletries etc, as most of them provide products other than ayurvedic internal medicines, particularly in the areas of foods and toiletries (soap, toothpaste, shampoo, etc). The market for ayurvedic internal medicines is dominated by Chyawanprash, a herbal honey. The leader in this field is Dabur, which had a 69 percent market share at the end of 2002; followed by Baidyanath with nearly 11 percent, Zandu and Himani (Emami Group) with about 7.5 percent each. Last year, Himalaya introduced its version of honey, which market sources say is doing very well. A variety of individual herbs, traditional formulations, and proprietary medicines for various ailments make up the rest of the health products section involving internal remedies, while the reminder of the market is taken up by toothpastes and powders, skin creams, massage oils, shampoos, and other topical preparations. Exports of ayurvedic medicines have reached a value of more than $100 million a year (about 10 percent the value of the entire ayurvedic industryin India). About 60 percent of this is crude herbs (to be manufactured into products outside India), about 30 percent is finished product shipped abroad for direct sales to consumers and the remaining 10 percent is partially prepared
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products to be finished in the foreign countries. All this has now led the major pharma players in India to foray into this sector. A spokesperson of Nicholas Piramal Ltd said that the Mumbai-based pharmaceutical company is eyeing a foray into herbal prescription drugs. Piramal is not alone. Hordes of Indian pharmaceutical companies are either leaping into herbal drugs or planning on doing so, Cipla, Elder Pharma and RPG Life Sciences are quietly looking at entering this segment, Ranbaxy Laboratories, Lupin Labs and Alem Labs recently announced they would be entering the herbal prescription drug business. What is more, even companies that already have a minor presence in herbal drugs are planning to expand. “Though Ayurveda is the oldest and purest system of medicine known to humanity, the herbal healthcare segment consists of an assortment of unorganized players. The products manufactured by the unorganized players lack quality and purity, resulting in the end consumer receiving sub-standard ayurvedic products. The entry of Ranbaxy, Lupin and Dr.Reddy’s into the ayurvedic segment will only help in growing the herbal healthcare market. Organized players through their communication can help in generating awareness amongst the end consumer, resulting in an overall growth of the herbal healthcare segment/ayurvedic product marketing and communication will help in generating awareness amongst the end consumer, resulting in an overall growth of the herbal healthcare segment,” is Prasad’s comment. Pharmaceutical industry analysts believe that the emerging trend of self-medication and
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the preference for natural products with minimal side-effects will drive the growth of the herbal drug market. The Indian herbal drug market, which is split between ethical— drugs the require a doctor’s prescription— and over the counter (OTC) drugs, is growing by over 15 percent a year against the compounded annual growth rate of around 8.0 percent reported by the Rs.20,000 crore (Rs.200 billion) allopathic drugs market. Adding to this is the herbal and ayurvedic clinics or resorts all over the country which are becoming quite a fad. Some of these clinics have been present for some decades but majority are cropping up now. These clinics are offering remedies for various ailments, with Indian and foreigners flocking to them.An example are the Arya Vaidya Sala. Founded in 1902, by Vaidyaratnam P.S.Varier, the Kottakkal Arya Vaidya Sala
is today the largest and most trusted institution of its kind in India. It offers authentic ayurvedic medicines are treatments to patients from all over India and abroad. The Arya Vaidya Sala also manages an ayurvedic hospital at Kottakkal in Kerala and another at Delhi. Another is the Ayurvedic Natural Health Centre, Goa, which provides ayurvedic health care services for tourists from around the world. All though its herbal products can be shipped anywhere, the services of ayurveda—epitomised by the week-long Panchakarma regimen—are obtained by staying at a special clinic.The US-based Ayush Herbs Pvt.Ltd which has a clinic in Kangra, Himalchal Pradesh, also plans to open more clinics offering ‘panchakarma’ or the traditional ayurvedic system of treatment across India. (The New Indian Express)
ESTIMATED GLOBAL MARKET IN AYURVEDA-$62 BILLION Estimated size of herbal health and personal care market in India-Rs.2,500 crore to Rs.3,000 crore and it is growing at a growth rate of 15-20 percent per annum. • India’s share—1 to 2 percent ($551 million) •Chaina’s share—48 percent ($45 billion)
The global demand for herbal products is growing at a rapid pace. A World Health Organisation (WHO) study has projected the demand to reach $5 trillion by 2050 from the present $62 billion. Of the estimated 400 families of flowering medicinal plants in the world, India is home to at least 315 species, according to WHO. Exports of Ayurvedic medicines—$100 million a year (about 10 percent the value of the entire Ayurvedic industry in India). About 60 percent of this is crude herbs (to be manufactured into products outside India), about 30 percent is finished products shipped abroad for direct sales to consumers, and the remaining 10 percent is partially prepared products to be finished in the foreign countries. (The New Indian Express)
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WHAT IT TAKES TO BE A WORLD POWER
Yashwant Sinha
aid giving nation with the sixth largest foreign exchange reserves in the world; major advances in areas of high technology and global recognition of India’s huge reservoir of young and world class human he term ‘Great Power’ or ‘Major resources. Power’ should be seen in modern 21st century setting and not in its historical Traditionally, military might has been context. India does not subscribe to the considered the most important of the various conventional idea of power. India ingredients of power. However, the use of approaches the notion of power with an force in naked pursuit of national interests is no longer a viable objective for moral as alternative vision. well as pragmatic reasons. Power in the 21st India’s power capabilities are a guarantee of century will flow from a well run economy. the freedom and security of its people who Prosperity and economic clout rather than constitute one sixth of humanity. For us, war and aggression will be the key power is a means of advancing the welfare determinants of status in the world of our people and a tool for preserving and community. consolidating the autonomy of our foreign and domestic policy. Moreover, as befits It has been argued by some that India’s India’s history and the traditions of its post- decision to develop nuclear weapons was independence foreign policy, our pursuit of purely a political act aimed at enhancing its power is firmly anchored in an international status in the world by breaking into the mission aimed at eliminating the scourge of exclusive nuclear club. This is a fallacy. In a war, protecting international law, world where weapons of mass destruction strengthening the U.N. and striving for a new are still to be eliminated, nuclear weapons deal for developing countries whose people sadly remain the ultimate guarantor of a constitute the large majority of the world. nation’s security. It was the imposition of an imperfect non-proliferation order, India’s recent achievements in terms of hard evidence of which is all around us, that power are many. They include the compelled us to make the transition from development of a nuclear deterrent; military nuclear abstinence to that of a reluctant modernisation; rapid economic growth with nuclear power. India is a mature nuclear a rate expected to reach over 8 per cent this power, which takes the responsibility of year (2004) transition from a food deficit, possessing this awesome capability very aid receiving nation with limited foreign seriously. exchange reserves to a food exporter and Prosperity and economic clout rather than war and aggression will be the key determinants of status in the world community
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Three important aspects deserve further elaboration. Firstly, India is a unique model of democracy plus economic growth in the developing world. The success of Indian democracy is important not only for its intrinsic worth but also because economic progress built on the foundation of popular participation and rule of law is likely to be much more sustainable. Moreover, as India’s developmental efforts take deeper root and we succeed in taking education, health and infrastructure to our rural areas, we will add significant new numbers to our scientific and technical workforce and that in turn will impart further momentum to economic growth. More than any other factor, it is India’s track record as a democracy; the India’s silent revolution in the field of rural success we have achieved in welding development and women’s empowerment, together an extraordinarily large and diverse which will catapult India to world status. society into a nation, our fiercely independent judiciary and vibrant press also Secondly, India’s self-perception has shifted stand out in any international comparison. from that of a weak developing country to Moreover, yoga and Indian food, music, that of a great power in the making. This cinema, fashion, dance, writing, etc. are all constitutes a huge mental leap for India. riding the high tide of globalization and Thirdly, India’s foreign policy has never been winning new friends for India in far corners as complete and comprehensive as it is today. of the world. The success of our IIT’s and Throughout the Cold War, we were IT industry has spawned a novel stereotype estranged from the West in general and the of an Indian as a workaholic computer whiz U.S. in particular. Today, we enjoy a very kid. Ambitious forays into foreign lands by good relationship with not only the United our trade and industry are also resulting in States but also all major Western powers. the slow but steady emergence of ‘Brand And, this has not been at the cost of our traditional friendship and strategic India.’ partnership with Russia or any other country, To turn to soft power, India’s influence has spread far and wide since ancient times of the strength of our culture, religion and philosophy. As the land of Gandhi and as a nation that won its independence through a struggle unique in the annals of history, India has an international image that few others can claim. Similarly, our leadership of the Non-Aligned Movement, our contribution to virtually every major activity of the United Nations, including over 36 peace-keeping operations involving around 67,000 troops, and our consistent espousal of the cause of developing countries is well recognized by the international community. GENERAL MOTORS CANNOT AFFORD AMERICAN COSTS; DECIDES TO SHIFT TO INDIA
hile the controversy on BPO in America is on, General Motors, the American Automobile giant has decided to shift billions of dollars worth jobs to India. Wanting to cut costs by 25% before 2005, the General Motors has already shifted 216 crores-worth job to India and Canada. (Dinamani)
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including our developing country partners of Africa, Latin America and Asia. Further, we are now even thinking the unthinkable. Differences with China and Pakistan, which have festered for decades, are being addressed in a straightforward and pragmatic manner as never before. There is a new dynamic in South Asia with the signing of the SAFTA. SAARC is exploring how progress can be made towards an economic union, including a common currency. And, work has already commenced on transport and energy corridors that will criss-cross Asia with India as its hub.
ethos. The fact that India’s Muslim population is the second largest in the world and that its Christian minorities outnumber the entire population of many European countries is a badge of honour for us. To damage our heritage of tolerance and pluralism or to waver in upholding these principles is the biggest setback that can occur to our great power ambitions.
While India has sought to change existing power equations in the global order, it has essentially been a status quo power that does not seek to upset the existing order through violent means. India does not resort to In any discussion on a country like India export of terrorism or proliferation of the emerging as a major power, it is but treaty. We do not seek to snatch territory legitimate that we ask the question—can India afford this? It is my firm view that the THE WORLD NOW RESPECTS INDIA S.Gurumurthy Holy Grail cannot be India’s unless and until we address our domestic economic and social issues. These problems are a drag on A Headline in the Economic Times (14-5-2004) our ambitions and must be conquered reads: Royal Dutch-Shell company India gives work worth Rs.4500 crores as information through determined national efforts.
Technology outsourcing.
However, pursuit of power in the international community and the need to address pressing tasks at home are not exclusive of each other. Our efforts in the international and domestic fields complement and supplement each other, especially so in a globalised world. The speed with which we address our domestic challenges will add to our influence in the international community and vice versa, the more we emerge as a power in the world, the more we will be able to contribute to the strengthening of our economy. Further, unity and social harmony within the country is a sinequa non for India’s progress in the international arena. India’s biggest strength is its secular and multi-cultural
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The Central Office Services of the Royal Dutch-Shell are to be taken to India by a group called Group IT infrastructure G.I.T.I, which is nick-named “Give it to India”. In DutchShell, outsourcing means outsourcing in India. Difference in salary rates between the U.S. and India, is a major factor in such outsourcing. A job that is done at Rs.10,000 p.m. in India, will cost Rs.50,000 to 60,000 in the US. The Royal Dutch-Shell alone will be saving Rs.3825 crores a year by outsourcing to India. The profit doubles. So far India’s I.T. giants TCS, WIPRO and Infosys were landing individual jobs earning upto Rs.500 croes. Now Wipro IBM’s single order is worth ten times its earlier catches. The worst fears of the Western countries have become true, outsourcing has come about in a big way.
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from others or re-write the history of our sub-continent. We criticize the developed world for its unfair economic policies. At the same time, we seek to engage the North in dialogue and to appeal to their reasons and wisdom. India has repeatedly drawn attention to the undemocratic character of the permanent membership of the U.N. But that has not prevented us from working with the Security Council and its members in advancing the goals of the U.N.
There is no doubt that the road ahead is long and arduous. Like all matters of international politics, the rise of India will depend not just on India’s actions but also on how the rest of the world responds to this development and the objective circumstances of the coming decades. Nevertheless, India has started a confident march in the right (Adapted from an address delivered in New directions and we are determined to succeed Delhi on March 12, 2004) (The Hindu) in reaching our goal.
As a major power, the values that India will seek to spread in the world and the goals that we will strive to achieve will be the same values and goals that infuse our national and civilisational experience. India will always stand for democracy within and amongst countries. It will act as a pro-active agent of peace. India will continue to strive for international equity and justice. It will be a champion of the free movement of goods, services and persons across national frontiers. Finally, by combining democracy with economic growth and by successfully managing its pluralist society through an open, transparent and participative process, India is already setting an example for the rest of the world.
SAVINGS AND INVESTMENT FORM THE BASIS OF DEVELOPMENT Professor Kaushik Basu, Professor of Economics, Carnell University has said: “The basis for the development is laid by savings by the people and investment”. India’s internal production has appreciably increased in the recent years. India has to strive for greater development. Eradication of poverty and, economic development are helped by the saving habit of the people and the proper investment of the savings. We cannot afford to neglect them. Patents are very important for the developmental process. More Indians should come forward to apply for patents. The number of persons living below poverty kind has comedown by 30%. It is an achievement. (Dinamani)
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THE YOUNG INDIAN’S MOVEMENT
R.Gopalakrishnan
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I movement aims at evolving an action plan based on interaction with young policy makers, parliamentarians, media persons and professionals to enable the youth to play their due role in meeting the challenges facing the country.
74% of the population is below 45 years of age. The contemporary world presents both a challenge and our opportunity for India’s youth.
The chairman of the first summit said, “we aim at inspiring dynamic and successful young Indians to give back something to In a recently conducted a summit devoted India. The summit was a dialogue between to the theme “unleashing the India youth and leaders in government, industry, opportunity”, International consultants MC arts sports etc”. Kinsey made a presentation on “Indiaopportunities unlimited.” The programmes included 1. Presentation by The YI movement is initiated by the C.I.I. YI is far from elitist. It is inclusive in reach and encompasses achievers between 18-40 years from various professions, arts and academia. successful young Indians, 2. A discussion as how the nation’s youth should respond to geopolitical trends 3. A talk on “my vision for India” by stars from different walks of Indian society and 4. A panel discussion by the Young Parliamentarians Forum.
The YI believes that one of the fundamental The YI movement had initiated YI bridge tasks before the nation is the creation of programmes for interaction with students of employment, considering that as much as colleges.
WE HAVE ENOUGH RESERVES, SAYS COAL INDIA
Sakyasen Mitra
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atest estimates have it that the country has reserves of 90 billion tonne of coal, which is sufficient for domestic consumption in the next 60 to70 years. Coal India Ltd, the largest organization in the country with employee strength of 4.82 lakh is ensuring that India’s coal bandwagon moves on. We have positive indications regarding the presence of fresh stocks of coal in two-thirds of the total area that we have probed.” However, coal prices may increase in the very near future.
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INDIA IS EMERGING AS A STRONG FORCE
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ingapore Trade Conference has applauded Bharat. The growing strature of India as a strong economic force in the world was the topic for discussion in the Singapore trade meet in July 2004. “India welcomes-2004 Asian-Pacific Trade Conference” was organized by the Association of Indian Businessmen in Singapore. Shri Chand Hinduja head of the Hinduja group said “There is good scope for investment in India’s, constructions work, also in the field of creating job opportunities abroad. Skilled man-power, cost efficient labour of world standards and a large market are India’s attractions”.
“Health, communication, media, agroindustries, automobile manufacture, pharmaceutical production, etc. have scope for large investment. The central government also helps” he added. The Singapore minister for trade Raymond commented on Indian industrialists emerging as great competitiors in the world market. “Bill-care” a pharmaceutical company from India is to start production in Singapore soon. Indu Jain Chairman of the Times of India group said that America is trying as capture and control the world with its military might, Japan with appropriate technology and commerce, whereas India has already sent its young men (and women) to the far corners of the globe and has captured it. (Dinamalar Translated)
TRILOGY SPEAKS
Q. The nineties had seen an outflow of Indian IT professionals to the Silicon Valley and elsewhere in the west; do you see a change in this trend, what have been the factors behind this? A. There is a change in the trend of Indian IT professionals moving to the west and it is due to the culmination of several factors. There is an enormous growth in India’s IT industry and there are a number of MNCs either investing or setting up their offshore units in India. In fact, several of Trilogy’s [an I T company] new hires belong to this category of Indian professionals returning back to India after spending several years in the US. Job opportunities are increasing and job profiles are similar to those available in the US. Companies that are R&D centric are already moving the core development and R&D activities to India, which in turn provides exciting job opportunities to professionals here. The degree of project complexities are viewed as a challenge and with technology that eases communication, techies in India can work in tandem with their customers situated anywhere across the world. [T N I E]
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S&P UPGRADES INDIA’S CURRENCY RATING
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tandard & Poor ’s (S&P) has upgraded its outlook for India’s long term foreign currency rating to ‘positive’ from ‘stable’ on the back of improving external liquidity and chances of India’s debt burden stabilising. “The outlook revision reflect India’s improving external liquidity and better prospects for the Government’s debt burden to stabilise,” said Ping Chew, Director, Sovereign and International Public Finance Rating Group of S&P.
the long-term local currency rating to ‘stable’ from ‘negative’. The sovereign rating on India are supported by the country’s good economic prospects, with GDP growth likely to trend over 6 per cent over the medium term. The service sector is dynamic, while the industrial sector is benefiting from gradual deregulation, trade liberalisation and modest improvements in infrastructure. “Good economic growth could contain the pressure on India’s already weak public finances, provided tax reform continues,” said Mr.Chew.
“In addition, India’s robust foreign exchange reserves, which exceed 2000 per cent of India’s external debt and debt service burden short-term debt, mitigate the risk of is expected to fall due to strong export growth and non-debt foreign capital inflows, volatility in external confidence.” which should help offset the impact of rising S&P also revised its outlook on the Export- imports given the surge in oil prices. India’s Import Bank of India’s long-term foreign total external debt is likely to fall below 100 currency rating to positive from stable. At per cent of current account receipt for the the same time, S&P revised the outlook on current fiscal year ending march 31, 2005 compared with over 200 per cent in fiscal 1993. (The Hindu)
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BIOINFORMATICS ON A STEADY PATH OF GROWTH
G.Naga Sridhar
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ith the biotech sector poised for rapid growth in the country, a major spin-off sector is bioinformatics, an area which is seeing a vertical growth because of the growing synergy between the information technology (IT) and biotechnology (BT).
investments in the sector can bring down gestation period in drug-making. “The huge data mining option will facilitate diagnosticsbased drug-discovery, which is cheaper by about 40 percent than the normal procedure,” he feels. There can be an aggressive growth in IT spending by biotech companies beyond 2005, as many of the Indian companies can garner a 5 percent organisations are already making special global market share by 2005, which efforts to develop enterprise applications translates into a $3 billion opportunity. including management, and storage as priorities. A few companies in Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai and Delhi among others, are striving IDC expects IT spending in biosciences in hard to make a niche for themselves in this India will cross $138 million n by 2005, regard. According to Vijay Chandru of mainly in the areas of system clusters, Strand Genomics, Bangalore, bioinformatics storage, application software, and services. holds the key for drug-discovery and large (TNIE)
RETAIL SECTOR GAINING MOMENTUM
Ramnath Subbu he Indian retail sector is on the threshold of something big. With the total retail trade estimated at $200 billion and the organised segment accounting for a mere 2 per cent of this, almost all the organised players have in place aggressive expansion plans. The annual retail consumption in the country is around Rs.900,000 crores but with value addition could be scaled up to Rs.1,200,000 crores. In fact, the association is confident that modern retail would have a beneficial trickle-down effect on sectors such as steel, cement and glass, bring larger revenues for the State governments and boost sectors such as tourism and hotels. The development of modern retail in India could enable enhanced productivity, employment and economic growth.
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Gold reserves of our country stand at $4,198 million as on April 2004.
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INDIA INC ON A ROLL
Hiring perks up like it never did Rajesh Menon
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itself. What more proof do you need than the recent hiring spree by the IT firms, so much so that they have already started recruiting for the next year. In addition to it, the multinational firms have all set up shops or are scouting the Indian shores for But it is not just the call-centres and business picking the best brains and starting their own process outsourcing firms that have boosted outfits. the job market in the country. After a lull, the country’s economy would seem to be on By 2015, analysts predict that more than 3 an upward trajectory. There has been an million white-collar jobs in the US will be overall improvement in the sentiments, and farmed out to other countries, up from about after a slack 2002, hiring is getting back on 3,00,000 today. “Simple, base-level backoffice payroll and data entry will go to rockIndia Inc’s agenda. bottom-wage countries like Vietnam and There have been many favourable factors Uruguay over time, and countries like India contributing towards this. A better than will move up the food chain and take on before financial results of many companies, more complex software and product rupee getting stronger against the dollar, development services,” says analyst John India emerging as the number one out- McCarthy of Forrester Research. sourcing destination, good monsoon and agriculture sector picking up have all Recruitment trend analysis clearly shows a positive trend in the overall industry scenario contributed to the new emerging India. in India and this likely to continue till this The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) year-end,” it says. Insurance, IT software, Business Outlook Survey covering 215 IT-enabled services, auto, manufacturing, member companies across a spectrum of heavy industry and chemical and allied industry groups-both in public and private industries are some of the sectors that have sectors-for the October 2003-March 2004 shown tremendous potential in hiring period exhibited a result of 64.9 points, in professionals. Incidentally, banking and improvement of 3.3 points over the previous financial services along with insurance are period (April-September 2003). now the hot areas where hiring is happening in the lower and middle-management levels. Let us look at the flavour of the seasoninformation technology. It has now been Interestingly, among the management accepted that off shoring has become graduates, consulting is the in-thing, mainstream and the IT sector is reviving followed by banking and financial services, his is the new face of Generation Next in India. Over 50,000 professionals work in Bangalore’s call-centres and BPO firms alone. And this is just the tip of the iceberg.
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fast moving consumer goods (FMCG), IT and investment banking. A study by Bangalore-based brand consulting, advertising and public relations firm brandcomm shows that Indian Institute of management (IIM) students aspire to become consultants. “The much-hyped sectors like telecom, biotech, pharma and healthcare, insurance, BPO, fashion and retail do not seem to be attractive enough for these young managers in the making,” the study says.
of qualified workers available in Shanghai for customer call centre is between 6,000 and 7,000 per year, in Mumbai it is between 35,000 and 45,000. Not to forget that we haven’t even got into Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kochi, Delhi, Noida and gurgaon.
It is not just the call centre jobs where India has an edge. Be it in back office functions of finance and accounting or electronic document conversion, India is way ahead than its competitors. From availability of But for the graduates, it is the ITES segment qualified workforce to costs, India leads the that seems to be holding a special charm. way with China a distant fourth. For all the talk of China, the Philippines and Malaysia giving a stiff competition to India If back office work for finance and in ITES, the figures put out by global accounting costs $1.35 per hour in Mumbai, consultancy firm McKinsey paint a it is $2.03 per hour in Shanghai. And as for completely different picture. The reason: the qualified workers available per year: India is low on cost but high on quality with 14,000-17,000 in Mumbai compared with abundant supply of skilled workforce. 12,000-15,000 in Shanghai. A rough look at the empirical data gives a clear picture. If it costs $2.50 per hour to employ a person in a call centre in Shanghai, it costs just $1.50 in Mumbai. If the number “When you can get the same job done for a fraction of cost, it makes sense to export jobs,” says a top official of a multinational firm in Bangalore.
THE IT EDGE
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abour Pool: India has many prestigious technical universities, but the Indian Institute of Technology stands apart as one of the world’s best. India produces 75,000 IT graduates and 2 million English-speaking graduates annually. Expertise: Application development, maintenance, call centres, financial processing. Experts see India becoming a hotbed for more critical analytical jobs.
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CONVENIENCE FOODS
N.Venugopal ndia’s food processing sector has entered a promising market. It covers fruit and vegetables, meat and poultry, milk and milk products, alcoholic beverages, fisheries, plantation, grain processing and other consumer product groups like confectionery, chocolates and cocoa products, soya-based products, mineral water, high protein foods etc. b. The biggest bottleneck in expanding the food processing sector, in terms of both investment and exports, is lack of adequate infrastructure. Without a strong and dependable cold chain, food processing industry, based mostly on perishable products cannot survive and grow. Even at current level of production, farm produce valued at Rs.7,000 crore is being wasted every year only because there is no adequate storage, transportation, cold chain facilities and other infrastructure supports. Cold chain facilities are miserably inadequate to meet the increasing production of various
a.
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perishable products like milk, fruits, vegetables poultry, fisheries, etc. c. The Government of India, realising the potential of the sector, has set up a separate Ministry of Food Processing Industries in July 1988. The ministry, the central agency responsible for developing a strong and vibrant food processing sector with a view to creating increased job opportunities in rural areas, enables the farmers to reap benefit from modern technology, create surplus for exports and stimulating demand for processed food. Thanks to the efforts of the government and other regulatory bodies, the food processing industry has really taken the growth path. “The food processing sector of India is on a new mode of growth. There is a hitherto unfound dynamism emerging from the sector with the government announcing food processing as one of the thrust sectors in its modernisation process,” says Amit Mitra, secretary general, Confederation of Indian Food Trade & Industry. (T.N.I.E)
AMERICAN CONTROVERSY CONTRIBUTES TO INDIA’S KITTY The Recent controversy across the US over outsourcing Business Processes to India has resulted in excellent media publicity for India. The economic aspects and the functional efficiency of exporting BPO jobs to India have been studied well and published. A Wall Street Journalist has said that the controversy and the resulting media exposure have benefited India to the tune of millions of dollars in free publicity. The Japanese, Chinese and Swiss companies encourage their young people to learn to speak English in a bid to compete with India for jobs. (Dinamani)
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GROWTH OF FOOD PROCESSING IN INDIA
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he food processing industry in the country is one of the largest in terms of production, consumption, export and growth prospects. The government has been providing a number of fiscal reliefs and incentives, to encourage commercialisation and value addition to agricultural produce, for minimising pre/post harvest wastage, generating employment and export growth. Fruit and vegetable processing, fishprocessing, milk processing, meat and poultry processing, packaged/convenience foods, alcoholic beverages and soft drinks and grain processing are the sub-sectors that come under food processing sector. Between August 1991 and March 2003, the food processing industry has witnessed fast growth and the turnover of the total food market is estimated at Rs.2,50,000 crore ($69.4 billion) out of which value-added food products comprise Rs.80,000 crore ($22.2 billion). Between August 1991 and February 2000, India received proposals for projects of over Rs.53,800 crore ($13.4 billion) in various segments of the food and agro-processing industry. Government also approved proposals for joint ventures, foreign collaboration, industrial licenses and 100 percent export oriented units envisaging an investment of Rs.19,100 crore ($4.80 billion) during the same period. Out of this, foreign investment is over Rs.9,100 crore ($18.2 billion). Processed food exports were at over Rs.13,500 crore ($3.2 billion) in 1998-99. Out of these exports, rice accounted for 46 percent, whereas marine products accounted for over 34 percent.
Primary food processing is a major industry with lakhs of rice-mills. There are several thousands of bakeries, traditional food units and fruit/vegetable/spice processing units in the unorganised sector. In the organised sector, there are over 820 flour mills, 418 fish processing units, 5,198 fruit/ vegetable processing units, and 171 meat processing units. India is the world’s second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, but hardly 2 percent of the produce is processed. India is the land of spices producing all varieties worth over Rs.3,500 crore ($900 million) amounting to 25-30 percent of world production, which is processed for valueaddition and export. India grows 22 million tonne of oilseeds covering most of the varieties. Other important plantation products include tea, coffee, cocoa and cashew. India has large marine product and processing potential with varied fish resources along the 8,041-km long coastline, 28,000 km of rivers and millions of hectares of reservoirs and brackish water. India’s livestock population is largest in the world with 50 percent of world’s buffaloes and 20 percent of cattle, but only about 1 percent of total meat production is converted to valueadded products. India is the largest milk producer in the world and about 15 percent of the total milk production is processed through the organised sector.Size of the semi-processed and ready to eat packaged food industry is over Rs.4,000 crore ($1 billion) and is growing at over 20 percent. (Source: Ministry of Food Processing Industry Annual Report 2003)
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SECTION - 6 DEFENDING INDIA
This is the ancient land where wisdom made its home before it went into any other country, the same India whose influx of spirituality is represented, as it were, on the material plane, by rolling rivers like o c e a n s , w h e re t h e e t e r n a l Himalayas, rising tier above tier with their snowcaps, looks as it were into the very mysteries of heaven. Here is the same India whose soil has been trodden by the feet of the greatest sages that ever lived. Here first sprang up inquiries into the nature of man and into the internal world. Here first arose the doctrines of the immortality of the soul, the existence of a supervising God, an immanent God in nature and in man, a n d h e re t h e h i g h e s t i d e a l s o f re l i g i o n a n d p h i l o s o p h y h a v e attained their culminating points. -Swami Vivekananda
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Thus spake Swami Vivekananda This is the land from whence, like tidal waves, spirituality and philosophy have again and again rushed out and deluged the world, and this is the land from whence once more such tides must proceed in order to bring life and vigour into the decaying races of mankind. It is the same India which has withstood the shocks of centuries, of hundreds of foreign invasions, of hundreds of upheavals of manners and customs. It is the same land which stands firmer than any rock in the world, with its undying vigour, indestructible life. Its life is of the same nature as the soul, without beginning and without end, immortal; and we are the children of such a country.
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ISRO DEVELOPING ADVANCED VERSION OF GSLV
K.Kasturirangan he Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is currently developing an advanced version of the geo-synchronous satellite launch vehicle GSLV-MK III. “The GSLV-MK III is currently in its initial stage-it is expected to be developed by 2007. This will have the capability to launch fourtonne satellites into geo-synchronous transfer orbit (GTO). “When ready, it will be the most costeffective and reliable launch vehicle,” the GSLV-MK III was only the first in a series of ambitious projects which formed the country’s space vision. “From the year 2,000 ISRO has entered the expansion phase-this phase will witness consolidation, innovative missions and a host of newer services being offered through satellites.
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The space programme would be relevant only if it could contribute towards enhancing the quality of life and act as a catalyst to drive economic growth. “Our space mission must be a tool for social upliftment and it is important that social relevance continues to drive the mission. The immediate future will see ISRO launch a series of Edusats, besides launching an Astrosat and a Healthsat.” “The Edusat, the ‘teacher in the sky,’ which is under development, will seek to bring about school, university, knowledge connectivity. We are working with Anna University and IITs to address challenges with the ground systems. “The Healthsat can bring health kiosks, mobile kiosks and medical advice centres and experts under one roof thus ushering in a health revolution,”
“The space vision includes carrying out The societal vision must lead to the manned lunar mission, planetary missions development of several intelligent and smart and building reusable launch vehicles.” thematic satellites, which can be integrated to the terrestrial network. “These can be a ‘Chandrayan-1 mission’ (Indian lunar tool to address issues such a health, mission) was step in this direction, more so, education, natural resources management, since it also marked the nation’s first foray disaster mitigation, pollution control, civil into space study beyond the Moon. services, home security and aerial surveying.”
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THE ‘LAHAT’ MISSILE
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ndian defence scientists claim to have achieved a breakthrough by developing a beyond-visual-range missile “Lahat’ for the country’s indigenous Main Battle Tank Arjun.
fighting vehicles and in flat trajectory against helicopters.
“The fire control system of the tank would include laser designator to project a codedlaser beam on the target. Target designation The laser anti-homing Lahat missile is can also be done by another tank or ground capable of being fired from the 120 mm rifle laser designator. gun of the tank, which now gets a capability matching the just-acquired T-90 tanks, which Some of the newly-developed Lahat missiles sport a BVR missile of over 5 to 8 kms had recently been test-fired from the main gun of the MBT Arjun in field trials to engagement capability. confirm the missile launch parameters such Lahat is a semi-active laser homing missile, as sabot separation. which could be fired form the main gun of The penetration capability of the missile the tank similar to conventional rounds. warhead was tested and ‘the results conform “This would significantly enhance the to the requirements”. fighting capability of the MBT Arjun since its maximum effective range is 6 kms as The missile has been developed by Combat compared to the 2.5 kms of conventional Vehicles Research and Development ammunition,” The missile could be fired Establishment (CVRDE) Avadi in either in a lofted trajectory against armored collaboration with a private firm. (The New Indian Express)
AGNI-2 TEST-FIRED
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n January 18, 2001, India took a decisive step towards its goal of deploying a credible nuclear deterrent. India successfully conducted the second flying test of its 2500 km range AgniII Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) from a mobile launcher at the Interim Test Range in Chandipur-on-sea in Orissa. Although it was the second Agni-II test, it was for the first time that this missile was test-fired “in its final operational configuration.”
Most observers say that the Agni is being designed as a deterrent against China. If that is the case, India has some way to go, since with its current range, the Agni-II can at best cover Chinese territory till the western cities of Chengdu and Kunming, if based in the central plateau of Bihar. Even if based in Assam, a some-what improbable scenario, the missile would not be able to reach either Shanghai or Beijing.For this purpose, India is developing the Agni-III, a longer range missile capable of reaching targets upto 3500 km.
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ISRO’S SPECTACULAR LEAP IN 25 YEARS
T.S.Subramanian
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n August 10, 1979, India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle – SLV-3 – roared skyward from Sriharikotta in Andhra Pradesh, carrying a small payload called Rohini Technology Payload (RTP). The mission failed. The rocket and RTP fell into the Bay of Bengal. The rocket weighed 17 tonnes and the payload about 35 kg. Satish Dhawan, who was Chairman, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), came out of the SHAR station and told a few waiting newsmen that the mission was “a partial success.” “We stumbled a little but did not fall flat on our face,” he said and walked back. The project director then was A.P.J.Abdul Kalam, now the President. A jammed valve in the control system of the second stage of the launch vehicle led to the failure. Eleven months later, on July 18, 1980, another SLV-3 rose into the sky from Sriharikota and orbited a satellite called Rohini. The SLV-3 weighed 17 tonnes and it was 22 metres tall. The Rohini weighed 40 kg. That success propelled India into the exclusive space club of the United States, the then U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom, France, Japan and China. The project director of the successful flight was Mr.Kalam. Reason for failure Some days prior to the successful mission, Vasant Gowariker, then Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC),
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Thiruvananthapuram, explained why the first SLV-3 flight failed. “The nitric acid in the solenoid valve leaked. A rocket trying to go up without the nitric acid is like your trying to drive a car without petrol,” he said. The ISRO has not thought it fit to commemorate the silver jubilee of the launch of the first SLV-3. at a function at the VSSC on November 21,2003, Prof.P.D.Bhavsar, one of the pioneers of ISRO, commented with anguish in a different context, “ISRO has no sense of history.” At last, a bust of Vikram Sarabhai, the architect of the country’s space programme, was unveiled on the campus of the ISRO’s headquarters in Bangalore this August 12, his 85 th birthday-several of those associated with that August 10,1979 launch are no longer alive. Satish Dhawan, then ISRO Chairman, S.Srinivasan, who was VSSC Director, and M.R.Kurup, former SHAR Director, are no more. In 25 years, ISRO has made a spectacular leap. From a SLV-3 that weighed 17 tonnes and an RTP of 35 kg weight, it is all set to launch an aerial leviathan called the Geo-Synchronous Launch Vehicle (GSLV) in September, which would orbit EDUSAT. The GSLV weighs 414 tonnes and it is 49 metres tall. The EDUSAT weighs about 1,900 kg. Today, India can build its own launch vehicles and its own satellites. It can put any type of satellite into any orbit.
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The genesis India’s space programme had its gensis when a Nike-Apache rocket imported from the U.S. took off from the fishing village of Thumba, near Thiruvananthapuram, on November 21, 1963. It weighed 715 kg and reached an altitude of 208 km. It was an international effort under the auspices of the United Nations.
sodium vapour that lit up the twilight sky caused excitement in Kerala. The State Assembly, which was in session then, adjourned for a few minutes for its members to enjoy the spectacle. Big plans
India’s truly indigenous programme began in 1969 when a “pencil rocket” that weighed Its sodium-vapour payload was from France; 10 kg sped a few km into the atmosphere the range clearance was given by M1-4 from Thumba. The rocket was assembled in helicopter from the Soviet Union; and the the St.Mary Magdalene church. rocket and payload engineers were Indians. The two-stage rocket was assembled in the ISRO has big plans. It has already started nearby St.Mary Magdalene church, which working on sending a probe, called now houses a space museum. The adjacent Chandrayaan, to the moon in 2008; on Bishop’s House served as the Control building reusable launchers; and on Centre. But there were contretemps. The recovering satellites after they fall into the French payload would not marry up with the sea. Work is under way on GSLV-MK III. It American rocket. Welding could cause fire will weigh 630 tonnes and measure 43 metres because sodium was volatile. So Sarabhai in height. It will put a satellite weighing four asked Bhavsar, “How can we fit the tones at a height of 36,000 km. A second payload?” Mr.Kalam and another colleague launch pad has been built at Sriharikotta at scraped the payload with a small hand tool a cost of Rs.350 crores. It will be blooded until it mated with the rocket. The launch when a PSLV takes off from it before this was a success. The orange trail from the year is out. [The Hindu]
MARS EXTENDS GLOBAL REACH OF INDIAN AIR FORCE
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efying logistic barriers, the Indian Air Force has made operational in record time its just-acquired force multipliers, the IL-78 mid-air refuellers, (MARS) making India the only power in Asia after China to deploy such a capability.
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INDIAN ARMY
Introduction : Looking back from the 1990s,when the Indian Army projects power and sinew, it becomes difficult to remember the kind of fledgeling it was in 1947.
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rit and experience affect the growth of an institution. Fighting four major wars, insurgency and other low intensity wars has indeed made it an eminently and efficient battle trained, war machine. Changing times bring changing needs. Battle training must tell also on the structuring of the army, for it is this function that extracts the most from the assets available, both men and material. A look at the command and structuring of the Indian Army shows how finely these have been tuned to meet India’s threat perceptions, based on the experience of the major wars that it has fought and the present-day geo-political context. Command and Control The 1947-48 Kashmir War was fought with an evolving Indian higher command set-up. The ad hoc Delhi and East Punjab command, created to control the widespread communal disturbances and tackle the refugee migration problem, soon gave way to a resurrected Headquarters Western Command. The short 1962 Border War with China dictated that no matter what the state of electronic communications, higher directive control should be exercised from geographical proximity.
The static Areas, Sub Areas, or Independent Sub Areas span the length and breadth of the country. These look after infrastructural (and lines of communications) assets, relieving field formations from the tedium of administering a multiplicity.of support installations located in an area. Area’ boundaries conform to state (or a group of states) administrative boundaries. All Headquarters are tasked also to maintain full civil-military liaison. Static Areas (or even field formations in some cases) set up Station Headquarters whose area of responsibility usually coincides with a district or a group of districts. Field formations located in Areas are always contingently tasked to assist the civil administration through these static Headquarters. Strangely enough, this system works. The Basic Materials The largest standing volunteer Army in the world has never had to scour the populace for draft or conscription. There are always more men eager to don olive green than the demand at any one time. But this does not reflect a situation where a large unemployed workforce would get into uniform to keep body and soul together. More to the point is the basic attitude of our people to the call of arms, discovered also by the British, some three centuries before. There are very many who join up for long service tenures under the colours, by inclination and choice - also
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familial habit and honour. If a young man, sound of body and mind, and of Indian origin, is inclined to spend most of his useful working years in the kind of desolation that the country’s Field areas’ adjoining the borders provide, can he be refused? For the purpose of recruitment, the country is divided into recruiting zones. The Leaders The officer corps strength versus commanded strength averages 7 to 8 per cent. After independence there was only one period (1963-65) when a need arose to offer short-term emergency commissions. That was when a pre-1962 planned expansion was compressed in terms of time leading to this call. The main brunt of the fighting in 1965 and 1971 at junior command levels was taken up by this group. Just as in the Second World War, they, along with their regular counterparts, responded with traditional elan. Over the years, a number of Commission streams had merged together. The last of the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, graduates retired in 1969. The Indian Military Academy (IMA), Dehra Dun, graduates, as well as the Short Service/Emergency Commissioned Officers of the Second World War formed the overwhelming bulk filling the fighting command slots in 1947-49; the King’s Commission Indian Officers taking over the higher command appointments.
later years became the National Defence Academy (NDA) Khadakvasla. At present, the Army officer intake is from four distinct streams, namely the NDA; the graduate direct entry stream (IMA); cadets chosen from the ranks and initially trained at the Army Cadet College - an adjunct of the IMA; and a five-year Short Service Commission stream from the Officers Training Academy, Madras. A few selected Junior Commissioned Officers (a grade existing only in the Indian and Pakistan Armies) are offered Regimental Commissions. The Short Service stream is offered Regular Commissions by choice and reassessment. Officers of the NDA have now reached three-star rank in all three Services. A common indicator of the type of leadership extant in the Army are casualty ratios. In all our wars, officer casualties have been high. This is an internal assessment criterion. Management experts point out that high casualties bespeak of poor command. The point, however, is that Officers of the combat arms lead from the front and do not manage from the rear.
The sacrificial content of the leadership ethos built up over decades has served the country well. But far more important, the ranks know for certain that there will be no directive commands by electronics or remote control. The training of the Indian army officer is meant to subsume his persona under a very In 1949 a unique experiment was launched - demanding but explicit code. that of cadet-level training for all the three Services together for three years and The Ethos thereafter moving on to Service academies for pre-Commission training. This was the The greatest binding force in the Indian Army Joint Services Wing (Dehra Dun), which in remains unit cohesion and tradition. Truly
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heady is this mixture of Unit identification and traditions of sacrificial velour, handed down through centuries. At one point, victory or defeat becomes irrelevant. What matters is - Has the unit measured up? Among the warriors, this allembracing ethos works like a comforting blanket. When all seems (or is) lost, the last string that refuses to snap is, ‘I must not let my unit’s name be sullied’. An example here, is the living tradition of an old battalion of the Sikh Regiment. Almost a century ago, a handful held off a horde of tribesmen at a bleak spot in the NWFP - to the last man. The place was called Saragarhi. Much later, in 1962, the same battalion, taking fearful losses was told by their Commanding Officer - ‘We have not even started touching the levels established by our ancestors’ (mentioning that stand); The battalion died where it stood at Walong. Phoenix-like it rose again, to smash Burki in 1965. The elite para-commandos and parachute battalions -India’s ‘Red Devils’ as they are affectionately called have an unsurpassed ethos and elan of their own. 2 Para Battalion executed a superb airborne assault operation at Tangail in East Pakistan on 11 December 1971, the first of its kind on the subcontinent. The Armoured Corps retains the Cavalry Slouch, and an infuriatingly languid air of not being seen as perturbed in public.
The Gunners are a breed apart. A phlegmatic bunch of men, they are not given to why, where as, or where fores. The ‘literati’ in the sword arms are the gentlemen of the Engineers and Signals. The Engineers share a motto with the Gunners - Sarvatra (Ubique in Latin, or ‘Everywhere’ in common parlance). The most ungentlemanly lot are the Signal Corps. The moment a world-renowned statesman wrinkled his nose to utter those famous words, ‘Gentlemen do not read others’ mail’, they got about doing exactly that without a twinge of conscience. Their ability to pick out gibberish from an overused electromagnetic spectrum and get to understand it, is legendary. They listen to other people’s tete-a-tetes without permission and have been doing so ever since modern conveniences came into being. The fifth dimension of war (space being the sixth), is given over entirely to them for their use -Electronic Warfare. They have long passed the stage when they would worry about providing efficient communications only. That is commonplace for them even if the equipment looked as if it had been exhumed from JC Bose’s first laboratory. Today of course-it is a different matter. We can keep increasing this list and never finish. The Indian Army, as often the foreign media sometimes churlishly say, is ‘mammoth. But we are barely managing our affairs.
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Dr.RAJA RAMANNA’ A DOYEN AMONG SCIENTISTS
1. He was a most approachable to trainee scientists-youngsters who would become nuclear scientists. He was erudite and delightful to listen. He could cut the pretentious to size, compliment the deserving and point out areas for further study. He hated the slide-rule engineering and craved for originality and creativity. He took steps to set up the Atomic Energy Regulation Board, and gave priority to enforce radiation protection provisions among medical and industrial uses of radiation. He strove to make medical x-ray installations 8. safe. He was intensely patriotic. He spurned greener pastures and responded to the call of Dr.Bhabha and made laudable contributions to the growth of S & T in the country. He was the mentor of India’s first nuclear blast at Pokhran in 1974 Dr.Ramanna was a pioneer in the growth of physics in India. He put the country on the world nuclear map 9. within a short time after his great theory of Nuclear Fission was established between 1965 and 1968. He was head of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, the member and chairman of the Atomic Engery Commission, Secretary of the Dept. of Atomic energy, Scientific advisor to 10. the Defence minister and M.O.S. for Defence (1990). He was the founder
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of National Institute of Advanced studies in Bangalore. Dr.Raja Ramanna is being described as a great humanist devoted to the welfare of mankind through application of science. He has inspired 1000’s of our young men and woman to take up science as their vocation. He is one of the makers of modern India. He was an outstanding scientist and a man of thought and of wide literary and philosophical interests and social sympathies. He synthesised Western thought and Technology with Indian Philosophy, society and developmental needs. He was keen on indigenous development of science and technology and the resultant applications. He had the ability to look at problems rationally, scientific, technical and managerial. In the 50s, the challenge of doing high quality science and developing advanced nuclear technologies was daunting, given the poverty of the
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country and lack of expertise. But Dr.Ramanna was never intimidated by this challenge. He believed in choosing the right people, encouraging and supporting them to perform, and cutting down bureaucratic delays and unnecessary rules and regulations in administering science. His science policies were directed towards encouraging creativity in order to make advances in technology at the most sophisticated level. To develop the skilled manpower required for this task, he, with Homi Bhabha, started the BARC Training School, in which every year 200 scientists and engineers were recruited, tutored for a year, and then absorbed into the laboratories and in projects. This was started in 1957, and is still continuing, and much of the strength of the Department derives from this seed that Dr.Ramanna planted. Proud legacy Out of the uncertain beginnings in the 1950s, if we have today achieved the status of a “developed country” in nuclear science and technology, it is in large measure a consequence of Dr.Ramanna’s ideals, policies and efforts. He certainly leaves behind the proud legacy of a magnificent edifice of scientific and technological achievements and attainments particularly towards the country’s energy and national security. But perhaps the even more important legacy is his uncompromising belief in intellectual clarity and rational thinking to every facet of life. He was a great soul who always thought of the country, how to revive this ancient civilization, make it
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economically viable and scientifically and technologically self-generating. Dr.Ramanna made the Reactor Group work on the 500 MW high-flux research indigenous effort in three years. Dr.Ramanna was convinced that India’s geo-strategic interest could be secured only by India becoming a nuclear weapon power. The threatened economic sanctions by the West and the collusion of Pakistan with China in producing atomic weapons were complicating the issue. By the end of the 1980’s became evident that Pakistan had a few nuclear weapons in its basement. India’s response was to continue the policy of ambivalence but with a high degree of preparedness. When Dr.Ramanna retired from the AEC in early 1987, he had made sure that his principal associates had moved ahead substantially on the weaponisation programme. India had to respond beyond routinely telling the country that its security would be ensured under all circumstances. By the middle 1990’s the then P.M. reportedly gave clearance to carry out a weapon test and preparations began. However the U.S. pressure on the then PM resulted in his countermanding the earlier approval. The PM who came later took the firm decision to go ahead with Pokhran II test in May 1998. The Indian economy had in the mean time grown robust enough to withhand the economic sanction that the US and its allies imposed on India.
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Contrary to the fears in some sections of Indian opinion, relations with the US actually improved after India 18. became overtly nuclear. India with a nuclear arsenal is better able to support universal nuclear disarmament, which continues to be India’s goal. 17. The legacy of Dr.Raja Ramanna is that over half-a centry of his association with the Atomic energy programme, he helped build up a large pool of scientists and technologists who could take on new and challenging problems in nuclear science and technology to
address the country’s needs of energy and National security. Dr.Raja Ramanna was a mentor, guide and teacher to persons of Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam’s calibre. He was a towering and multi-faceted personality. He was always keen to contribute to the National Development with a sense of mission. To the S&T community Dr.Raja Ramanna was always a source of inspiration and a guide. (Culled from tributes by Dr.H.N.Sethna, Dr.P.K.Iyengar and Dr.M.R.Srinivasan all former Chairmen of A.E.C., Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam and Dr.G.Parthasarathy, Senior Atomic Scientist).
INDIA TO LAUNCH SEVEN SATELLITES
ITH the Department Of Space (DoS) planning to launch seven satellites under the new INSAT-4 series by 2007, Indian communication satellite system is expected to get a major boost in the coming years.
As for other space projects, GSAT-2, which would be launched by the second developmental test flight of the GeoSynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, has The DoS report for 2001-02 says the undergone completion of assembly of the satellites in the new configuration will help flight structure. in increasing the INSAT transponders in various bands to 251. the Indian National GSAT-3 and GSAT-4 are also under Satellite System (INSAT) is one of the planning. One of these satellites is proposed largest domestic communication satellite to carry Ka-band regenerative transponders systems in the Asia-Pacific region, with five and a large unfurlable antenna, besides other satellites—INSAT-2C, INSAT-2DT, INSAT- new technologies.
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2E, INSAT-3B operation.
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INSAT-3C—in
Divya Astra exercise was held of Mahajan Ranges near Surtgarh in Rajasthan to demonstrate the Indian Army’s fire power.
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INDIGENOUS CRYOGENIC ENGINE TO POWER NEXT FLIGHT OF GSLV
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n indigenously crafted cryogenic engine will power the next flight of the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), scheduled for February or March next year (2005), the Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), G.Madhavn Nair, said.
4A would be launched shortly from Kourou in French Guiana. Other plans included launching of CARTOSAT in the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite series from Sriharikota. This satellite would be able to take stereoscopic pictures needed for mapping of the terrain. As the telemedicine projects has been successful, launching of The cryogenic engine, to be used for the third thematic satellite dedicated to medical stage of the GSLV, has been tested for 6000 purposes would also have to be considered. seconds of operation and is fully qualified. The launch would take place possibly from Virtual classrooms the new launch-pad being built at Sriharikota, the chairman told a ‘Meet the He said that the EDUSAT would become press programme’. operational in four weeks. About 1000 terminal stations would be set up throughout Rocket parts India shortly to receive signals from the satellite in interactive mode. This would Mr.Nair said the relaxation of import facilitate virtual classrooms that enable restrictions on rocket parts and other space students to interact with the teachers. The technology items by the United States would number of terminals would be increased to help India get quality parts at cheaper rates. 10,000 later. Mr.Nair said that the Rs.350 The country is importing about $200 millions crore Chandrayan project was not a costly worth of items from the US and about $100 one. The amount came to only 0.5 per cent million worth of items from Europe. Now, of the ISRO’s budge. the imports from the US could go up by $100 millions. The technologically challenging project would enable the ISRO to do mapping of He said that the ISRO’s immediate projects the lunar surface and undertake several included the launching of INSAT 4A and scientific quests. INSAT 4B satellites. The 3.7 tonne INSAT (The Hindu)
India has emerged as the third largest producer of arms among developing nations, according to a recent report presented to the US Congress. China and the United Arab Emirates were the top two producers of arms over the last four years.
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SKY IS THE LIMIT
ndia will be launching a GSLV with indigenously designed cryogenic engine, The satellites launched earlier were capable next year (2005), according to of transmitting images only during the day. N.Vedachalam, director of the Liquid Now it has been planned to send a satellite Propulsion Planning Centre of ISRO. fitted with radars which could send perfect India had, by launching Edu-sat September photographs even at night. Research was 2004, proved its major role in the now on to produce the radar, camera, films and other equipment needed for this purpose development of science and technology. at the Ahmedabad and Bangalore space India had so far launched 11 satellites and research centres and at Vikram Sarabai 10 of them had succeeded totally. The recent Centre in Thiruvananthapuram, he said. Edusat satellite had been placed in an elliptical orbit, 36,000 km above earch, with Satellites fitted with these equipment would be launched within the next two years. As meticulous precision. regards the indigenous cryogenic engine, he He said that the directions of winds, 20 km said the planning process is on at the space above the earth, vary and this may lead to research centres in Thiruvananthapuram and some hazards while launching satellites. The Mahendragiri. ISRO launching centre at Sriharikota had been working on this problem for the past Vedachalam said that UTMS liquid is used 40 years and it had recorded data about the as propellant for rocket engines. This is velocity of winds, their direction and other highly combustible and therefore, it has been factors. It was because of this data that the decided to develop a fuel comprising kerosene and liquid oxygen. (TNIE) Edusat was launched successfully.
I
“Avatar”
India unveils space plane—Avatar: Indian scientists have designed a reusable space plane—Avatar—which can launch satellites of a minimal cost and take tourists on a ride to space. It was unveiled on July 11, 2001 in the US by former chairman of Bharat Dynamics Limited, retired Air Commodore Raghavan Gopalaswami, the brain behind the lowkey project funded by the Defence Research Development Organisation. Avatar’s design-which can be launched 100 times and produces its own fuel in flight— has been patented in India. A space trip on board Avatar would cost a fraction of the 20 million dollar that a US businessman Denis Tito paid for a visit to the international space station in May 2001.
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DEFENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION- ACHIEVEMENTS
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he Place – An emerging ‘developed areas of Aeronautics and Avionics, Armament, Combat Vehicles and nation’ – India Engineering, Electronics Communication The Vision – To make India self reliant in and Computer Systems, Missiles, Naval Systems and Materials and Life Sciences. Defence Technologies The Path – The Defence Research and The Achievements : A few of the feathers Development Organisation (DRDO) The Genesis – Set up in 1948, originally as in the cap the Defence Science Organisation, with a few basic science laboratories, DRDO came Successfully developed state-of-the-art systems: Light Combat Aircraft-Tejas; into its present form on 01, Jan. 1958. Missiles-Agni, Prithvi, Nag, Brah Mos; Main The Expertise…. – DRDO is actively battle Tank – Arjun; Multi barrel Rocket engaged in design and development work in launcher – Pinaka; Multi – Hop Bridging state-of-the-art technologies in the frontier Sytem – Sarvatra; Radars – Indira, Rajendra and BFSR; Pilotless Target AircraftLakshya; Sonars – Humsa and Mihir; Torpedoes and Naval Mines; Wargames – Shatranj, Manthan. Success stores also in: Robotics and Artificial Intelligence; materials; Metallurgy; Food Preservation; High Altitude Agriculture; Avalanche Prediction and Control; Camouflage; Physiology and Psychology. I COMBAT VEHICLES MBT Arjun : A state-of-the-art battle tank with a high performance engine developing 1500 hp and flexible hydro-pneumatic suspension. It’s fast and accurate target acquisition ensures excellent first-hit probability. Indigenously developed ‘KANCHAN’ composite armour provides enhanced protection.
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II COMBAT ENGINEERING 1. Sarvatra - A world class multi-hop bridging system to overcome obstacles of varied nature upto a width of 100m. This state-of-the-art trestle-cum-span bridge of class MLC-70 can be launched and recovered from either side of the obstacle. 2. Armament - Multi-Barrel Rocket System Pinaka - Area weapon system to augment the existing artillery beyond 30 km range. A battery of 6 launchers can neutralise a target area of 700 x 500 m. 5.56 mm Indian Small Arms System (INSAS) The INSAS family consists of 5.56 mm Rifle and LMG in fixed and foldable butt versions, both firing the same ammunition. Salient features are its light weight, how recoil energy and commonality of components and such assemblies. III LIFE SCIENCES Rations for Services - Developed to meet nutritional needs of troops operating in far flung in-hospitable terrain under hostile weather conditions.
items for detection, protection and decontamination. A few items on display are; • Radiac Personal Locket Dosimeter : Wrist dosimeter for measuring gamma and neutron cumulative dose. • Permeable Suit with NBC Mask : -Provides protection against toxic vapours, aerosol and droplets – 3 layered suit. • Respirator :Provides protection against toxic gases and vapour, smoke, radioactive dust and bacteria. • Extreme Cold Weather / Glacier Clothing : DRDO has developed ;special clothing for troops operating in extreme cold, high altitudes and glacial areas. These are made of multi layers of carefully chosen material and are modular in design • Following items have been developed for use in extreme cold weather conditions: • Under Vest and Under pant • Jacket and Trouser ECW • Socks Lycra, Gloves ECW, Cap Glacier • Sleeping Bag ECW, Ruck-Sack • Indigenous Dental Implants : Cost effective indigenous titanium dental implants and surgical kits have been successfully developed. They can be fabricated to suit individual needs. This technology has been transferred to the industry for volume production.
Compo Pack Ration Easy to prepare high energy packed meals for soldiers deployed in operational situations, Designed to meet short IV Aero sustenance needs. • Tejas : TEJAS is the world’s smallest, lightweight, multi-role combat aircraft Meals-ready-to-eat(MRE) and Convenient designed to meet the stringent demands of Food Mixes Indian Air Force, as its frontline multiPre-cooked wholesome processed foods for mission single seater tactical aircraft. TEJAS quick preparation. integrates modern concepts and the stateNBC Clothing and Equipment of-the-art technologies like Fly-by-Wire To provide protection in Nuclear (fallout), Flight Control System, Multi-Mode Radar, chemical or biological contamination created Advanced Composite Material for structures by the adversary. Consists of a number of and a Flat Rated Engine.
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• Nishant : Nishant is a pusher propeller driven Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), launched from a hydro-pneumatic rail launcher. It has been developed for battlefield surveillance and reconnaissance. Carrying electro-optic payload, it has an endurance of over 4 hrs. V Missiles • Agni : Agni II-Surface-to-Surface, Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM), is a 2-stage solid propellant missile with a range in excess of 2000 kms. Armed with state-of-the-art technologies in control and guidance, re-entry, multi-staging and communication interface, Agni II confers on operational capability to deliver a variety of payloads on targets which are, at present, beyond the range of combat aircraft. • Nag : Nag is a third generation antitank missile system with “fire and forget” and “top attack” capabilities. The State-ofthe-art IIR (Imaging Infra Red) homing guidance system has lock-on-before-launch (LOBL) capability for a day and night operation. • Prithvi : A tactical Surfact-to-Surface Missile System, Prithvi is a battlefield support weapon for the Army with a range of 150 km, and a 1 tonne warhead. In its versions for the navy and airforce, it has a range of 250 km with 500-kg warheads.
VI Naval Advanced Light Weight Torpedo • Lightweight State-of-the-art Torpedo used in anti submarine warfare. • Can be launched from ships as well as helicopters. • Homes-on to the target based on the sonar signals received. It is equipped with intelligent electronics to differentiate between actual and false targets. In-built logic and guidance and control schemes enable it to accurately attack the target. Mihir • Used with helicopters for detection of underwater targets. • Comprises of a dunking sonar and four-channel sonobuoy processor. • Information about the target is relayed to the mothership or submarine for firing of a torpedo on the target.
VI ELECTRONICS Battle Field Surveillance Radar (Short Range) Brah Mos • A world-class supersonic anti-ship cruise • Battery powered man-portable surveillance missile with a maximum range of 300 kms. rader for use in the battlefield. • Can be launched from multiple platforms • Benchmarked against some of the best in the world, its range of detection is: Land, Sea, Sub-Sea and Air based. 500 mtrs • Capable of engaging shore based radio- • Crawling man • Single/Group of Walking Men - 2-4 kms contrast targets. • Moving light/combat vehicle - 5-10 km • Low flying helicopters 6 km
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3-D Medium Range Surveillance Radar • A 3-dimensional, medium range radar, capable of detecting and tracking multiple aerial targets (aircrafts.) • Can track 150 targets simultaneously in Track While Scan (TWS) mode. • Detection range more than 120 kms at 15 rpm and 150 kms at 7.5 rpm. • 360° azimuth and 20° elevation coverage VII Technologies MMIC A facility for design, fabrication, assembly, testing and quality assurance of Gallium Arsenide based Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) to Military Standards has been established. VLSI Core competence to designing and realising Application Specific Integrated circuits (ASIC) has been achieved. A facility for
indigenously manufacturing MIL-qualified devices has been established recently. EW Systems Under the programme for development of Integrated Electronic Warfare capabilities, ESM and ECM System are being developed for the Indian Army as well as the Indian Navy. This capability would enable effective use of the e.m. spectrum by own forces while denying its use to the adversary. Digital Radio Frequency memory (DRFM) DRFM is used in present day radar ECM systems to electronically counter enemy radar signals. It enables digital storage of down converted enemy radar signals, introduce delay and retransmit after up conversion, to jam enemy radar. It is capable of introducing range advancement, range delay and false target generation. Very few countries have this capability. (D.R.D.O. Handout)
MAGNA CARTA ON NATIONAL SECURITY RELEASED
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he group of Ministers on security have released the report on national security system. The report said that the Centre would set up a strategic command to manage its nuclear forces, tighten border management and establish a defence intelligence agency.
While nuclear forces will be “unambiguously’ under civil control, a new Chief of defence Staff will exercise administrative control and be the singlepoint military advisor to the government. The Chief of defence Staff (CDS) will be a four-star officer, drawn from one of the three armed forces. Currently, the army, Central to the revamp is the integration of air force and navy are each headed by the Defence Service Headquarters with the separate chiefs who report to a civil Ministry of Defence. India is the only Defence Minister. country where the army, navy and air force headquarters are treated as attached offices A new border intelligence agency, and a of the Ministry of Defence, and not an new defence procurement agency to integral part of it. streamline arms-buying procedures are the other recommendations of the report.
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INDIA’S SPACE PROGRAMME; POISED FOR A QUANTUM JUMP
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n the latest Annual Report of the Indian Space Department the space research achievements of the country have been hailed as under: “Even as India entered the new Millennium, the space programme in the country has matured to a status where the space has become an important element of national infrastructure, especially in the areas of communication, broadcasting, meteorology, disaster management and resources monitoring. India is recognised in the world over for its unique application-driven space programme. The plans to further enhance and improve the space services by launching follow-on satellites in the INSAT and IRS series in the coming years, and to enhance launch capability to place INSAT class of satellites in orbit through GSLV, the Indian space programme is poised to play a significant role in the country’s march towards the progress in the new Millennium.”
INSAT system-capability in the country. This system is also instrumental in providing required metrological cover to the entire country. Indian space research programme is now poised to achieve new heights. Successful launch of booster Geosynchronous Sattellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) in the coming time would be a great achievement by India in the space research. GSLV class space booster technology is available only with the USA, Russia, China, Japan and the European Space Agency. This capability would enable the country to do away with the need to hire commercial rocket launchers.
Indian space research in the field of development of cryogenic engines is also at the threshold of achieving a unique success. The fully cryogenic stage engine was expected to be developed by the Indian scientists by the year 2003. Development of this capability by India would bring it at par with the USA, Russia, China and a few India is a pioneering country in the European countries. developing world to have outstanding achievements in space research. The Yet another achievement awaiting the Indian application-driven space programme of the scientists is the impending launch of country has earned the applause of the entire Microgravity Recoverable Satellite (MARS). world. INSAT series of satellites have Only a few countries in the world, like the brought significant changes in the fields of USA, Russia, China and Japan, have been communications, broadcasting, radio- able to develop this capability so far. This network and disaster management. At would enable India to develop a reusable and present more than 400 earth stations, located recoverable satellite. Successful experiments in various parts of the country are linked to at the Bangalore-based ISRO Satellite the INSAT series of satellites. INSAT-3 Centre have paved the way for achieving this launch has significantly augmented the unique success.
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The latest conflict with Pakistan in the Kargil area during the year 1999 had exposed India’s weakness in the field of intelligence collection, necessitating the need for a high performance earth imaging satellite. The space scientists of the country have thus started working to develop a CARTOSAT satellite, providing the facilities of stereoimaging for generation of digital terrain model. Expected to be launched in a year’s time, CARTOSAT satellite would greatly assist the Indian defence forces to plan their
warfare strategy. It would also help in preventing Kargil type of situation in future. This would essentially be a remote sensing satellite in the IRS series and would appreciably enhance India’s military capabilities. Information gathered from such satellites would also help the country in collecting agricultural data, flood mapping, drought monitoring and water resource management, in addition to several other advantages. (The Competition Master)
AGNI – 1
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he successful test-launch of the surface-to-surface missile Agni-1, on January 25, 2002, was significant in terms of bridging the felt gap between the Prithvi-II missile, which has a range of 250 km, and the Agni-II, which can strike targets 2,500 km away-Agni has a range of 700 km and can carry nuclear warheads, thus giving teeth to India’s deterrence posture. The January 25 launch from a road mobile launcher at the Interim Test Range on Wheelers’ Island, Chandipur-on-Sea, Orissa, carried a one-tonne dummy payload.Defence experts do not feel shy of admitting that Agni-is Pakistan-specific.
The Agni variant is part of India’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). With a sea-based deterrent not on the horizon yet, the present launch demonstrates that India wants to stabilise its nuclear deterrent on the basis of land-based capability. Defence analysts opine that the test reflects India’s move from a ‘minimum credible deterrent’ as the leitmotif of its no-first-use policy to ‘credible minimum deterrent’ in its quest for nuclear credibility.
Ayni, located near the capital of Tajikistan, is India’s first-ever military base in a
foreign country—past Sri lanka.
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NATIONAL SECURITY
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he question: who lives if India dies is neither hypothetical nor hallucinatory. Economically, the world may have become a ‘global village’ but politically, the world is still dotted with nation-States demarcated by distinct as well as vague boundaries, giving rise to occasional skirmishes and subtle but sinister moves to alter the balance of power. If the paradigms of national security are determined by well-defined or natural dividers like rivers, mountains or seas, even then the need to be ever vigilant all the time should remain both paramount and predominant in the national interest-cumsecurity. A snake in the grass can prove as fatal as the enemy sitting across the border with his lethal gun aimed at the target. In both situations, complacency can lead to very unsavoury consequences.
budget to equip the armed forces with the latest weapons and force multipliers. Having neighbours not very friendly disposed we cannot afford to ‘lower our guard’. With narco-terrorism, coupled with religious fundamentalism, having spread its tantalizing tentacles across the country, the contours and contents of national security have undergone a complete metamorphosis over the years. The continuing proxy war unleashed in different parts of the country posed threats to our national security. It can brook no laxity on anyone’s part. With the strengthening and modernising of intelligence set-up, the timely detection and defusing of time-bombs, RDX, etc have gone a long way in saving many a life and avert the breakout of communal tensions and tempers. These measures, in a plural polity like India, have helped to preserve our social fabric. The way we have withstood these challenges, coming from outside and also raising their ugly heads at home, testifies the inherent strength of our perceptions, that are national in character and international in vision and vigour. Pakistan’s misadventure in Kargil has obviously made it mandatory for us to look afresh at the defence allocation because less than fifteen per cent of India’s armaments
No doubt, the proverb: Those who sweat more in times of peace, lose less blood in times of war is tellingly in touch and tune with the state of preparedness, which is the sine qua non of national security. After the 1962 debacle, the then President of the Republic, Dr.S.Radhakrishnan, had warned the nation against being caught napping again. His candid counsel and words of wisdom good by us in good stead and we were able to face the 1965 aggression with dogged determination, resulting in a decisive defeat of the enemy. Now, after the betrayal writ large in the blood of our valiant soldiers and officers on the most inhospitable and tortuous heights of Kargil, President K.R.Narayanan minced no words in asking the people to be united in the face of ‘more Kargils’ and mooted a hike in the defence
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are contemporary in nature, as against a world average of thirty per cent. In fact, the Indian Army today spends 85 per cent of its annual budget just to maintain its existing force levels, which leaves almost next to nothing for modernisation. Any hike in defence spending will come not a minute too soon to arrest the declining teeth-to-tail ratio of India’s 1.14 million strong military. The draft nuclear doctrine, which spells out the minimum nuclear deterrent, robust command and control systems and the broad thrust on nuclear forces, even while reiterating its strict adherence to the objective of ‘no-firstuse’ and non-use against non-nuclear weapon States, is the most cogent and clear document of our intentions and, if need be, the possible line of action in the national interest and its security. The draft further delineates the concept that shall encompass “sufficient survivable and operationally
prepared nuclear forces; effective intelligence and early warning capabilities; comprehensive planning and training for operations in line with the strategy and the will to employ nuclear forces and weapons”. The concept and concretisation of National Security depend upon the stamina and strength of the armed forces and the Nation’s economic resilience and political stability. If any one of the pillars becomes weak or vulnerable, the hawks and vultures around us can pounce and pound us with all their ruthlessness. Our history, unfortunately, is replete with instances when our own distrust difference and disunity played havoc with our national pride. The invaders in all forms and formulations found the land fertile to execute their nefarious designs and dastardly deeds. If there is any one lesson that Indian history has to teach us it is ‘United we stand and divided we fall’.[The Competition Master]
INDIAN ARMY The Indian Army is today (1999) composed of three armoured divisions, nine independent armoured brigades and 29 infantry divisions. (Both plains infantry divisions and mountain divisions counted). INDIAN NAVY Indian Navy has (1999) 26 corvettes (Smaller sized ships) 19 frigates 13 submarines, 38 OPV minesweeper-countermines ship/survey vessels, five destroyers and two air craft carrier. AIR FORCE The Indian Air force has focussed like its sister services, to a significant extent on acquiring a larger and technologically more advanced arsenal. There are (1999) four MIG-29 squadrons, three squadrons of Mirage, five squadrons of Jaguar and four Su-30 Mks. The air force also owns 22 squadrons of MIG21, six squadrons of MIG 27 and two squadrons of MIG 23 BN, six squadrons of AN32, and 45 numbers Ilyushin 76s.More MIG 29 Mirage 2000s, and Su 30 MKS are being indirected. (From the Army Bulletins)
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GSLV LAUNCHES INDIA INTO ELITE CLUB
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n April 18, 2001, India’s first developmental flight of Geosynchronous Scientifc launch Vehicle (GSLV-D1) blasted off successfully from the coastal town of Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh. Launching a massive 300 tonne plus, 40 metre high rocket tens of thousands of kms into space, and injecting a satellite with such precision that it will go around the earth at the same rate as the earth, and hence stay overhead, are no mean tasks. India becomes one of the five countries that now have the capacity to do this. This means access to a launch vehicle market that is estimated at $3 billion per annum. Currently it also means the ability to put up Indian satellites of the INSAT class of a much cheaper cost. Currently, such satellites that provide transponders for communications and TV channels, are launched by Aerospace, the European consortium, or the Russians.
The first experimental payload abroad the GSLV-D1 was the GSAT-1 which was put in a geosynchronous orbit. It has three Cbond transponders, and two S-band transponders to help in digital audio broadcasting and other communications.
The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) project was initiated in 1990 with the objective of acquiring launch capability for Geosynchronous satellites. The first flight test, GSLV-D1, is intended to validate the various systems of the vehicle in an actual flight. Though each of the subsystems has been tested on ground, it is only through a few developmental flight tests that the launch vehicle, as a whole, and all the associated ground systems can be validated, Several performances parameters of propulsion stages, avionics, control and guidance system, the stage and spacecraft separation system, are monitored in flight. The design margins are more realistically estimated from the in-flight test of the While civilian uses are the ones that are most vehicle. talked about, India needs on autonomous space launch capability most for military GSLV is the most technologically reasons, not for offensive purposes which are challenging mission undertaken so far under banned, but for military uses. Beyond the Indian space programme, it is the surveillance and communications, the GSIV- culmination of efforts of a large number of 1 and its predecessor PSLV also signal scientist, engineers and technicians, over the India’s ability to build long-range last ten years. intercontinental missiles.
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H A L - HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LIMITED
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he history of the Indian Aircraft Industry can be traced to the founding of Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in December 1940 in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore and late Shri Seth Walchand Hirachand, an Industrialist of extra -ordinary vision. Govt. of India became one of its shareholders in March 1941 and took over the management in 1942. Hindustan Aircraft Limited was merged with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur to form Hindustan Aeronautics Guard in March 2002, in its first year of production which is a unique achievement. Limited (HAL) on 01st October 1964. Today HAL has got 16 production units and 9 research and design centres spread out in seven different locations in India. Its product track record consists of 12 types of aircraft from in house R &D and 13 types by license production. HAL has so far produced over 3300 aircraft, 3400 Aeroengines and overhauled over 7700 aircraft and 26000 engines. HAL has engaged & succeeded in number of R & D programs for both the military and civil aviation sectors. Substantial progress has been made in the current projects like Dhruv -Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH), Tejas-Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) and various military and civil upgrades. The deliveries of Dhruv were effected to Indian Army, Navy, Air Force and Coast
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HAL has played a significant role for India’s space programs in the manufacturing of satellite launch vehicles like PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle), GSLV (Geo Stationary Launch Vehicle), IRS (Indian Remote Satellite) & INSAT (Indian National Satellite). HAL has also two joint venture companies, BAeHAL Software Limited and IndoRussian Aviation Limited (IRAL). Apart from the two, other major diversification projects are Industrial Marine Gas turbine and Airport Services. Several co-production and joint Ventures with international participation are under consideration.
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HAL’s supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defence Services, Coast Guard and Border Security Force. Transport aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness.
HAL, has won several International & National Awards for achievements in R&D, Technology, managerial performance, exports, energy conservation, quality and fulfillment of social responsibilities. M/S Global Rating, United Kingdom in conjunction with The International The Company scaled new heights in the Information and Marketing Center (IIMC) financial year 2002-2003 with a turn over has awarded the “INTERNATIONAL of Rs. 3120 Crores and export of Rs. 103.89 Crores. (HAL-WEB SITE)
GOLD MEDAL AWARD” AT THE INTERNATIONAL SUMMIT (GLOBAL RATING LEADERS 2003) LONDON, UK to M/s. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for Corporate Achievement in Quality and Efficiency. HAL was also presented the INTERNATIONAL “ ARCH OF EUROPE” AWARD IN GOLD CATEGORY in recognition for its commitment to Quality, Leadership, technology & Innovation. At National level, HAL won the top award instituted- by SCOPE (Standing Conference of Public Enterprises) -The “GOLD TROPHY” for excellence in Public Sector Management.
INDIA BUYS EIGHT RADARS WORTH $ 146M FROM US
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ndia has concluded a landmark defence deal with the United States for the purchase of eight gun locating radars, valued at $ 146 million, in what both sides say presages a growing military relationship between the two countries. Under the terms of the deal, the US will supply eight counter-battery AN/TPQ-37 Firefinder radar systems, plus advanced communications and support equipment, training and logistics services.
The radar sets are designed to pinpoint longrange mortars, artillery and rocket launchers after tracking a shell for only a few seconds. The system then relays precise information for counter-fire, tracking correcting and improving the counter-barrage as it is under way. Pakistan already has the same equipment and the Indian bid to buy the radar was approved relatively quickly because it was considered force-equaliser.
In the biggest-ever fighter manoeuvres, India and the Unites States held a ten-day joint air exercises over the Gwalior skies in February 2004, pitting the IAF against one of the most hi-tech forces in the world. The combat exercises were condenamed ‘Cope India 04’.
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ARJUN
1. Arjun, India’s indigenously built MainBattle-Tank (MBT) took more than 30 years to conceive, design, build and test. 2. It was built at the Heavy Vehicles Factory (HVF) at Avadi near Chennai. 3. The 43 regiment will be the first to have Indian MBTs. 4. Weapons systems of this kind take a generation to build. 5. With this, India joins a select group of Nations, capable of designing and developing such a complex weapons system. Building Arjun is described as a significant step forward in the quest of building a self-reliant and selfsufficient India, in defence preparedness. 6. The 58.5 tonne tank was designed and developed by the Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment, Avadi in association with DRDO resources around the country. 7. At present 50% of Arjun’s components are imported. The Army and DRDO hope to cut this down to 20%. 8. The ‘Arjun’ was a case of the country show-casing its capabilities in science and technology and management. 9. The Army establishment dreams of manufacturing 50 Arjun tanks per year in its Avadi and Medak (AP) facilities. 10. “The M.B.T. Arjun is a state of-the-art Armored Fighting Vehicle with superior fire power, high-mobility and excellent protections. This is one of the major technological success of DRDO” says Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam, our President.
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11. “If the efforts involved in designing, developing, testing and proving a complex weapon systems are massive, the efforts of transferring the technology for producing it, are even more daunting. DRDO has stood firm in its commitment to the Arjun programme and has excelled in system engineering, making Arjun a home of multi-disciplinary, integrated system. OFB has accomplished the production of Arjun absorbing the latest technology says the Minister of State for Defence. 12. Arjun is a pride on tracks with excellent road and cross country mobility, high degree of manoevrability, and maximum crew comfort. 13. Arjun is a technological force: with day and night fighting capability, excellent first round hit capability, fire on the
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move capability and highly mobile and agile weapon platform. 14. “An armoured fighting vehicle is an extremely complicated weapon platform requiring perspicacious integration of many hi-tech systems and sub-systems. The landmark realization of the Arjun mission is therefore an eloquent testimony of the vision, skills and persistence of our defence scientists and engineers” says the Chief of our Army Staff. 15. “The task of designing and integrating a complex and technologically stateof-the-art weapon system is colossal
and challenging. The determination and resolve exhibited by these laboratories throughout the programme deserves our appreciation” says Dr.V.K.Aatre, Scientific Adviser, To Defence Minister Secretary and DG R&D (DRDO), Government of India. 16. “It is a state-of-the art battle tank comparable to the best available in the world. It’s fire power, mobility and protection are one of the best in the world” says The DG OF & Chairman, Ordnance Factory Board, Ministry of Defence, Government of India.
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A Remarkable Book
DEFENDING INDIA
start with, the essence of Indian civilisational thought engages itself more with the otherworldly than this.” Shri Jaswant Singes then goes on to quote in extenso Shri Aurobindo the great Indian philosopher and sage:“India’s central conception is that of the Eternal, the spirit, involved and imminent in it and evolving on the material plane by rebirth of the individual…. till in mental man it enters the world of ideas and realm of conscious morality – Dharma. India’s social system is built upon this conception; her philosophy formulates it; her religion is an aspiration to the spiritual consciousness and its fruits; her art and literature have the same upward look; her whole Dharma of law of being is founded upon it. It is her founding of life upon this exalted conception and her urge towards the spiritual and the eternal that constitute the distinct value of her civilization.”
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hri Jaswant Singh who has held portfolios such as defence, finance, external affairs in the government of India, and has been the Deputy Chairman of India’s planning Commission, has penned a remarkable book on Defending India.
In the first chapter, “Strategic Culture”, he summarises the causes as to why India continuously faced aggression for the last two millennia. What are the factors that have gone into the building of India’s Strategic Culture. – the assumptions, symbols, myths, and beliefs held by National leaders that affect their perception of available acceptable strategic options. Strategic Culture is a “nebulous ideational milieu, which limits behavioural choices.” The strategic culture of a Nation acts to establish long-lasting strategic preferences by formulating concepts of the role and efficacy of military force in inter-state political affairs. The role of domestic politics in shaping the attitudes of a society toward its military and the political views of the military with regard to its host society are significant. At the same time strategic culture acknowledges the importance of the internal culture that was not determined by the distribution of domestic political power. The problem however with strategic culture tends to lie in its application. In a proper understanding of power, in the ability of a people and society to generate power, thereafter to have the necessary social will and ability for a full and effective employment of that power.
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and many others before and after him, remarked that India through centuries venerated the sage against the statesmen, a learned man instead of a warrior. That is why India has failed to give political expression to her ideals. The importance of wealth and power though theoretically recognized, was not practically realised. India has suffered for this negligence. ‘Spiritual unity’ says Dr. Radhakrishnan ‘is a large and flexible thing and does not insist Shri Jaswant Singh examines how India like the political and external on the applies these broad criteria. He adds that “to centralization and uniformity; rather it lives
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diffused in the system and permits readily a attributes? great diversity and freedom of life.’ 2) How did they evolve historically through the ages? Jaswant Singh adds “Here we touch on the 3) How has the Indian civilizational end secret of the difficulty.” cultural ethos influenced them? 4) How do we rate the existence and Myson Weiner bluntly puts it ‘The absence effectiveness of Indian state? of analytical continuity among ancient 5) What are India’s own and acquired (Indian) political theorists, the relatively military concepts? - in brief India’s military small role of political theory in the dense culture. fabric of Hindu philosophical and religious 6) In the background of Defending India, lie writings, the historical break in this literature the questions about history, its recording, caused by the Muslim invasions, the about geography and territoriality. introduction of European political ideas and 7) The events of the British period and Indian institutions in the 19th century …. all suggest Military revolution. the irrelevance of classical Hindu thought” 8) The events of the period of Independence (in defending India). transforming social, politcal and civilmilitary relations and what these did to the Shri Jaswant Singh defines his field thus “We development of a suitable strategic culture. thus have a set of criteria against which to 9) Internally and externally, what were the strategic challenges to an independent India examine the entire range of questions. and did the political - administrative-military 1) Does India at all possess the needed leadership of this period 1947-97 anticipate,
MANSABDARS AND SILLEDARS
he Moghul Army (Basically an Indian Army) was large. How to command and control such a force? The heart of it was the ‘mansabdar’ system. This was both a recognition of social standing and an obligation when called to provide a certain specified number of troops particularly for the cavalry and a right to draw from the imperial treasury. The number of men commanded ranged from twenty upwards.
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existing Rajput system of class and tribal levies, transform and adopt them and also give it a monetary ingredient plus lend a certain imperial social cachet.
A commander of cavalry would often bring with him his own retainers, mounted at his expense, though sometimes the trooper provided arms and equipment for himself. A man bringing such a troop on his own horses was a silledar. Mansab really means a rank and what (“Defending India” by Jaswant Singh the Mughals did was to recognize the -Mac Millan India Ltd. Bangalore 1999)
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understand and address itself effectively to the process providing a kind of continuity them? This is our canvas for an enquiry into to independent India’s strategic culture, even India’s strategic culture. if that continuity be of, negative attributes like veneration of the received wisdom, an The Book discusses in detail how India’s absence of iconoclastic questioning; a still defences have been neglected for the last continuing lack of institutional frame-work twenty centuries and how destiny has for policy formulation; lack of a sense of presented now our motherland with a fine history and geography; an absence of opportunity to correct the situation. sufficient commitment to territorial According to Shri Jaswant Singh, the formidable and daunting tasks confronting the independent Nation at the time of the trauma of partition and at a time with problem of integration of 600 states were: 1) Formulation and enunciation of India’s foreign policy 2) Organizing the higher defence and military organizations 3) Approach to the dawning of the age of atomic weaponry 4) Assessment of the dawning of the cold war and India’s response 5) Evaluation of the geopolitical realities of the post-colonial Asia, 6) Evolution of India’s postIndependent armed forces 7) India and its newly - independent neighbours in South Asia, particularly Pakistan 8) India and China.The chapter on strategic culture discusses the legacy of Nehruvian strategic culture in great detail. The chapter ends in a serious note. “If Seemingly disproportionate space has been devotee to the legacy of Nehruvian strategic culture, it is not on account of any bias; it is in the very progression of Independent India as a viable state and an examination of the foundations. There alone in the Nehru period that is during the entire stretch of half a century was demonstrated any original thought. Nehru’s legacy whether still relevant or not, remains denominant, in
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impregnability, and a tendency to remain static in yesterday’s doctrines, even form.” The second chapter of the book titled “Armed Forces” lists the processes of evolution of the Indian Army, and the place of Sikhs in Indian Army, the British period, (the Birth of the British Indian Army) and the Twentieth century are discussed. Discussing Indianization of the Army, the author says “It is rather a misnomer, this ‘Indianization’. The Indian Army, whether as a force of the East India Company or in the subsequently evolved forms was always almost wholly Indian: in manpower, in recruitment, in habits and in conduct. The number of British was always a small fraction, and that too only officers. There are many reason why the British resisted opening this up until the last, not really till the Second World War. But these reasons need not detain us; they were after all the inevitable consequence of colonialism. Race, language, religion, amongst other
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aspects, separated the British officers from the Indian men. How then did they function? It was through a unique innovation, wholly Indian, born partly of pragmatism but more as a direct descendant of an earlier system; and this was the office known as a Viceroy’s Commissioned Officer (VCO). This functionary, now called Junior Commissioned Officer (JCO) (to be distinguished from the much later Indian Commissioned Officer, ICO) was the conduit, the connecting link that bridged the divided. The VCO was directly in charge of a body of troops; he was answerable for their discipline, welfare, leave, complaints, problems at home, even promotion and recognition. Seldom could an ordinary Indian soldier hope to rise having fallen foul of his VCO. And this VCO, conceptually and effectively, was the direct descendant (altered no doubt, but only in progression) of the basic idea of mansabdari and silledari. The British, as they replaced the Mughals, improved upon the inherited mansabdari/ silledari systems, adapted them and innovatively discovered the VCO. It is significant that this practice was unique to the Indian Army alone. Neither the Navy nor the Air Force felt the need, ever, having in any case evolved in a staggered time frame. It is both curious and telling that till date this rank continues, not just in India but in the armies of Pakistan and Bangladesh too. In that sense the Indian Army was an Indianized army always, from its inception.”
The army was divided between India and Pakistan in a rough division of 2:1. Integration of State Forces: The consequences of partition were manyfold. For the armed forces, they posed mainly three immediate challenges a) of a physical separation of units on the basis of religion and this went down to company/squadron levels; b) a proper division of the military assets of an undivided India, between the partitioned countries of India and Pakistan and c) thirdly of integrating divided units as also the forces transferring to the union of India from princely states. The next section Army in Independent India; ethos and organization; talks not about the quantitative growth of India’s defenders, but about the fundamentals that governed this growth. The origin and growth of Indian Navy and Indian Air Force are studied. The chapter winds up with a brief discussion of R & D and the R/D institutions.
The third chapter Independent India’s Military operations lists and discusses India’s major military operations (1947-97) and Major peace - keeping operations (1947 - 97) A sad account is about the military forces being called to intervene in Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura, Punjab, J & K and Assam. This job is basically a police job and the military forces being invited for the civil job In the next section the book discusses the is always a painful turn of events. traumatic events of partition of the country, accompanied by the partition of the armed Every operation has taught the Armed Forces forces. The Indian Army (in the modern some lessons which were incorporated in the sense) which had taken two and a half body structure of the forces, later on. centuries to construct was to be dismantled The Fourth chapter on Defence Spending within three weeks! and Force structure is a very practical
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analysis coming as it does from an ex-Army officer and later Minister for Defence, Finance and Foreign affairs. If such studies help the GOI to frame a permanent policymaking body and create a permanent nonlapsible fund, the purpose of this painstaking study will be achieved. Comparison of Indian forces with those of China and Pakistan with reference to the population and G.D.P. of each country shows that allowing for the size and number, China has been spending seven to nine times more than India on its military. Only after 1985, the Indian expenditure could rise to half as that of China but fell to one third in 1990 and to one fourth in mid 90s. Pakistan also spends a higher percent of its GDP than India on its Armed forces.
Shri Jaswant Singh talks of the covert war, the clandestine war India has to face, in the context of such wars India had to contend with in the last 50 years and in the context of Chinese domination throughout. 1) The need and form of a National security council 2) The principle dynamics of economics, in have a strong defensive armed force, 3) The foreign policy of India as part of its security concerns, 4) The role of energy in the security affairs of the Nation, 5) The significance of the Environment, food and water and their impact on the nation’s internal and external security 6) The consequences of demography and demographic changes in the security situation of India, 7) The role of intelligence in securing the Nation, 8) The nuclear field, 9) The limited autonomy to be given to the force-heads within their fields etc. are elaborately discussed.
The chapter ends with a discussion on the adverse impact of using the Army for internal security. The book as well as K. Subrahmaniam’s (the Defence Analyst) introduction plead for The Fifth chapter The Future, attempts to institutionalization of India’s security policy peep through the uncertainties of the future formulation through the establishment of a with the only signposts that are discernible National Security Council. Consistency and being examples of the past. That is why the continuity in Defence Policies will be way India handled the challenges of the past possible only when the Nation shifts from half-century perhaps gives us a fair idea of inspired personal policy to systematized, assessing how it will respond in the future consistent, institutionalized approach, they too. Whereas the earlier incursions into India say. have been by the land route, colonization of India by the Western countries was carried A powerful, concerned, systematic, coolout of the sea route, emphasizing the headed yet passionate appeal for the proper importance of the Navy. Defence-system for India, shines through every page of the book. A must for every The lack or inadequacy of political, military patriotic person. (Defending India strategic sense by the post-Independent Jaswant Singh Mac Millan Press Ltd leadership in India comes out in the next Bangalore 1999) phase of discussion.
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INDIAN BRAVERY
Jaswant Singh
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hy did the Indians fight for and along with the British? The relationship was not of equals, it was that of the conquering and the conquered. Yet, for well on two and a half centuries, the Indians not only fought with the British, they fought as volunteers-there simply was no conscription, or forced enrolment at any stage. On the contrary, service in the Army, the British Indian Army, that is, was turned into and remained all through the British period, a matter of high honour, conferring great prestige on the volunteer. Why? And why is that not so now in independent India? What did the British do which India is failing to do for itself? Does a possible, even a half answer life in what Philip Mason suggests?
division, yes, that was something on which everyone could agree, but pride in a nation that was not yet a nation produced very mixed feelings. Officers and men could not share it in the same spirit….it explains nothing to say simply that they were “mercenary”. Men may came to the colours for pay but it is not for pay that they earn the Victoria Cross. And here Mason cites just one amongst many such instances from the glorious annuals of the Indian Army. Take, for example, the affair at Koregaum on New Year’s Day, 1818. Captain Staunton, of the Bombay army at short notice marched with less than 900 men (all Indians) and routed an army of 20000 horses and 8000 infantry in a 24-hour battle. Their general, wrote after Koregaum of the sepoys’ “most noble devotion and most romantic bravery under pressure of thirst and hunger almost beyond human endurance”. Mason goes on to praise the spirit that animated the unusual army.
What made Indian soldiers give their lives for a flag they could hardly call their own? National pride did not play much part till late in their long history. It was only in the Second World War that it appeared and then only occasionally. When it did, it was a two- (Extracted from ‘Defending India’ by edged sword: pride in the regiment, in the Jaswant Singh-Mac Millan’s India Ltd., Bangalore 1999)
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DEFENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Jaswant Singh
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he Defence Research and medicine and allied sciences. In addition, the Development Organization (DRDO) Department also assists the Services by was established in 1958 by rendering technical advice regarding amalgamating the Defence Science formulation of requirements, evaluation of Organization and some of the technical systems to be acquired, fire and explosive development establishments. A separate safety and mathematical/statistical analysis Department of Defence Research and of operational problems. The DRDO has Development was formed in 1980 which registered significant achievements in its operates now through a network of some 50 various activities. The notable developmental laboratories/establishments. This successes of the Department include the Department is engaged in pursuit of self- surface-to-surface missile, Prithvi, the statereliance in critical technologies of relevance of-the-art main battle tank, Arjun, flight to national security. It formulates and simulators for aircraft, pilotless target executes programmes of scientific research, aircraft (PTA), balloon barrage system, design and development leading to induction parallel supercomputers pace-plus, etc. The of state-of-the-art weapons, platforms and weapons and ammunition developed by the other equipments organization and DEFENCE required by the armed productionized by ACQUISITION COUNCIL forces. It functions production SET UP under the control of agencies include n late August, 2001, the government set the Indian field the Scientific Adviser in place a high-level Defence Acquisition gun, INSAS rifle to the Raksha Mantri who is also secretary, Council (DAC). The Council, to be headed 5.56 mm, charge Defence Research and by the Defence Minister, would approve the line mine clearing long-term capital acquisition of the three for safe passage of Development. armed forces, as well as identify and clear vehicles in a battle The research and weapons purchases and weapons production. field, illuminating development activities The DAC would have under its umbrella, a ammunition for of the department Defence procurement Board as well as h i g h - s p e e d cover important Defence Production board and Development aircraft, naval demarcated disciplines Board. mines and 105 mm like aeronautics, PSAPDS. Multimissiles, electronics and instrumentation, barrel rocket system Pinaka is getting ready combat vehicles, engineering system sciences for trials by the Army. In the area of including advanced computing, life sciences electronics and instrumentation, amongst the including high-altitude agriculture, significant developments are low-level physiology, food technology and nuclear tracking rader Indra I, Indra II, for Army
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and instrumentation, amongst the significant developments are low-level tracking reader, secondary surveillance radar, automatic electronic switch, avalanche victim detector, tidex, EW systems, night vision devices and secured telephone (Sectel). Some of the development successes in the area of engineering systems are bridge-layer tank Kartik, military bridging systems, various types of shelter, crash fire tenders and rapid intervention vehicles. In the area of naval systems and materials, the Organization has developed an advanced ship sonar system, marine acoustic research ship, Sagardhwani, underwater anti-fouling paints, torpedoes, naval simulators and jackal steels. Submarine sonar and weapons control system, Panchendriya, is getting ready for harbour / sea trials. The indigenous Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) is in the first flight trial preparation stage. The remotely piloted vehicle, Falcon, has successfully undergone developmental flight trials. India’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) comprises four missile systems. Prithvi, surface-to-surface tactical battlefield missle; Akash, medium-range surface-to-air missile; Trishul, short-range surface-to-air missile; and Nag, third-generation anti-tank missile. Akash and Nag are in advanced stages of
development. This programme includes a development of the intermiediate-range ballistic missile, Agni. The Department has developed and preserved convenience foods for the armed forces. It is vigorously pursuing the goal of technological self-reliance in defence systems through a 10-year national selfreliance mission. State-of-the-art technologies developed for missile programme, LCA and other high technology systems are being channelized to make available bio-medical equipment at a much less cost. (From “Defending India” Mac Millens India Ltd., Bangalore 1999)
INDIAN AIRFORCE BASE AT TADJIKISTAN
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or the first time India has set up a military base – An Indian Air Force base outside its borders, in Tushanbey in Tadjikistan, at a place Barhor 10 km away from Tushanbey. The base is self contained with run ways, control towers and medical facilities. The constructions are about to be completed and the base will become functional by the year end (2004).During the visit of the Indian PM to that country in 2002, that country agreed to extend military cooperation to India.
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DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA’S NUCLEAR ENERGY AND WEAPON PROGRAMME
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ndia’s approach to the entire issue of Nuclearisation as one of the challenges of the future needing clarity and resolution has been discussed at every forum of defence studies. The earlier approach was a reconciliation between India’s security needs and valid international concerns about weapons of mass destruction; between a moralistic and the realistic approach to nuclear weapons; between a covert or an overt nuclear policy.
Scientific and Technological research-the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR). The experimental groups started by Bhabha deserve special mention because they become the forerunners of all indigenous technological activity in the country and heralded the beginning of an extensive atomic energy programme in India. The TIFR went on even to design and assemble India’s first computer in 1957. The earliest of the laboratory scale nuclear experiments was also conducted during that period. In August 48, the Atomic Energy Commission AEC was constituted. The foundation of subsequent self-sufficiency in diverse scientific fields including Nuclear Energy, was thus laid. On 4/8/1956 “Apsara’ the reactor, went critical, the first in Asia. Bhabha felt that the country was not sufficiently endowed with resources of conventional fuel and the development of nuclear energy sources for power production was vital. In 1969, The Tarapore nuclear power generating reactor came up. Canada assisted India in the construction of Candu-type reactors in Rajasthan, aware of India’s established technical expertise in plutonium production. On October 1972, the
11th May 1998 changed all that. On that day India had successfully carried out three underground nuclear tests at the Pokhran range. This was followed on 13th May by two more underground sub-kilo ton tests. The Government of India, thereafter announced the completion of the series and also a number of other steps. These five tests ranging from the sub-kiloton variety to fission to thermo-nuclear amply demonstrated India’s scientific, technical and organizational abilities. When Pakistan also exploded nuclear test devices, the question of non-proliferation and the future of the disarmament debate got placed at the forefront of International Agendas. Growth of India’s Nuclear Energy programme In 1944 Dr.Homi Bhabha, with the help of J.R.D.Tata, Chairman of Sri Dorabji Tata Trust, set up an institute devoted to Basic
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then Prime Minister gave the scientists the remarked sharply in his usual style. “This has to work or the laws of physics are wrong.” go-ahead for a peaceful explosion. The DRDO under Dr.Nag Chaudhary made Dr.Raja Ramanna led the group of scientists significant contributions to the Atomic and technologists. Dr.Nag Chandhary head Explotion project with the development of of the defence laboratories associated the lenses, and the fabrication of the high himself with the next step of the project with explosives. (a) the production of the plutonium alloy b) the tigger device and c) the associated On 18/5/1974, with last minute hiccoughs corrected, Shri Dastidar, the person electronic device. responsible for the fabrication of the trigger, By 1973, all material problems had been pulled it, to detonate the Atomic device. tackled the site to conduct the experiment near Pokhran was chosen. Sparse human The whole earth in front of the scientists rose population, and the remote likelihood of up as though Lord Hanuman had lifted it. water sources under-ground made the The scientists knew that the experiment had scientist to decide upon a site near Pokhran succeeded. The shock waves followed. The in the Thar Desert. Very few were allowed seismic team under George Varghese placed to know of the impending Atomic explosion. the yield between 12 and 15 kilotons. The health physicist reported no radiation activity Overcoming the objections of the economic anywhere above ground level after the administaration, the then Prime Minister explosion. decreed that the experiment should be The scientists had realised the impact of any carried out according to schedule. possible prior leakage of the information. When all preparations were complete, They kept diligent silence until the Dr.Raja Ramanna asked Dr.P.K.Iyengar experiment was over. (later Director BARC) whether they had taken everything into consideration, he Otherwise there would have been insurmountable pressures both from inside
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the world. It had not expected such an and an intermediate range missile, Agni. To well-informed observers, it was obvious that achievement from a developing Nation. India was aiming at developing its nuclear During the Bangladesh Liberation War, the option further. Agni missile would not make U.S. tried to persuade the Chinese to sense unless it had a nuclear warhead. Prithvi interfere in India, but afraid of Russia, China could be used in a dual role, though it would backed out. The U.S. sent in its Task Force be more cost effective with a nuclear 74 headed by its Nuclear Aircraft Carrier. warhead. This was the period when the Russia had to send in its own Deterrent force debate on intermediate range missile was at to thwart U.S. intentions. This act of Nuclear its heights in Europe. It is to be noted that intimidation by the West also forced India to go ahead with its Nuclear Experiment. Pakistan reacted with a Nuclear weaponisation programme of its own, as an outcome of its treaty with China. After 1980 election, the Prime Minister sent Dr.Raja Ramanna to the post of Director of BARC. Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam was persuaded to move from the Department of space to become the Director D.R.D.O. The D.R.D.O. Hyderabad was then engaged in this programme was sanctioned at about the same time (that) the Prime Minister, had missile research. asked for a nuclear test. Another Nuclear Experiment to be held in Pokhran in 1983 was thwarted by America’s The decades of the 80’s had meanwhile also, once again, witnessed a gradual deterioration prior knowledge of the same. of India’s security environment. In South The U.S. and the world came to know of Asia, nuclear weapons increased and more China-Pakistan Nuclear cooperation and sophisticated delivery systems were inducted. In the region there also then came reacted strongly to the Pak experiment. into existence a pattern about clandestine In 1983, an integrated guided missile acquisition of nuclear materials, missiles and programme was formulated by DRDO’s related technologies. India, during this Dr.V.S.Arunachalam with Dr.A.P.J.Abdul period, became the victim of externally aided and abetted terrorism, militancy and Kalam as its mainstay. clandestine war through hired mercenaries. This programme included the entire spectrum of missiles, from an antitank, Nag, America became very tolerant of Pak’s to two surface-to-air, Akash and Trishul, one nuclear programme and its Pressler medium range surface-to surface, Prithvi, Amendment only aided Pak buy more time for its weapons’ programme.
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India’s next Prime Minister (1988) called for a non-nuclear, non-violent world. The call was ignored by the five nuclear hegemonic powers. Faced with harsh realities, The Prime Minister cleared DRDO and BARC for Indian Nuclear Weapons’ Programme. It can be assumed that the Indian Nuclear Deterrent came into existence in early 1990.
enhancing its delivery systems with America winking at Pak’s growth. 3. The Nuclear Non-proliferation treaty (N.P.T.) was in 1995 extended indefinitely and unconditionally, perpetuating the existence of nuclear weapons, in the hands of five countries, who were also engaged in programmes for modernisation of their nuclear arsenals. 4. Atlast when the CTBT, Comprehensive Test Barb Treaty was opened for signature in 1996, it was neither comprehensive nor was it related to disarmament. It came up after 2000 tests, after the five countries had armed themselves to their teeth. Today, India is a nuclear weapon state. This adds to its sense of responsibility as a nation that is committed to the principles of the UN Charter and to promoting regional peace and stability.
Pakistan thought that India already had the nuclear deterrent capability. It appears that Pakistan attempted a nuclear black mail in May 1990, when the Pak-backed insurgency in Kashmir was at its peak. Dr. Raja Ramanna, a minister in 1990, announced in the Parliament “While India would never use its nuclear capability against any neighbour, if any neighbour were to do so, the country would rise to the occasion”.
India’s nuclear policy remains firmly committed to a basic tenet: that the country’s national security, in a world of nuclear proliferation lies either in global disarmament or in exercise of the principle of equal and The Prime Minister (1995) ordered nuclear legitimate security for all. tests, backed off when US pressurised the Indian Government. At last on May 11 & No other country in the world has 13-1998 the tests could be completed, under demonstrated the kind of restraint that India the next Prime Minister. has for near about a quarter of a century after The factors that influenced India’s decision the first Pokhran test of 1974. In the years were: preceding that Peaceful Nuclera Explosion (PNE) and in subsequent decades, 1. The end of the cold war did not consistently, India continued to advocate the change anything in India’s Security basic tenet of its nuclear strategy.Now, in problems. the nineties, and as the century turns, the 2. Pakistan was colluding with China in country was faced by critical choices. producing Nuclear Weapons and was
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India had been witness to decades of international unconcern and incomprehension, even as the overall security environment of the country, both globally and in Asia deteriorated. Reports of the transfer of nuclear weapon powers technology from declared nuclear weapon powers to preferred states. Neither the world nor the nuclear weapons powers succeeded in halting this process. NPT not-withstanding, proliferation in the region spread. Since nuclear weapon powers that assist proliferation, or even condone it are not subject to any penalty, the entire nonproliferation regime became flawed. Nuclear technologies became, at their worst, commodities of international commerce, at best lubricants of diplomatic fidelity. India is the only country in the world to be situated between two nuclear weapon powers. On India’s western flank lies the Gulf region, one of the most critical sources of the world’s energy requirements; to its north the Commonwealth of Independent States, a yet to be fully developed reservoir. With both these regions India has ancient linkages. It also has extensive energy import requirements. The Gulf provides employment to Indian labour and talent. However, this region too, and its adjoining countries have been targets of missile and nuclear proliferation. Long range missiles of 2500 km range were proliferated to this area in the mid 80’s. Unfortunately, from 1987 onwards nuclear proliferation, with extraregional assistance, has continued unchecked. Faced as India was, with a legitimisation of nuclear weapons by the haves, by a global nuclear security paradigm from which it was excluded, trends towards disequilibrium in the balance of power in Asia, and a neighbourhood of two nuclear weapon countries acting in concert, India had to protect its future by exercising its nuclear option. By doing this, India has brought into the open the nuclear reality which had remained clandestine for atleast the last eleven years. India could not accept a flawed non-proliferation regime, as the international norm, when all objective realities asserted conclusively to the contrary. India’s policies towards its neighbours and other countries have not changed. The country remains fully committed to the promotion of peace, stability, and resolution of all outstanding issues through bilateral dialogue and negotiations. The tests of May 11 and 13, 1998 were not directed against any country; these were intended to reassure the people of India about their own security. Confidence building is a continuous process; with India remaining committed to it. (From “Defending India”)
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WHY DID INDIA GO NUCLEAR?
Jaswant Singh
T
he range of options for India had, by 1996, narrowed critically. India had to take necessary steps to ensure that the country’s nuclear option, developed and safeguarded over decades, was not permitted to erode by a self-imposed restraint. Indeed, such an erosion would have resulted in an irremediably adverse impact on national security. The Government of India, was thus faced with a difficult decision. The only touchstone that could determine its decision remained national security. The tests conducted on 11 and 13 May, had by then not only become inevitable they were, in actuality a continuation of the policies set into motion, from almost the earliest years of independence. An examination of the first fifty years of Indian independence reveals that the country’s moralistic nuclear policy and restraint did not really pay any measurable dividends. Consequently, this resulted in resentment within the country; a feeling grew that India was being discriminated against. In the political market place of India, nuclear weaponisation gained currency, and the plank of disarmament began to appear as both unproductive and unrealistic. It began to be argued that if the Permanent Five’s possession of nuclear weapons is good, confers security to their respective countries, then how is the possession of nuclear weapons by India not good, or how does the equation reverse simply in this instance? There is also the factor of the currency of power. If the P-5 continue to employ this currency in the form of nuclear weapons, as an international communicator of force,
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then how is India, to voluntarily devalue its own national security? It is this reasoning that lies behind the evolution of Indian nuclear thought in the past fifty years. India has also learnt from the experience of the West, their approach to, attitudes about and application of nuclear policy. Deterrence works in the West, or elsewhere, as it so obviously appears to, otherwise why should these nations continue to possess nuclear weapons at all. Then by what reasoning is it to be asserted that it will not work or cannot work in India? To admonitorily argue, thereafter, that India has to now ‘fall in line’ because there is now a new international agenda of discriminatory non-proliferation, pursued more on account of the demands of the political market place to some of these countries, as an extension also of their own internal agendas or political debates, is to assert the un-implementable. The rationale behind nuclear weapons powers continuing to have, and preaching to those that do not have, to have even less, leaves a gross imbalance between the rights of and obligation of nation states of the world community. Either, India counters by suggesting, global, non-discriminatory disarmament by all; or, equal and legitimate security for the entire world. That alone is why, and it bears repetition, that India since independence, has been a consistent advocate of global nuclear disarmament, participating actively in all such efforts, convinced that a world without nuclear weapons will enhance both national and global security. (Extract from ‘Defending India’)
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INDIAN AIR FORCE
SU-30 ~ Twin seater twin engine multirole fighter of Russian origin which carries 130 mm GSH gun alongwith 8000 kg external armament. It is capable of carrying a variety of medium-range guided air to air missiles with active or semi-active radar or Infra red homing close range missiles. It has a max speed of 2500 km/hr (Mach 2.35). MiG-29 ~ Twin engine, single seater air superiority fighter aircraft of Russian origin capable of attaining max. speed of 2445 km per hour (Mach-2.3). It has a combat ceiling of 17 km. It carries a 30 mm cannon alongwith four R-60 close combat and two R-27 R medium range radar guided missiles. MiG-27 ~ Single engine, single seater tactical strike fighter aircraft of Russian origin having a max. speed of 1700 km/hr (Mach 1.6). It carries one 23 mm six-barrel rotary integral cannon and can carry upto 4000 kg of other armament externally. MiG-25 ~ Twin engine, single seater strategic reconnaissance aircraft of Russian origin having a max. speed of Mach 3.2 and max height close to 24 km unmatched by any other fighter aircraft in the world. MiG-21 BIS ~ Single engine, single seater multirole fighter/ground attack aircraft of Russian origin which forms the back-bone of the IAF. It has a max speed of 2230 km/ hr (Mach 2.1) and carries one 23mm twin barrel cannon with four R-60 close combat missiles. Mirage-2000 ~ A single seater air defence and multi-role fighter of French origin powered by a single engine can attain max speed of 2495 km/hr(Mach 2.3). It carries two 30 mm integral cannons and two matra super 530D medium-range and two R-550 magic II close combat missiles on external stations. Jaguar ~ A twin-engine, single seater deep penetration strike aircraft of Anglo-French origin which has a max. speed of 1350 km / hr (Mach 1.3). It has two 30mm guns and can carry two R-350 Magic CCMs (overwing) alongwith 4750 kg of external stores (bombs/fuel).
Canberra ~ Twin engine, twin seater subsonic tactical bomber and interdictor of British origin having max speed of 933 km/ hr having four integral cannons (20 mm) and capable of carrying three bombs (1000 lbs MiG-23 MF ~ Single engine, single seater each) internally alongwith two bombs (1000 swing wing air superiority fighter of Russian lbs) underwing or 8000 lbs bomb load origin carrying one 23 mm twin barrel gun internally and underwing. and two R-23R/T medium range and two R60 close combat missiles. It has a max speed IL-76 ~ A four engine heavy duty/long haul of 2446 km/hr (Mach 2.3). military transport aircraft of Russian origin with a max speed of 850 km/hr. It has a twin 23 mm cannon in tail turret and capacity to
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carry 225 paratroopers or 40 tonnes freight, wheeled or tracked armoured vehicles. AN-32 ~ Twin engine turboprop, medium tactical transport aircraft of Russian origin with a crew of five and capacity to carry 39 paratroopers or max load of 6.7 tonnes. It has a max cruise speed of 530 km/hr.
troops or 20,000 kg payload. It has a max speed of 295 km/hr.
MI-25 ~ Twin engine turboshaft, assault and anti armour helicopter capable of carrying 8 men assault squad with four barrel 12.7 mm rotary gun in nose barbette and upto 1500 Kg of external ordnance including Scorpion anti-tank missiles. It has a max cruise speed AVRO ~ Twin engine turboprop, military of 310 km/hr. transport and freighter of British origin having a capacity of 48 paratroopers or 6 MI-17 ~ Twin engine turboshaft, medium tonnes freight and max cruise speed of 452 transport helicopter of Russian origin with km/hr. a capacity of 24 troops or 3.3 tonnes of Dornier ~ Twin engine turboprop, logistic freight. It carries 6 UV-17, 57 mm rocket air support staff transport aircraft of German pods and has max cruise speed of 240 km/ origin capable of carrying 19 passengers or hr. 2057 kg freight. It has a max speed of 428 km/hr. Chetak ~ Single engine turboshaft, light utility French helicopter with capacity of 6 Boeing 737-200 ~ Twin engine turbofan, passengers or 500 kg load. The anti-tank VIP passenger aircraft of American origin version carries 4 AS-11 wire guided with total seating capacity of upto 60 missiles. It has a max speed of 220 km/hr. passengers. It has a max cruise speed of 943 km/hr. Cheetah ~ Single engine turboshaft, FAC/ casevac helicopter of French origin having MI-26 ~ Twin engine turboshaft, military capacity to carry 3 passengers or 100 kg heavy lift helicopter of Russian origin with external sling loads. It has max cruise speed carrying capacity of 70 combat equipped of 121 km/hr and can climb to 1 km in 4 minutes.
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